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Performance Comparison among Trained Judges and Panels for the Evaluation of “Cuajada” Type Fresh Cheese in Two Regions from Oaxaca in México  [PDF]
Lorena Guadalupe Ramón Canul, Emmanuel de Jesús Ramírez Rivera, Rodrigo Santiago Cabrera, Fátima Karina Delgado Vidal, José Manuel Juárez Barrientos, María Hernández Cervantes, Juliana López Velázquez, Tania Gómez Alvarado
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.210156
Abstract: Four “cuajada” type fresh cheeses were evaluated by two trained panels in different regions from Oaxaca in Mexico (Instituto Tecnológico de Comitancillo (ITC) and Universidad del Mar (UMAR)). Each panel was integrated by six judges. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) in conjunction with principal component analysis (PCA) and the Rv coefficient were used to identify similarities and consensus among trained judges and panels. The ANOVA results revealed that the judges from ITC performed significantly better (P < 0.05) in discrimination and repetitivity, while both panels showed a similar effect in discrimination. The PCA determined some similarities in the position of cheeses in the sensory space, while Rv revealed that judges and panels were consensual. In conclusion, statistical resources determined that both panels were discriminating and that similarities in the positioning of cheeses in the sensory space were found.
Caracterización sensorial del queso fresco “cuajada” en tres localidades de Oaxaca, México: diferencias en la percepción sensorial
Tania Gómez Alvarado,María Hernández Cervantes,Juliana López Velázquez,Rodrigo Santiago Cabrera
Revista Venezolana de Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos , 2010,
Abstract: Se realizó la obtención de atributos sensoriales mediante la técnica perfil flash en tres localidades del Estado de Oaxaca (San Pedro Comitancillo, Puerto ángel y Miahuatlán de Porfirio Díaz). La generación de atributos sensoriales fue evaluada mediante la prueba de Kruskal-Wallis, el poder discriminante fue evaluado por análisis de varianza a un factor (producto). La obtención de los mapas sensoriales de cada uno de los respectivos paneles de cada localidad se realizó mediante el análisis generalizado procrusteno y la correlación de los datos fue validada por el análisis factorial múltiple y el coeficiente Rv. El resultado de la prueba de Kruskal-Wallis mostró diferencias en la generación de palabras de los tres paneles, el análisis de varianza demostró que los atributos poroso en boca, salado, olor a leche, olor a mantequilla, aroma a leche, aroma a suero, en conjunto con los atributos típicos como color blanco y suave en boca revelados por el análisis factorial múltiple fueron los más discriminativos. Los valores del coeficiente Rv (Miahuatlán de Porfirio Díaz-Puerto ángel) = 0,72; Rv (San Pedro Comitancillo-Miahuatlán de Porfirio Díaz) = 0,85 determinaron similitudes en el uso de los términos sensoriales en los tres paneles. Los porcentajes del consenso (94,22 %, 93,92 % y 85,12 %) obtenidos por el análisis generalizado procrusteno fueron similares en las tres localidades. En conclusión el uso del perfil flash permitió encontrar atributos sensoriales característicos del queso fresco “cuajada” percibidos en las diferentes localidades, otorgando con ellos información valiosa para los productores del queso cuajada del Istmo de Tehuantepec.
Comparación del desempe o de paneles no entrenados pertenecientes a diferentes zonas productoras del queso fresco “cuajada” en Oaxaca, México
Rodrigo Santiago Cabrera,Emmanuel de Jesús Ramírez Rivera,Lorena Guadalupe Ramón Canul,José Manuel Juárez Barrientos
Revista Venezolana de Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos , 2011,
Abstract: Se realizó un estudio donde se comparó el desempe o de paneles no entrenados pertenecientes a cuatro zonas productoras del queso fresco “cuajada” (San Pedro Comitancillo, Santo Domingo Ingenio, Asunción Ixtaltepec y Juchitán de Zaragoza) para la evaluación de ocho características sensoriales (color blanco, textura granulosa al tacto, suave al tacto, olor a cuajo, salado, grumoso en boca, suave en boca, aroma a suero). La habilidad discriminatoria así como la confiabilidad y el acuerdo en el uso de la escala por panel no entrenado fueron determinados mediante el análisis de varianza a un factor, el índice de fiabilidad y el índice de acuerdo, mientras que el desempe o a nivel inter-paneles no entrenados para la evaluación de la discriminación, el consenso, así como el grado de correlación fueron determinados mediante el análisis de varianza a dos factores con interacción (Producto x Zona geográfica), la prueba de permutación Rc y el coeficiente de correlación vectorial Rv. Los resultados mostraron que los paneles no entrenados pertenecientes a las zonas de San Pedro Comitancillo, Santo Domingo Ingenio y Asunción Ixtaltepec fueron discriminantes y confiables, aunque los resultados del índice de acuerdo en el uso de la escala fueron bajos entre los consumidores asociados a cada panel; sin embargo, a nivel inter-paneles no entrenados el análisis de varianza a dos factores con interacción reveló elevados valores de discriminación mientras que el índice de consenso fue de Rc = 0,807, el grado de correlación inter-paneles no entrenados fueron de Rv (Comitancillo-Sto. Domingo) = 0,85, Rv (Comitancillo-Juchitán) = 0,72, Rv (Ixtaltepec-Juchitán) = 0,53, Rv (Sto. Domingo-Juchitán) = 0,44. En conclusión los resultados revelaron elevados valores de discriminación, uso de la escala, consenso y confiabilidad en los resultados por panel no entrenado e inter-paneles no entrenados.
On the complexity of traffic judges' decisions
David Leiser,Dov-Ron Schatzberg
Judgment and Decision Making , 2008,
Abstract: Professional judges in traffic courts sentence many hundreds of offenders per year. Using 639 case files from archives, we compared the Matching Heuristic (MH) to compensatory, weighing algorithms (WM). We modeled and cross validated the models on different subsets of the data, and took several other methodological precautions such as allowing each model to select the optimal number of variables and ordering and weighing the variables in accordance to different logics. We did not reproduce the finding by Dhami (2003), who found the MH to be superior to a compensatory algorithm in modeling bail-granting decisions. These simulations brought out the inner logic of the two family of models, showing what combination of parameters works best. It remains remarkable that using only a fraction of the variables and combining them non-compensatorily, MH obtained nearly as good a fit as the weighing method.
The Role of Judges in Identifying the Status of Combatants
Nobuo Hayashi
Acta Societatis Martensis , 2006,
Abstract: International humanitarian law facilitates legitimate human endeavours and safeguards social values in armed conflict. Persuasive standards of belligerent conduct ought to account for its peculiarities. Combatants make life-and-death decisions — e.g. the status of persons present in the battlefield — quickly and based on limited and often conflicting information. Judges tasked with reviewing such decisions must utilise legal presumptions. Arguably, some judicial rulings have created the impression that presumptive civilians under international humanitarian law become presumptive combatants under international criminal law. This need not be so, however. In case of doubt whether a victim was liable to attacks, in dubio pro reo does not require that he or she be considered an able-bodied, non-surrendering enemy combatant. It only requires that the victim be considered a civilian directly participating in hostilities, leaving the mandatory civilian presumption unaffected. International humanitarian law creates no mandatory presumption against direct participation in hostilities. Whereas combatants are duty-bound to treat a person with doubtful status as a civilian, they are not forbidden to treat a presumptive civilian with doubtful behaviour as a direct participant in hostilities. When reviewing the factual basis for combat decisions, judges must examine whether the relevant information was known or reasonably knowable to the decision-makers at the time. This necessitates a sound understanding of the realities of hostilities. Judges must avoid alienating reasonable and law-abiding combatants by holding them to unrealistic standards, such as a choice between self-sacrifice and criminal liability. Nor should judges risk undermining the legal protection of war victims by being unduly deferential to military commanders.
How to Work with Honest but Curious Judges? (Preliminary Report)
Jun Pang,Chenyi Zhang
Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science , 2009, DOI: 10.4204/eptcs.7.3
Abstract: The three-judges protocol, recently advocated by Mclver and Morgan as an example of stepwise refinement of security protocols, studies how to securely compute the majority function to reach a final verdict without revealing each individual judge's decision. We extend their protocol in two different ways for an arbitrary number of 2n+1 judges. The first generalisation is inherently centralised, in the sense that it requires a judge as a leader who collects information from others, computes the majority function, and announces the final result. A different approach can be obtained by slightly modifying the well-known dining cryptographers protocol, however it reveals the number of votes rather than the final verdict. We define a notion of conditional anonymity in order to analyse these two solutions. Both of them have been checked in the model checker MCMAS.
DYNA , 2012,
Abstract: in this paper, the manufacturing and the mechanical behaviour of recycled paper panels are studied. the main goal of this study is to make a prototype panel using recycled paper (newspaper) and white portland cement. this panel, called recipanel, must be inexpensive and possess good mechanical properties and commercial dimensions for use in building walls and ceilings. recipanel is a non-structural panel based on recycled paper and fulfils colombian regulations for non-structural panels. recipanel has high mechanical properties.
Demand for fiberboard panels in the international market  [PDF]
Antonio Donizette de Oliveira,Francisco Fernandes Bernardes,José Luiz Pereira de Rezende,José Márcio de Mello
CERNE , 2011,
Abstract: The objective of this study is to estimate for several importing countries of fiberboard panels the income elasticities and price elasticities of total import demand and also the own-price and cross-price elasticities of demand for fiberboard panels, differentiated by country of origin. Time series data were used referring to the trade flow of the world’s largest exporters and importers of fiberboard panels. The demand model being used treats products as imperfect substitutes. It was concluded that in Germany, China and United Kingdom the total import demand for fiberboard panels was more sensitive to variations in price than in income, whereas in other importing countries the reverse happened. The own-price elasticity of demand for fiberboard panels, differentiated by country of origin, was higher than one in almost all markets, except in Germany and United Kingdom. The negative cross-price elasticities suggest that fiberboard panels imported from other exporting countries are complementary products.
A Study on Judges and Prosecutors’ Information Behavior for Legal Resources  [PDF]
Jia-miin Lin,Hsiao-Tieh Pu
Journal of Library and Information Studies , 2005,
Abstract: The goal of this study is to understand judges and prosecutor’s information behavior, i.e., their information needs, seeking, and using of legal resources. Methods of questionnaire, interview, observation, and content analysis of legal forums were adopted to collect quantitative and qualitative data. The result shows that legal resources are mainly to support judges and prosecutors when conducting justice and criminal investigation, and they are mostly interested in the information being able to solve practical legal problems. The study also found 13 important characteristics of their seeking behaviors. Suggestions for improvement in publication of legal resources, legal information services, legal information system design, and law education are also provided. Finally, the study proposed an information behavior model of judges and prosecutors, which may benefit future related research. [Article Content in Chinese]
Development of Innovative Particleboard Panels  [cached]
Francesco Balducci,Charles Harper,Peter Meinlschmidt,Brigitte Dix
Drvna Industrija , 2008,
Abstract: One aim of a joint European project called DIPP (Development of Innovative Particleboard (chipboard) Panels for a better mechanical performance and a lower environmental impact) is the development oflightweight particleboards made from annual/perennial farm plants such as hemp, sunflower, topinambur, maize and miscanthus. These lightweight particleboards are intended as a possible substitution for traditional wood-based particleboards used in the furniture industry. Therefore the requirements of the EN 312 concerning themoisture-related and mechanical properties of boards for interior use have to be met. The results of research have shown that the internal bond strength of one-layer lightweight particleboards made in the experiment meets the requirements of EN 312 (type P2) and the internal bond strength of three-layer boards with topinambur in the core layer does not meet these requirement. The lightweight boards failed to meet the requirements of modulus of elasticity and bending strength.
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