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Evaluation of Various Crude Extracts of Zingiber officinale Rhizome for Potential Antibacterial Activity: A Study in Vitro  [PDF]
Purshotam Kaushik, Pankaj Goyal
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2011.11002
Abstract: In vitro antibacterial activity of crude aqueous and organic extracts of rhizome of Zingiber officinaleRoscoe (ginger) was studied against both Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi) and Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes) bacterial strains. The present study reveals that the pattern of inhibition varied with the solvent used for extraction and the organism tested. Plant extracts prepared in organic solvents provided more consistent antibacterial activity as compared to aqueous extracts. Methanol extract was the most active against maximum number of bacterial species tested. Gram-positive bacteria were found the most sensitive as compared to Gram-negative bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus was significantly inhibited by almost all the extracts even in very low MIC followed by other Gram-positives. Escherichia coli (a Gram-negative bacterium) was showing the least inhibition with highest MIC values, while Salmonella typhi was found completely resistant. Methanol extract yielded the presence of terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids and tannins in phytochemical screening. Results of the present study sign the interesting assurance of designing a potentially active antibacterial agent from Zingiber officinale.
Morph-Anatomical Studies and Antibacterial Activities of the Rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe
Ahlam Salih Eltahir, Massara Ibrahem Elnoor, Sarrah Menahi, Eiman Mohammed Ali Mustafa
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104890
In this study, morphanatomical study and antibacterial activity of the rhizome of Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) were investigated to assist as a relevant source of information and contribute towards the standards to dispose the quality and identity of this plant to avoid adulterations. The transverse section of the rhizome includes different types of tissues which are epidermis, cork, cortex and vascular bundles. The cortex is formed of parenchyma cells, which often contain starch and oils in large amounts. In vitro antibacterial activity was investigated by cork porous method. The most sensitive bacteria for all concentrations of the methanolic and only 50 mg/ml for the water extract was Staphylococcus aureus. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to be sensitive for both extracts used. Bacillus subtilis was sensitive for the methanolic extract only. Escherichia coli was found to be not sensitive except for 100 mg/ml concentration of the methanolic extract.
Dr. Mamta Bhatia et al
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research , 2012,
Abstract: An in vitro study was conducted for screening antibacterial activities of seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) and rhizomes of Zingiber officinale (ginger), in their different forms viz. aqueous extracts, essential oils and powders against some common food borne pathogens. Bacterial strains involved in the study were Bacillus cereus (MTCC 430), Enterococcus feacalis (MTCC 439), Escherichia coli (MTCC 1687), Psuedomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 424) and Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 5021). Results revealed that powdered forms of T. foenum-graecum and Z. officinale remained ineffective in arresting the growth of all the bacterial strains under investigation. During preliminary screening, aqueous extracts and essential oils of test spices did not exhibit any growth inhibitory zone towards any test bacteria. In broth dilution technique, essential oil of Z. officinale arrested all the bacterial strains under observation while essential oil of T. foenum-graecum and aqueous extracts of T. foenum-graecum and Z. officinale remained ineffective.
Shinde Sachin K,Grampurohit Nirmala D,Banerjee Subir K,Jadhav Suresh L
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe Family- Zingiberaceae), have been used in Chinese and Indian folk medicine for centuries. There are no reported UV‐visible methods for quick estimation of this extract, which is necessary in the development of suitable formulations for this drug. Hence, a simple UV spectroscopic method was developed for direct estimation of this extract. Ginger rhizome extract obtained from simple maceration process. Calibration curve of rhizome extract was prepared in methanol on three consecutive days at λmax 281.40 nm. The absorbance values (mean of three determinations) with their standard deviations at different concentration in the range of 20‐100 μg/ml was determined. Extract was found to obey Beer‐Lambert’s law in the concentration range of 20‐100 μg/ml with regression coefficient (r2) values 0.9995. The regression equations were calculated as y = 0.0097x + 0.0132 for methanol. The developed calibration curve was validated for intra‐day and inter‐day variations as per ICH Q2A guideline and was found to be a stable method.
Anti-ulcerogenic effect of ginger (rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on cystemine induced duodenal ulcer in rats
Mohsen Minaiyan,Alireza Ghannadi,Alireza Karimzadeh
DARU : Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: Ginger (rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a widespread herbal medicine mainly used for the treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders including: dyspepsia, nausea and diarrhea. Aromatic, spasmolytic, carminative and absorbent properties of ginger suggest that it has direct effects on the GI tract and anti-ulcerogenic potential. In the present study, the effects of this herbal remedy on an acute model of experimental duodenal ulcer induced by cysteamine was evaluated. Hydroalcoholic extract ofgginger with doses of 100, 350, 700 mg/kg, ranitidine (50 mg/kg), sucralfate (500 mg/kg) and 5 ml/kg of vehicle were administered orally (p.o.) to separate groups of male Wistar rats. Other groups received vehicle (5 ml/kg), extract (300 mg/kg) and ranitidine (50 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p.). After ulcer induction, the number, scoring, area and finally ulcer index were assessed for each duodenum. Administration of extract by i.p. or at chronic doses (350 mg/kg) and ranitidine (p.o. and i.p.) resulted in significant reduction in mucosal damage for the entire ulcer factors which were assessed. Larger doses of extract given p.o. (350 and 700 mg/kg) were effective to reduce both the ulcer area and index but the lowest dose of extract (100 mg/kg) was not effective. Taken together, we conclude that ginger hydroalcoholic extract was effective to protect against duodenal ulceration and for i.p. injection as well as chronic administration, the efficacy was comparable with ranitidine as reference drug.
Food Value of Two Varieties of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Commonly Consumed in Nigeria  [PDF]
Olubunmi B. Ajayi,Seun F. Akomolafe,Funmilayo T. Akinyemi
ISRN Nutrition , 2013, DOI: 10.5402/2013/359727
Abstract: Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a well-known and widely used herb, which contains several interesting bioactive constituents and possesses health-promoting properties. The proximate, mineral, antinutrient, amino acid, and phytochemical components of two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) were investigated. Amino acid composition was determined using standard analytical techniques. The results obtained in percentages in the two varieties of ginger (white and yellow types) were crude fibre (21.90, 8.30), fat (17.11, 9.89), carbohydrate (39.70, 58.21), crude protein (12.05, 11.65), ash (4.95, 7.45) and moisture (3.95, 4.63) contents respectively. Elemental analysis revealed that potassium (0.98?ppm and 1.38?ppm) is the most abundant, while copper (0.01?ppm) is the least. Phytochemical screening indicated that they are both rich in saponins, anthraquinones, phlobatannin and glycosides. Also, the antinutrient constituents of white ginger were lower than yellow ginger, although the levels of the antinutrient constituents in the two varieties are saved for consumption. The essential amino acids in the two varieties were almost the same, with Leu being the most abundant in both. The two ginger varieties were adequate only in Leu, Phe?+?Try, and valine based on FAO/WHO provisional pattern. Overall, the findings indicate that the two varieties of ginger are good sources of nutrients, mineral elements, amino acid, and phytochemicals which could be exploited as great potentials for drugs and/or nutritional supplements. 1. Introduction Plants such as herbs have long been used in traditional/folk medicine in various cultures throughout the world. Zingiber officinale is one of these traditional folk medicinal plants that have been used for over 2000 years for treating diabetes, high blood pressure, cancer, fitness, and many other illnesses [1]. Also, ginger (Zingiber officinale) is widely consumed as a spice and food preservation. The beneficial health effects of ginger have been well documented. According to Yoshikawa et al. [2], the consumption of ginger led to reduction in blood cholesterol and also served as a potential anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic agent. Ginger is an herbaceous rhizomatous perennial plant that is widely cultivated in warm climatic regions of the world such as Nigeria, Bangladesh, Taiwan, India, Jamaica, and the United States of America. The rhizome contains a spectra of biologically active compounds such as curcumin, 6-gingerol, 6-shogoals, zingiberene, bisabolene, and several other types of lipids that confer on ginger the
The Effects of Seed Rhizome Size on the Growth, Yield and Economic Return of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.)  [PDF]
Girma Hailemichael,Kindie Tesfaye
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: An experiment was conducted to study the influence of seed rhizome size on the growth, yield and economic return of ginger to determine an optimum seed rhizome size. The experiment was conducted for three years (1995-1997) at Tepi Agricultural Research Sub-center using a locally grown ginger cultivar. It consisted of four different weight and sizes of seed rhizomes which were grouped as small (R-4 g), medium (R-8 g), large (R-16 g) and very large (R-32 g). The treatments were arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications. An increase in seed rhizome size significantly increased the major growth and yield component parameters of ginger. Seed rhizome size also significantly affected dry rhizome yield in all the 3 years that the largest seed rhizome size (R-32 g) had significantly higher rhizome yield than the other treatments in 1995 and 1996 and the small and medium size treatments in 1997. The R-32 g treatment increased rhizome yield by 124, 152 and 55% over the R-4 g treatment in 1995, 1996 (low rainfall year) and 1997 (high rainfall year), respectively suggesting the importance of using larger seed rhizomes under relatively lower than higher rainfall conditions. The R-32 g treatment gave a Marginal Rate of Return (MRR) of 235% with the highest residual indicating that using 32 g (>9.1 cm long) seed rhizomes is economically profitable for ginger production in South Western Ethiopia.
Evaluation of antibacterial potential of Trikatu churna and its ingredients: An in vitro study  [cached]
S. B. Dahikar,S. A. Bhutada,S. K. Vibhute,V.C. Sonvale
International Journal of Phytomedicine , 2011,
Abstract: Herbal medicines are being used increasingly as dietary supplements to fight or prevent common disease. The dried fruits of Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae), Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) and rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe. (Zingiberaceae) were powdered and mixed together in equiproportions to get a polyherbal formulation, Trikatu churna. The aqueous, ethanol, methanol and acetone extracts of these plant’s fruits and Trikatu churna were prepared and antibacterial activities were tested by disc diffusion method against enteric bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella typhimurium and Enterobacter aerogenes. The extracts of Piper longum, Piper nigrum and Zingiber officinale were found antibacterial to all bacterial pathogen tested. Trikatu churna exhibited potent antibacterial activity; this might be due to the multifunctional effect of all the three plant ingredients of Trikatu churna. Antibacterial activity of Trikatu churna and its ingredients was carried out in attempt to support the use of Trikatu churna for the treatment of enteric bacterial infections. Keywords: Antibacterial activity, Trikatu churna, bacterial pathogens.
Determination of in vitro antidiabetic effects of Zingiber officinale Roscoe  [cached]
Naila Abdul Sattar,Fatma Hussain,Tahira Iqbal,Munir Ahmad Sheikh
Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Aqueous extracts of Zingiber officinale rhizomes were studied to evaluate their antidiabetic effects on protein glycation and on the diffusion of glucose in vitro in the present study. Zingiber officinale rhizome aqueous extract were examined at concentrations of 5, 10, 20 and 40 g/L. The antidiabetic effects were found to be dose-dependent. Antidiabetic potential of Zingiber officinale was mainly through inhibition of the glucose diffusion and to a limited extent by reducing the glycation. However, further studies are needed to determine in vitro effects of therapeutic potential by restraining postprandial glucose absorptions and plasma protein glycations in diabetic subjects. Extratos aquosos de rizomas Zingiber officinale foram estudados para avaliar os seus efeitos antidiabéticos em glica o de proteínas e sobre a difus o de glicose in vitro, no presente estudo. Extratos aquosos de Zingiber officinale foram examinados nas concentra es de 5, 10, 20 e 40 g extrato de planta/L. Os efeitos antidiabéticos observados eram dependentes da dose. O potencial antidiabético de Zingiber officinale se verificou, principalmente, através da inibi o da difus o de glicose e, em menor extens o, através da redu o da glica o. Estudos adicionais s o necessários para elucidar se efeitos in vitro representam potencial terapêutico, restringindo a absor o de glicose pós-prandial e a glica o de proteínas plasmáticas em indivíduos diabéticos.
Antibacterial Activity of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Roscoe and Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Extracts on Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi
U.N. Ekwenye,N.N. Elegalam
International Journal of Molecular Medicine and Advance Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The antibacterial activity of the ethanolic extracts of garlic and ginger against E.coli and S. typhi were positive. Though the growth inhibitory response varied with thetype of bacterial species tested and the type of extract. Ethanolic extract of ginger inhibited E. coli showing 9.00 mm diameter while S. typhi was inhibited w ith 10.00 mm diameter. The aqueous extract of garlic had no inhibitory effect on the two test organisms, but the aqueous extract of ginger inhibited S. typhi showing 8.0 mm diameter. Only the paper disc diffusion method was used and it gave clear zones of inhibition. In determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), it was observed that the range was between 75 mg mL 1 and 250 mg mL 1 of the concentrations. At any dilution below 75 mg mL 1 concentration, there was no growth inhibition by any extract. The results indicated that the aqueous extract had little or no inhibition while ethanolic extracts had a higher inhibitory effect in vitro against specific bacteria, E. coli and S. typhi, confirming their use in folk medicine.
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