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Dispersal of Dactylopius opuntiae Cockerell (Homoptera: Dactylopiidae), a biological control agent of Opuntia stricta (Haworth.) Haworth. (Cactaceae) in the Kruger National Park  [cached]
L.C. Foxcroft,J.H. Hoffmann
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science , 2000, DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v43i2.194
Abstract: Chemical control efforts, the introduction of Cactoblastis cactorum and attempted releases of Dactylopius opuntiae Cockerell into the expanding infestation of Opuntia stricta in the Skukuza region of the Kruger National Park (KNP) have had limited suc- cess in preventing the spread and densification of 0. stricta. To boost the biological control component, a new strain of D. opuntiae was introduced into KNP during 1997. The new strain established readily and has destroyed large clumps of plants in the vicin- ity of the release site. A large-scale redistribution programme with D. opuntiae is now needed to exploit this biological control agent to the full. In order to match the frequency of manual releases with the natural rates of spread of the insects, surveys were conducted under field conditions to determine the dispersal abilities ofD. opuntiae, with regard to rate and direction of movement. Dispersal of D. opuntiae was found to be slow and restricted and that the insects need to be redistributed by placing them onto plants at approximately 10 m intervals to ensure that they become quickly and evenly distributed on the weed. This information will be crucial in the revision of the integrated management plan for 0. stricta in the KNP, in integrating the cochineal and other control mechanisms.
Factores Bióticos y Concentración de ácido Carmínico en la Cochinilla (Dactylopius coccus Costa) (Homoptera: Dactylopiidae)
Rodríguez,Luis C; Faúndez,Eric; Seymour,Judith; Escobar,Carlos A; Espinoza,Luis; Petroutsa,Maria; Ayres,Alejandro; Niemeyer,Hermann ?M;
Agricultura Técnica , 2005, DOI: 10.4067/S0365-28072005000300011
Abstract: the cochineal insect, dactylopius coccus costa (homoptera: dactylopiidae), grows on the prickly-pear cactus, opuntia ficus-indica (l.) mill. (cactaceae), and is exploited for its capacity to produce natural dyes based on carminic acid. cochineal insects were introduced in chile in 1989, and exports of dry cochineal began in 1994 and grew to cover approximately 15% of the world market. however, the current price of dry cochineal is nearing production costs; hence, it has become necessary to increase yields without increasing costs. this work reports on the effect of biotic factors on the concentration of carminic acid (cac) in cochineal insects. cac was positively affected by the density of cochineal insects around the insect, that was analyzed by plant age, and by the nutritional status of the plant, and was negatively affected by the age of the cladode. additionally, cac was significantly affected by season: 16.9% of dry weight in the autumn and 19.1% in the spring. this knowledge may be used in designing cultural strategies to increase carminic acid accumulation in cochineal insects.
Factores Bióticos y Concentración de ácido Carmínico en la Cochinilla (Dactylopius coccus Costa) (Homoptera: Dactylopiidae) Biotic Factors and Concentration of Carminic Acid in Cochineal Insects (Dactylopius coccus Costa) (Homoptera: Dactylopiidae)
Luis C Rodríguez,Eric Faúndez,Judith Seymour,Carlos A Escobar
Agricultura Técnica , 2005,
Abstract: La cochinilla, Dactylopius coccus Costa (Homoptera: Dactylopiidae), es un insecto que crece sobre la tuna, Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae), y es explotado por su capacidad para producir colorantes naturales basados en el ácido carmínico. La cochinilla fue introducida a Chile en 1989. Las exportaciones de cochinilla seca se iniciaron en 1994 y los volúmenes y montos se elevaron de manera significativa a o a a o, hasta alcanzar a cubrir más del 15% de la demanda mundial. Sin embargo, el precio actual de la cochinilla se acerca a los costos de producción, siendo necesario aumentar los rendimientos sin aumentar los costos. En este trabajo se describe el efecto de diversas variables bióticas sobre la concentración de ácido carmínico (CAC), la que fue afectada positivamente por la densidad de cochinillas en torno a la cochinilla focal, la edad y el estado nutricional de la planta, y negativamente por la edad del cladodio. La estación afectó significativamente la CAC: 16,9 % del peso seco de cochinilla en oto o y 19,1 % en primavera. Estos conocimientos abren la puerta para el dise o de estrategias de manejo que conduzcan a un incremento de la CAC en la cochinilla. The cochineal insect, Dactylopius coccus Costa (Homoptera: Dactylopiidae), grows on the prickly-pear cactus, Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae), and is exploited for its capacity to produce natural dyes based on carminic acid. Cochineal insects were introduced in Chile in 1989, and exports of dry cochineal began in 1994 and grew to cover approximately 15% of the world market. However, the current price of dry cochineal is nearing production costs; hence, it has become necessary to increase yields without increasing costs. This work reports on the effect of biotic factors on the concentration of carminic acid (CAC) in cochineal insects. CAC was positively affected by the density of cochineal insects around the insect, that was analyzed by plant age, and by the nutritional status of the plant, and was negatively affected by the age of the cladode. Additionally, CAC was significantly affected by season: 16.9% of dry weight in the Autumn and 19.1% in the Spring. This knowledge may be used in designing cultural strategies to increase carminic acid accumulation in cochineal insects.
Reproducción de cochinilla silvestre Dactylopius opuntiae (Homóptera: Dactylopiidae)
Flores-Hernández, Arnoldo;Murillo-Amador, Bernardo;Rueda-Puente, Edgar Omar;Salazar-Torres, José Cruz;García-Hernández, José Luis;Troyo-Diéguez, Enrique;
Revista mexicana de biodiversidad , 2006,
Abstract: wild cochineal has characteristics that offer advantage as a source of carmine and for fine cochineal improvement. to characterize wild cochineal, we initiated a breeding effort raising wild cochineal from the arid zone of the north oh mexico, using as a host organism opuntia megacantha salm dick. the results indicate that the wild specie is dactylopius opuntiae. the presence of parthenogenesis in females was determined. the duration of ontogenetic stages depends on the sex of the insect. the adult female lasted 38.4 days and 4.2 days for males, the first stage nymphs were similar in duration (18-19.8 days). the complete biological cycle of the females was 77 days, and in the males 43 days. a period of preoviposition of 18.8 days for the females was found, laying eggs during 21 days with an average of 131 insects per female. the sex ratio female: male was 1:1. the reproduction generally was sexual although there were parthenogenetic females. this is the first report of dactylopius opuntiae as a source of wild cochineal in the arid zone of north, central and norwest of mexico specifically in the bolson of mapimí, durango, mexico.
Aplicación de productos derivados del insecto Dactylopius coccus Costa (Homóptera, Dactylopiidae) Aplicación de productos derivados del insecto Dactylopius coccus Costa (Homóptera, Dactylopiidae)
Gabriela Arroyo Figueroa,Graciela M. L. Ruiz Aguilar,Lorena Vargas Rodríguez,Guillermo González Sánchez
Acta Universitaria , 2012,
Abstract: Actualmente muchas industrias buscan sustituir los colorantes sintéticos por naturales, debido a su efecto nocivo y a la alta contaminación del medio ambiente. Del insecto Dactylopius coccus Costa (grana carmín) se obtienen productos naturales que se pueden usar como colorantes, por lo que el objetivo de este trabajo fue difundir la aplicación del insecto grana carmín y los productos derivados del mismo en el te ido de una tela de algodón y en la coloración de una bala labial a nivel laboratorio. Al aplicar el extracto acuoso de la grana carmín sobre la tela de algodón, se consiguieron colores homogéneos, con valores promedio en la escala CIELab de: 43.81±0.33 L*, 44.64±0.15 a* y -4.03±0.55 b*. Asimismo al aplicar el pigmento laca carmín en la elaboración de una bala labial se lograron colores uniformes con los siguientes valores promedio en la escala CIELab: 13.25±3.62 L*, 4.80±1.41 a* y -0.23±0.84 b*. Nowadays many industries want to replace synthetic dyes by natural, due to its harmful effects and the high contamination of the environment. Dactylopius coccus Costa (cochi-neal) is an insect to obtain natural products that are used as dyes. The aim of this study was to promote the application of cochineal and the products derivates of these insect, in the dyeing of cotton fabric and in the coloration of a lipstick bullet at the laboratory. Was applied to the aqueous extract of cochineal on cotton fabric, obtaining homogeneous colors, with average values in the CIELab scale of: 43.81±0.33 L*, 44.64±0.15 a* y -4.03±0.55 b*. It also was applied the carmine pigment in the elaboration of a lipstick bullet, was obtai-ned consistent color with the following average values on the CIELab scale: 13.25±3.62 L*, 4.80±1.41 a* y -0.23±0.84 b*.
Anatomía floral de cinco especies de Opuntia (Opuntioideae, Cactaceae) de México
Fuentes-Pérez, Mireya;Terrazas, Teresa;Arias, Salvador;
Polibotánica , 2009,
Abstract: the floral anatomy of five species of opuntia from mexico is described and compared. three to five floral buds (pre-anthesis) and flowers in anthesis were fixed and prepared using standard paraffin microtechnique. the most relevant results obtained confirm that the anatomical features of the pericar-pelo are similar to those of the vegetative stems; however, there are differences among species in the cuticle, epidermis and hypodermis. the external tepals in o. cantabrigiensis, o. decumbens and o. stenopetala have a papillose epidermis. the staminal filaments are free with an amphicribal bundle similar to that described for other members of the family. the nectary is of the hypanthial type. the opuntia style has an open stylar cavity like that reported for pereskia, but it is different from other dicotyledons. moreover, epidermal cells of said cavity are occluded by tannins, a character shared with pereskia and other genera of opuntioideae. the results suggest it is necessary to study additional members of this genus to understand adequately the interspecific variation.
ULTRAESTRUCTURA DEL GERMARIO DE DACTYLOPIUS COCCUS COSTA, 1829 (HEMIPTERA: COCCOIDEA: DACTYLOPIIDAE)
Arturo RAMíREZ-CRUZ
Acta zoológica mexicana , 2012,
Abstract: Se realizó la descripción ultraestructural del germario de hembras adultas de Dactylopius coccus Costa, 1829, mediante microscopía electrónica de transmisión. El germario está rodeado por una cubierta epitelial interna y por una túnica propia. Contiene además grandes células nutricias con núcleos de forma irregular, cuya membrana estaba perforada con gran cantidad de poros nucleares, observándose además uno o más nucléolos. Por otra parte, su citoplasma contenía una gran cantidad de ribosomas y mitocondrias, pero escaso retículo endoplásmico rugoso. No se observaron retículo endoplásmico liso ni complejos de Golgi. En las células nutricias de las hembras de dos días se observaron bacterias, aparentemente simbiontes, quedando por determinar su posible función en la fisiología de los ovarios. En algunas células nutricias de las hembras de diez días se observaron peque os grupos de laminillas anulares, las cuales podrían estar relacionadas con un proceso degenerativo de dichas células. Los cordones tróficos se conformaron por una gran cantidad de microtúbulos y entre ellos se observaron numerosos ribosomas y numerosas mitocondrias, muchas de ellas de forma alargada.
Ciclo de vida y parámetros poblacionales de Sympherobius barberi Banks (Neuroptera: Hemerobiidae) criado con Dactylopius opuntiae Cockerell (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae)
PACHECO-RUEDA, Iliana;LOMELí-FLORES, J. Refugio;RODRíGUEZ-LEYVA, Esteban;RAMíREZ-DELGADO, Manuel;
Acta zoológica mexicana , 2011,
Abstract: prickly pear opuntia ficus-indica, is consumed in mexico as young pads which are called "nopalitos". it is a horticultural crop of great economical, social, and environmental importance. one of its most important pests is the wild cochineal insect, dactylopius opuntiae. amoung natural enemies of the latter are sympherobius barberi, a predaceous brown lacewing that is considered one of the control alternatives. the objective of this research was to assess the biology of s. barberi reared on d. opuntiae. all the specimens used to establish laboratory colonies of both, pest and the predator, were collected during 2008 and 2009 from the nopalitos producing zone in tlalnepantla, morelos. s. barberi completed its life cycle in 28 days. females had a four day preovipositional period, while daily average eggs per female was 1.98. also, s. barberi had a net reproductive rate (ro) of 36.6; a daily intrinsic rate of increase (rm) of 0.081; a generation time (t) of 44.27 d, and a finite reproductive rate (λ) of 1.084.
Ciclo de vida y parámetros poblacionales de Sympherobius barberi Banks (Neuroptera: Hemerobiidae) criado con Dactylopius opuntiae Cockerell (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae)
Iliana Pacheco-Rueda,J. Refugio Lomelí-Flores,Esteban Rodríguez- Leyva,Manuel Ramírez- Delgado
Acta zoológica mexicana , 2011,
Abstract: El nopal verdura, Opuntia ficus-indica, es una hortaliza de importancia económica, social y ambiental en México, y una de sus plagas más importantes es la cochinilla silvestre del nopal, Dactylopius opuntiae. De sus enemigos naturales nativos el hemeróbido depredador Sympherobius barberi es una posible alternativa para su control. El objetivo de esta investigación fue estudiar la biología de S. barberi alimentado con D. opuntiae. Para establecer las crías en laboratorio tanto de la presa D. opuntiae y el depredador S. barberi, se colectaron insectos durante 2008 y 2009 de la zona productora de nopal verdura de Tlalnepantla, Morelos. S. barberi completó su ciclo biológico en 28 días. Las hembras tuvieron un periodo de preoviposición de cuatro días; el promedio de huevos por hembra por día fue de 1.98. Adicionalmente, S. barberi presentó una tasa neta de reproducción (Ro) de 36.6, una tasa intrínseca de crecimiento (rm) de 0.081, un tiempo de generación (T) de 44.27 días y una tasa finita de reproducción ( ) de 1.084.
Efectividad biológica de productos biodegradables para el control de la cochinilla silvestre Dactylopius opuntiae (Cockerell) (Homoptera: Dactylopiidae)
Celina Palacios Mendoza,Ramón Nieto Hernández,Celina Llanderal Cázares,Héctor González Hernández
Acta zoológica mexicana , 2004,
Abstract: Se evaluaron dos clases de productos biodegradables, un detergente de uso doméstico (Roma ) y otro clasificado como producto misceláneo (Peak Plus, en trámite de registro) contra ninfas I, ninfas II y hembras adultas de la cochinilla silvestre Dactylopius opuntiae (Cockerell) en condiciones de laboratorio, por el método de aspersión dirigida a cladodios de nopal infestados. Las concentraciones probadas para ambos productos fueron 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 y 6.0%; además se evaluó el efecto de una aplicación repetida de las oncentraciones comprendidas de 0.5 a 3.0% sobre las mismas etapas de desarrollo. Se observó una mayor susceptibilidad de ninfas I, teniendo una mortalidad cercana al 50% con 5% del detergente Roma , mientras que las ninfas II y hembras adultas fueron más susceptibles al Peak Plus, lográndose un control cercano al 50% con las concentraciones de 1.5 y 3.0%, respectivamente. En la aplicación repetida, el efecto mayor se observó en hembras adultas para ambos productos.
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