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Anatomía caulinar de las especies del género Stenocereus (Cactaceae) Stem anatomy of the species of the genus Stenocereus (Cactaceae)
Teresa TERRAZAS,Sofía LOZA-CORNEJO,Hilda J ARREOLA-NAVA
Acta Botánica Venezuelica , 2005,
Abstract: Se describió la anatomía caulinar de 22 especies del género Stenocereus y se comparó con otras Cactoideae. Stenocereus presentó una cutícula lisa y delgada, las células epidérmicas presentaron divisiones oblicuas, distinguiéndose S. stellatus, S. treleasei y S. zopilotensis por su abundancia. La existencia de cuerpos de sílice en epidermis e hipodermis caracteriza al género. La abundancia de células de mucílago es un atributo que comparten las especies de Stenocereus con su taxón hermano; su ubicación en el córtex permitió reconocer dos grupos de especies. Destaca el desarrollo de la felodermis y la presencia de placa de perforación múltiple en elementos de vaso, caracteres descritos por primera vez para el género. La combinación células de mucílago y cuerpos de sílice permite distinguir a las especies de Stenocereus de otros miembros de la familia Cactaceae. Stenocereus stem anatomy was described and compared with other Cactoideae. Stenocereus had a smooth and thin cuticle, epidermal cells showed oblique divisions, which distinguish S. stellatus, S. treleasei and S. zopilotensis by their abundance. The occurrence of silica bodies in the epidermal and hypodermal cells characterizes the genus. The profusion of the mucilage cells is a character shared by the Stenocereus species with its sister taxon. In addition, the distribution of the mucilage cells in the cortex allowed recognizing two groups of species. Phelloderm development and the presence of multiple perforation plates in the secondary xylem were characters described for the first time for the genus. Abundance mucilage cells and silica bodies allow distinguishing Stenocereus species from other members of the family.
Crecimiento primario en plantas silvestres de pitayo (Stenocereus queretaroensis (Weber)Buxbaum) y su relación con temperatura, lluvia y micorrizas  [cached]
Enrique Pimienta Barrios,Celia Robles Murguu00EDa,Eulogio Pimienta Barrios
Revista fitotecnia mexicana , 2002,
Abstract: El crecimiento lento del pitayo (Stenocereus queretaroensis) ha sido uno de los principales factores que limita su cultivo, ya que se deben esperar hasta ocho a os para obtener rendimientos lucrativos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar el crecimiento de las ramas de pitayo y evaluar su relación con la variación estacional de la temperatura, precipitación pluvial y hongos micorrícicos, en plantas silvestres en Autlán, Jalisco (AJ), Santa Rosa, Zacatecas (SRZ) y Zacoalco de Torres, Jalisco (ZTJ), durante 1996 y 1997. El crecimiento de las ramas presentó una duración de 120 a 150 días, y mostró la forma de una curva sigmoidal simple; la fase logarítmica mostró un crecimiento lento y ocurrió al inicio del verano, seguida por una lineal que ocurrió al final del verano y al inicio del oto o, y la fase de senescencia que se presentó al principio del invierno, cuando la temperatura del aire se redujo y el crecimiento vegetativo disminuyó gradualmente. Las tasas de crecimiento por día y crecimiento total acumulado de las ramas fueron más altas en AJ, que en ZTJ y SRZ. Se concluye que el mayor crecimiento acumulado en las ramas registrado en AJ presentó una relación negativa con las temperaturas promedio mensual máxima y mínima (r = -075 y r = -0.83; P ≤ 0.05, respectivamente), y positiva con la colonización por hongos micorrícicos (r = 0.61; P ≤ 0.05)
A mass collection of Triatoma ryckmani (Hemiptera:Reduviidae)from Stenocereus eichlamii (Cactaceae)in the semiarid region of Guatemala
Marroquín M,Ricardo; Bor A,Silvia; Monroy E,M.Carlota;
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2004,
Abstract: a population of 216 specimens of stenocereus eichlamii (cactaceae,subfamily cereoideae) was surveyed for triatoma ryckmani (vector of chagas disease)in a one hectare plot of semiarid habitat in guatemala. out of 44 plants that had dead and dry sections,24 plants had a total of 103 specimens of t.ryckmani .in comparison with other areas of guatemala,t.ryckmani is well established in the semiarid ecosystem (infestation index 54.5,density =2.3 and crowding index 4.3).the insects were mainly found (52.4%)in the dead portions of s.eichlamii 2.0 to 3.2 m above the ground (x2 =26.0,p<0.00001),followed by dry cactus sections between 3.2 and 5.0 m (35.9%).they were less frequent 0.2 to 2.0 m above the ground.a considerable proportion (75.7%)had no aparent blood in their digestive systems.to determine the presence of flagellates,43 of the bugs were dissected,but none were found.this is the first report on t.ryckmani population dynamics in this habitat. rev. biol. trop. 52(4):931-936.epub 2005 jun 24.
A mass collection of Triatoma ryckmani (Hemiptera:Reduviidae)from Stenocereus eichlamii (Cactaceae)in the semiarid region of Guatemala  [cached]
Ricardo Marroquín M,Silvia Bor A,M.Carlota Monroy E
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2004,
Abstract: A population of 216 specimens of Stenocereus eichlamii (Cactaceae,Subfamily Cereoideae) was surveyed for Triatoma ryckmani (vector of Chagas disease)in a one hectare plot of semiarid habitat in Guatemala. Out of 44 plants that had dead and dry sections,24 plants had a total of 103 specimens of T.ryckmani .In comparison with other areas of Guatemala,T.ryckmani is well established in the semiarid ecosystem (Infestation index 54.5,density =2.3 and crowding index 4.3).The insects were mainly found (52.4%)in the dead portions of S.eichlamii 2.0 to 3.2 m above the ground (X2 =26.0,P<0.00001),followed by dry cactus sections between 3.2 and 5.0 m (35.9%).They were less frequent 0.2 to 2.0 m above the ground.A considerable proportion (75.7%)had no aparent blood in their digestive systems.To determine the presence of flagellates,43 of the bugs were dissected,but none were found.This is the first report on T.ryckmani population dynamics in this habitat. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(4):931-936.Epub 2005 Jun 24. En Guatemala,en una hectárea de la región semiárida,se encontraron 216 cactus de Stenocereus eichlamii (Cactaceae),44 de ellos tenían alguna parte del tallo en condiciones secas.103 Triatoma ryckmani fueron halladas en 24 de esos 44 S.eichlamii .Una comparación de los índices entomológicos con otros vectores domiciliares de la enfermedad de Chagas en Guatemala,da la idea que T. ryckmani está bien establecida en el ecosistema semiárido (índice de infestación de 54.5,índice de densidad de 2.3 e índice de hacinamiento de 4.3).Los triatominos fueron hallados preferentemente en las partes muertas de S.eichlamii entre 2.0 a 3.2 m sobre el nivel del suelo (52.4%de triatominos colectados,X 2=26.0,p<0.00001),el siguiente entre 3.2 a 5.0 m (35.9%)y finalmente 0.2 a 2.0 m (11.6%). El 75.7 %estaba en condiciones de ayuno y 24.3 %estaban llenas de sangre.Para determinar la presencia de flagelados,43 T.ryckmani fueron disectadas, (primera evaluación de parasitemia en esta especie).Ningún flagelado fue hallado en estos triatominos.Este es el primer reporte de la dinámica poblacional de T.ryckmani en su hábitat silvestre.
Anatomía caulinar de las especies del género Stenocereus (Cactaceae)
TERRAZAS,Teresa; LOZA-CORNEJO,Sofía; ARREOLA-NAVA,Hilda J;
Acta Botánica Venezuelica , 2005,
Abstract: stenocereus stem anatomy was described and compared with other cactoideae. stenocereus had a smooth and thin cuticle, epidermal cells showed oblique divisions, which distinguish s. stellatus, s. treleasei and s. zopilotensis by their abundance. the occurrence of silica bodies in the epidermal and hypodermal cells characterizes the genus. the profusion of the mucilage cells is a character shared by the stenocereus species with its sister taxon. in addition, the distribution of the mucilage cells in the cortex allowed recognizing two groups of species. phelloderm development and the presence of multiple perforation plates in the secondary xylem were characters described for the first time for the genus. abundance mucilage cells and silica bodies allow distinguishing stenocereus species from other members of the family.
Flower morpho-anatomy in Epiphyllum phyllanthus (Cactaceae) Morfo-anatomía de la flor de Epiphyllum phyllanthus (Cactaceae)  [cached]
Odair José Garcia de Almeida,Adelita Aparecida Sartori-Paoli,Luiz Antonio de Souza
Revista mexicana de biodiversidad , 2010,
Abstract: The aim of this contribution was to analyze the morpho-anatomical floral structure of Epiphyllum phyllanthus (L.) Haw., a widely distributed species across South America, occurring in humid forests as an epiphyte. Flowers and flower buds were collected in Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil, fixed, processed, and analyzed under light microscope and scanning electron microscope. The flower is sessile and epigynous with a well-developed hypanthium. All flower whorls have uniseriate epidermis. Secretory cavities containing mucilage and calcium oxalate crystals occur throughout the floral parenchymatous tissue. The androecium has many stamens with tetrasporangiate and bithecal anthers. The wall of the young anther is formed by epidermis, endothecium, a middle layer, and binucleate secretory tapetum that eventually becomes uninucleate. The gynoecium is syncarpous with 9-10 carpels, pluriovulate, and with parietal placentation. The ovary has inverted vascular bundles in a similar pattern as in Pereskia. The nectariferous region occurs on the inner surface of the hypanthium. The stigma has 9-10 lobes with a secretory epidermis. The ovules are circinotropous, bitegmic, crassinucelate, and have long funiculus as in many other Cactaceae. El objetivo de esta investigación fue analizar la morfo-anatomía de la flor de Epiphyllum phyllanthus (L.) Haw, especie con distribución amplia en los bosques húmedos de América del Sur como epífita. Se recolectaron flores y botones en Maringá, PR, Brasil, fijados, procesados y analizados con microscopio de luz y con microscopio electrónico de barrido. La flor es sésil, epígina con hipanto desarrollado. Todos los verticilos florales presentan epidermis simple. Cavidades secretoras con mucilago y cristales de oxalato de calcio se encuentran en todo el tejido parenquimático de la flor. El androceo posee muchos estambres, con anteras bitecas y tetraesporangiadas. La pared de la antera joven está formada por epidermis, endotecio, una capa mediana y tapete secretor binucleado, eventualmente uninucleado. El gineceo es sincárpico con 9-10 carpelos, pluriovulado y de placentación parietal y el ovario tiene haces vasculares invertidos, en un patrón similar a Pereskia. La región nectarífera se encuentra en el lado interno del hipanto. El estigma es 9-10 lobado, con epidermis secretora. Los óvulos son circinótropos, bitegumentados, crassinucelados y con funículo largo como en otras Cactaceae.
Uso, manejo y conservacion de “yosú” Stenocereus griseus (Cactaceae),en la alta guajira colombiana Usage, Managment and Conservation of “yosú”, Stenocereus griseus (Cactaceae), in the Upper Guajira, Colombia  [cached]
Villalobos Soraya,Vargas Orlando,Melo Sandra
Acta Biológica Colombiana , 2007,
Abstract: En este trabajo se caracteriza el sistema de uso, manejo, demanda y oferta potencial de Stenocereus griseus, un cactus columnar muy utilizado por la comunidad indígena Wayúu en la Guajira, Caribe colombiano. Actualmente el uso de S. griseus se restringe a la recolección de madera seca ("yotojoro") para construcción de viviendas, la recolección de frutos para la alimentación, de tallos jóvenes para alimentos de cabras y para utilizarlos en cercas vivas. Una evaluación de los factores que afectan las poblaciones permitió determinar cinco categorías de da o: las ocasionadas por corte con machete (tipo I), insectos (tipo II), cabras (tipo III), aves (tipo IV) y viento (tipo V). La demanda anual de "yotojoro" está sujeta a la necesidad de construcción de los habitantes del área, que es definida como ocasional. El método actual de cosecha y extracción del mismo no está generando desequilibrio local en el mantenimiento de la especie. La demanda de cardones para cercas vivas y pastoreo es constante durante todo el a o y es la que genera el mayor impacto de da o. Finalmente, se discuten los principales problemas de conservación de la especie y se recomienda establecer alternativas de manejo para las actividades de pastoreo. The present paper characterizes the usage and handling system, demand and potential offer of Stenocereus griseus, a columnar cactus widely used by the "Wayúu", an indigenous community in the Colombian Caribbean region of "La Guajira". The current use of S. griseus is restricted to the collection of dry timber wood ("yotojoro") for house building; of the fruit, which is used for human consumption; and of the young stems, used as goat fodder, and as living fences. An evaluation of the factors that affect the populations allowed the detection of five different harm categories: those caused by cuttings with cutlass (type I); by insects (type II); goats (type III); birds (type IV); and wind (type V). The annual "yotojoro" demand is subject to the building needs of the people in the area, which is defined as occasional. The current cropping and extraction method was not found to be causing any local disequilibrium in the species population maintenance. There is a steady cardon demand for fodder and living fences all year long; one which is causing the highest harm impact. Finally, the main conservation problems of the species are discussed, together with the suggestion of management alternatives for grazing activities.
USO, MANEJO Y CONSERVACIóN DE “yosú”, Stenocereus griseus (CACTACEAE), EN LA ALTA GUAJIRA COLOMBIANA
VILLALOBOS,SORAYA; VARGAS,ORLANDO; MELO,SANDRA;
Acta Biológica Colombiana , 2007,
Abstract: the present paper characterizes the usage and handling system, demand and potential offer of stenocereus griseus, a columnar cactus widely used by the “wayúu”, an indigenous community in the colombian caribbean region of “ la guajira ”. the current use of s. griseus is restricted to the collection of dry timber wood (“yotojoro”) for house building; of the fruit, which is used for human consumption; and of the young stems, used as goat fodder, and as living fences. an evaluation of the factors that affect the populations allowed the detection of five different harm categories: those caused by cuttings with cutlass (type i); by insects (type ii); goats (type iii); birds (type iv); and wind (type v). the annual “yotojoro” demand is subject to the building needs of the people in the area, which is defined as occasional. the current cropping and extraction method was not found to be causing any local disequilibrium in the species population maintenance. there is a steady cardon demand for fodder and living fences all year long; one which is causing the highest harm impact. finally, the main conservation problems of the species are discussed, together with the suggestion of management alternatives for grazing activities.
Landscape management and domestication of Stenocereus pruinosus (Cactaceae) in the Tehuacán Valley: human guided selection and gene flow  [cached]
Parra Fabiola,Blancas José,Casas Alejandro
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4269-8-32
Abstract: Background Use of plant resources and ecosystems practiced by indigenous peoples of Mesoamerica commonly involves domestication of plant populations and landscapes. Our study analyzed interactions of coexisting wild and managed populations of the pitaya Stenocereus pruinosus, a columnar cactus used for its edible fruit occurring in natural forests, silviculturally managed in milpa agroforestry systems, and agriculturally managed in homegardens of the Tehuacán Valley, Mexico. We aimed at analyzing criteria of artificial selection and their consequences on phenotypic diversity and differentiation, as well as documenting management of propagules at landscape level and their possible contribution to gene flow among populations. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted to 83 households of the region to document perception of variation, criteria of artificial selection, and patterns of moving propagules among wild and managed populations. Morphological variation of trees from nine wild, silviculturally and agriculturally managed populations was analyzed for 37 characters through univariate and multivariate statistical methods. In addition, indexes of morphological diversity (MD) per population and phenotypic differentiation (PD) among populations were calculated using character states and frequencies. Results People recognized 15 pitaya varieties based on their pulp color, fruit size, form, flavor, and thorniness. On average, in wild populations we recorded one variety per population, in silviculturally managed populations 1.58 ± 0.77 varieties per parcel, and in agriculturally managed populations 2.19 ± 1.12 varieties per homegarden. Farmers select in favor of sweet flavor (71% of households interviewed) and pulp color (46%) mainly red, orange and yellow. Artificial selection is practiced in homegardens and 65% of people interviewed also do it in agroforestry systems. People obtain fruit and branches from different population types and move propagules from one another. Multivariate analyses showed morphological differentiation of wild and agriculturally managed populations, mainly due to differences in reproductive characters; however, the phenotypic differentiation indexes were relatively low among all populations studied. Morphological diversity of S. pruinosus (average MD = 0.600) is higher than in other columnar cacti species previously analyzed. Conclusions Artificial selection in favor of high quality fruit promotes morphological variation and divergence because of the continual replacement of plant material propagated and introductio
Fenología reproductiva y capacidad de regeneración de dos cardones, stenocereus griseus (haw.) Buxb. Y cereus repandus (l.) Mill. (cactaceae) Reproductive phenology and regeneration capacity of two cardones, Stenocereus griseus (Haw.) Buxb. and Cereus repandus (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae)
Jafet M Nassar,Unai Emaldi
Acta Botánica Venezuelica , 2008,
Abstract: Stenocereus griseus y Cereus repandus son dos de las cactáceas columnares más abundantes y ampliamente distribuidas en las regiones áridas y semiáridas de Venezuela. A pesar de su valor como especies clave para la fauna silvestre y de su potencial valor económico, la información sobre su actividad reproductiva y capacidad de regeneración es muy limitada. Dichos aspectos fueron evaluados en poblaciones naturales de Padre Diego, estado Lara y la Península de Paraguaná, estado Falcón. Estos cactus poseen patrones reproductivos temporalmente amplios y niveles de fecundidad elevados (S. griseus: 44.225 semillas/ind, C. repandus: 322.749 semillas/ind), que les confieren grandes ventajas para su regeneración natural y propagación. Estas especies dependen de plantas nodriza para su establecimiento, presentando los porcentajes más elevados de supervivencia bajo la sombra de árboles. En condiciones naturales, estas plantas rinden media tonelada de pulpa de fruta por hectárea. Stenocereus griseus and Cereus repandus are two of the most abundant and widely distributed columnar cacti in the arid and semiarid regions of Venezuela. Despite their value as keystone species for wildlife and their potential economic value, information on their reproductive activity and regeneration capacities is quite limited. These aspects were evaluated in natural populations from Padre Diego, Lara State, and Paraguana Peninsula, Falcon State. These cacti have broad time windows for reproduction and considerably high fecundity levels (S. griseus: 44,225 seeds/ind, C. repandus: 322,749 seeds/ind), which confer them great advantages in terms of natural regeneration and propagation. These species depend on nurse plants for their establishment. The highest percentages of survival occurred under the shadow of trees. Under natural conditions, these species can produce half a ton of fruit pulp per hectare.
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