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Objectively Measured Sedentary Time Is Related to Quality of Life among Cancer Survivors  [PDF]
Stephanie M. George, Catherine M. Alfano, Jay Groves, Zafer Karabulut, Kirsten L. Haman, Barbara A. Murphy, Charles E. Matthews
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0087937
Abstract: Purpose While exercise has been shown to be beneficial in improving health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among cancer survivors, evidence is limited on the independent role of sedentary behavior. We examined how objectively measured sedentary time was associated with HRQOL among long-term cancer survivors. Methods This cross-sectional study included 54 cancer survivors, on average 3.4 years postdiagnosis, who were enrolled into an exercise trial designed to improve cognitive function. At baseline, we measured sedentary time and moderate-vigorous intensity physical activity with the ActivPal, cardiorespiratory fitness with treadmill testing, and self-reported HRQOL with an established scale (SF-36). In multivariate models, we regressed HRQOL on sedentary time (percent of waking time spent sitting and lying). Results Survivors with higher sedentary time had significantly poorer physical functioning (β = ?0.50, p = 0.028), general health (β = ?0.75, ptrend = 0.004), and physical summary scores (β = ?0.34, p = 0.003). We did not observe associations between sedentary time and role-physical (p = 0.342), bodily-pain (p = 0.117), vitality (p = 0.095), social functioning (p = 0.407), role-emotional (p = 0.509), mental health (p = 0.494), or mental summary scores (p = 0.527). Conclusion In this cross-sectional study of cancer survivors, we observed deleterious associations between sedentary time and aspects of physical HRQOL. Future prospective studies of sedentary time and HRQOL are needed to establish temporality and to facilitate the design of effective health promotion interventions for cancer survivors.
Adolescent predictors of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour at age 42: the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study (AGAHLS)
Léonie Uijtdewilligen, Amika S Singh, Jos WR Twisk, Lando LJ Koppes, Willem van Mechelen, Mai JM Chinapaw
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-8-107
Abstract: Physical characteristics (i.e. objectively measured BMI, sum of skin folds, MOPER test battery performance), and personality (i.e. self-reported inadequacy, social inadequacy, rigidity, self-sufficiency/recalcitrance, dominance, achievement motivation, facilitating anxiety, debilitating anxiety, and social desirability) were assessed in 217 adolescent boys (Mean 13.0, SD 0.6) and girls (Mean 12.9, SD 0.6). Twenty-nine years later, at the age of 42, their physical activity and sedentary behaviour were assessed by means of accelerometry. Boys who scored lower on self-sufficiency/recalcitrance and higher on facilitating anxiety spent more time sedentary in adulthood. Girls with a superior standing high jump performance, and a lower score on social desirability spent more time sedentary in adulthood. In contrast with sedentary behaviour, physical activity at age 42 year could not be predicted by physical characteristics or personality in adolescence.Sedentary behaviour in adulthood was partly explained by physical characteristics and/or personality in adolescence. Thus, our results suggest that it may be possible to identify people who are at risk of becoming sedentary at a rather young age.Physical activity and sedentary behaviour are generally accepted as being two distinct classes of behaviour, which have been shown to be independently associated with energy expenditure, body weight, and metabolic factors [1-3].Although a substantial body of literature has focused on drivers for adopting an inactive lifestyle the majority of these studies are cross-sectional [4]. The association between age, education, self-efficacy and physical activity has been frequently investigated, whereas other factors such as personality and fitness have been rarely examined [4]. Research on sedentary behaviour is rapidly growing [5,6], however, evidence on its determinants is relatively scarce.Considering the above, research investigating under reported determinants of physical activity and
Objectively measured sedentary behavior in preschool children: comparison between Montessori and traditional preschools  [cached]
Byun Wonwoo,Blair Steven N,Pate Russell R
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-10-2
Abstract: Background This study aimed to compare the levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior in children attending Montessori preschools with those attending traditional preschools. Methods The participants in this study were preschool children aged 4 years old who were enrolled in Montessori and traditional preschools. The preschool children wore ActiGraph accelerometers. Accelerometers were initialized using 15-second intervals and sedentary behavior was defined as <200 counts/15-second. The accelerometry data were summarized into the average minutes per hour spent in sedentary behavior during the in-school, the after-school, and the total-day period. Mixed linear regression models were used to determine differences in the average time spent in sedentary behavior between children attending traditional and Montessori preschools, after adjusting for selected potential correlates of preschoolers’ sedentary behavior. Results Children attending Montessori preschools spent less time in sedentary behavior than those attending traditional preschools during the in-school (44.4. min/hr vs. 47.1 min/hr, P = 0.03), after-school (42.8. min/hr vs. 44.7 min/hr, P = 0.04), and total-day (43.7 min/hr vs. 45.5 min/hr, P = 0. 009) periods. School type (Montessori or traditional), preschool setting (private or public), socio-demographic factors (age, gender, and socioeconomic status) were found to be significant predictors of preschoolers’ sedentary behavior. Conclusions Levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior were significantly lower among children attending Montessori preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools. Future research should examine the specific characteristics of Montessori preschools that predict the lower levels of sedentary behavior among children attending these preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools.
Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time during Childhood, Adolescence and Young Adulthood: A Cohort Study  [PDF]
Francisco B. Ortega, Kenn Konstabel, Elena Pasquali, Jonatan R. Ruiz, Anita Hurtig-Wennl?f, Jarek M?estu, Marie L?f, Jaanus Harro, Rino Bellocco, Idoia Labayen, Toomas Veidebaum, Michael Sj?str?m
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060871
Abstract: Background To know how moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time change across lifespan periods is needed for designing successful lifestyle interventions. We aimed to study changes in objectively measured (accelerometry) MVPA and sedentary time from childhood to adolescence and from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods Estonian and Swedish participants from the European Youth Heart Study aged 9 and 15 years at baseline (N = 2312) were asked to participate in a second examination 6 (Sweden) to 9/10 (Estonia) years later. 1800 participants with valid accelerometer data were analyzed. Results MVPA decreased from childhood to adolescence (?1 to ?2.5 min/d per year of follow-up, P = 0.01 and <0.001, for girls and boys respectively) and also from adolescence to young adulthood (?0.8 to ?2.2 min/d per year, P = 0.02 and <0.001 for girls and boys, respectively). Sedentary time increased from childhood to adolescence (+15 and +20 min/d per year, for girls and boys respectively, P<0.001), with no substantial change from adolescence to young adulthood. Changes in both MVPA and sedentary time were greater in Swedish than in Estonian participants and in boys than in girls. The magnitude of the change observed in sedentary time was 3–6 time larger than the change observed in MVPA. Conclusions The decline in MVPA (overall change = 30 min/d) and increase sedentary time (overall change = 2:45 h/d) observed from childhood to adolescence are of concern and might increase the risk of developing obesity and other chronic diseases later in life. These findings substantially contribute to understand how key health-related behaviors (physical activity and sedentary) change across important periods of life.
The Relationship of Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour with Gestational Weight Gain and Birth Weight  [PDF]
Anneloes E. Ruifrok,Ellen Althuizen,Nicolette Oostdam,Willem van Mechelen,Ben Willem Mol,Christianne J. M. de Groot,Mireille N. M. van Poppel
Journal of Pregnancy , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/567379
Abstract: Objective. To evaluate the relationship of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour with gestational weight gain (GWG) and birth weight. Design. Combined data from two prospective studies: (1) nulliparous pregnant women without BMI restrictions and (2) overweight and obese pregnant women at risk for gestational diabetes. Methods. Daily PA and sedentary behaviour were measured with an accelerometer around 15 and at 32–35 weeks of gestation. The association between time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and in sedentary activities with GWG and birth weight was determined. Main outcome measures were GWG between 15 and 32 weeks of gestation, average GWG per week, and birth weight. Results. We studied 111 women. Early in pregnancy, 32% of women spent ≥30 minutes/day in at least moderate PA versus 12% in late pregnancy. No significant associations were found between time spent in MVPA or sedentary behaviour with GWG or birth weight. Conclusions. We found no relation between MVPA and sedentary behaviour with GWG or birth weight. The small percentage of women meeting the recommended levels of PA indicates the need to inform and support pregnant women to maintain regular PA, as there seems to be no adverse effect on birth weight and maintaining PA increases overall health. 1. Introduction Excessive weight gain during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of obstetrical, maternal, and fetal complications [1–4] and postpartum weight retention [5]. It increases the risk of obesity in children [5–7]. This contributes to the prevalence of women who are overweight or obese and increases the long-term risk of body weight-associated diseases, which impose a great pressure on health care [5, 8–12]. The American Institute of Medicine (IOM) updated their evidence-based guidelines for weight development during pregnancy in 2009 [13]. However, 53% of all women gain more weight than advised by the IOM. This is even more pronounced in women with overweight or obesity, with 68.9% and 59.8%, respectively, exceeding the recommendations [14]. Many trials have been conducted evaluating the effect of different lifestyle interventions on gestational weight gain (GWG) and adverse pregnancy outcomes, which were recently reviewed and combined in a meta-analysis [15, 16]. Combining results of 15 interventions consisting of physical activity (PA) alone did not result in a statistically significant effect on GWG and showed a very small but statistically significant reduction in mean birth weight. However, it must be noted that the compliance with the interventions was
Early Predictors of Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in 8–10 Year Old Children: The Gateshead Millennium Study  [PDF]
Mark S. Pearce, Laura Basterfield, Kay D. Mann, Kathryn N. Parkinson, Ashley J. Adamson, John J. Reilly on behalf of the Gateshead Millennium Study Core Team
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037975
Abstract: Background With a number of studies suggesting associations between early life influences and later chronic disease risk, it is suggested that associations between early growth and later physical activity (PA) may be a mediator. However, conflicting evidence exists for association between birth weight and childhood PA. In addition, it is important to know what other, potentially modifiable, factors may influence PA in children given its’ association with childhood and later adiposity. We used the Gateshead Millennium Study (GMS) to identify predictors of childhood PA levels. Methods The GMS is a cohort of 1029 infants born in 1999–2000 in Gateshead in northern England. Throughout infancy and early childhood, detailed information was collected. Assessments at age 9 years included body composition, objective measures of habitual PA and a range of lifestyle factors. Mean total volumes of PA (accelerometer count per minute, cpm) and moderate-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA), and the percentage of time spent in sedentary behaviour (%SB) were quantified and related to potential predictors using linear regression and path analysis. Results Children aged 8–10 years were included. Significant differences were seen in all three outcome variables between sexes and season of measurement (p<0.001). Restricting children’s access to television was associated with decreased MVPA. Increased paternal age was associated with significant increases in %SB (p = 0.02), but not MVPA or total PA. Increased time spent in out of school sports clubs was significantly associated with decreased %SB (p = 0.02). No significant associations were seen with birth weight. Conclusion A range of factors, directly or indirectly, influenced PA and sedentary behaviour. However, associations differed between the different constructs of PA and %SB. Exploring further the sex differences in PA would appear to be useful, as would encouraging children to join out of school sports clubs.
Cross-Sectional analysis of levels and patterns of objectively measured sedentary time in adolescent females
Deirdre M Harrington, Kieran P Dowd, Alan K Bourke, Alan E Donnelly
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-8-120
Abstract: One hundred and eleven adolescent females, age 15-18 yrs, were recruited from urban and rural areas in the Republic of Ireland. Participants wore an ActivPAL physical activity monitor for a 7.5 day period. The ActivPAL directly reports total time spent sitting/lying every 15 seconds and accumulation (frequency and duration) of sedentary activity was examined using a customized MATLAB? computer software programme.While no significant difference was found in the total time spent sitting/lying over the full 24 hour day between weekday and weekend day (18.8 vs. 18.9 hours; p = .911), significantly more sedentary bouts of 1 to 5 minutes and 21 to 40 minutes in duration were accumulated on weekdays compared to weekend days (p < .001). The mean length of each sedentary bout was also longer (9.8 vs. 8.8 minutes; p < .001). When school hours (9 am-3 pm) and after school hours (4 pm-10 pm) were compared, there was no difference in total time spent sedentary (3.9 hours; p = .796) but the pattern of accumulation of the sedentary time differed. There were a greater number of bouts of > 20 minutes duration during school hours than after school hours (4.7 vs. 3.5 bouts; p < .001) while after school time consisted of shorter bouts < 20 minutes.School is highlighted as a particularly sedentary setting for adolescent females. Interventions to decrease sedentary time at school and the use of wearable devices which distinguish posture should be encouraged when examining sedentary patterns and behaviors in this population.Unlike physical activity, the study of prolonged sitting is a relatively new area of research that has gained significant momentum over the last number of years [1-3]. Currently, the majority of the published literature has utilised screen time [4,5], self-report diaries [6,7] or accelerometer thresholding [8-12] to investigate sedentary lifestyles but the accuracy of these results remain uncertain due to the inherent limitations of each methodology. Screen time repres
Objectively measured sedentary time and physical activity time across the lifespan: a cross-sectional study in four age groups  [cached]
Spittaels Heleen,Van Cauwenberghe Eveline,Verbestel Vera,De Meester Femke
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-9-149
Abstract: Background From a health perspective it is suggested to promote a positive balance between time spent in light intensity physical activity (LIPA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) (i.e. spending more time in LIPA than time spent in SB). However, no studies have reported prevalence rates of the LIPA-SB balance yet. The aim of this study was to objectively investigate the time spent in SB, in LIPA and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) in four Belgian age groups and to explore which proportion of the population had a favorable balance between LIPA and SB and combined this with recommended amount of MVPA. Methods Accelerometer data from 7 cross-sectional studies (N=2083) in four age groups (preschoolers, primary schoolchildren, secondary schoolchildren and adults) were aggregated. Differences in SB and PA between age groups and between men and women were determined by two-way MANCOVA. LIPA-SB balance was calculated and participants were categorized into one of four groups: (1) positive LIPA-SB balance (LIPA> SB) & sufficient MVPA (2) negative LIPA-SB balance & sufficient MVPA (3) positive LIPA-SB balance & insufficient MVPA (4) negative LIPA-SB balance & insufficient MVPA. Results For the total sample, 55% of the waking time was spent in SB, 39% in LIPA and 6% in MVPA. Differences in SB between age groups was dependent from gender (p<0.001). Further, a positive LIPA-SB balance was assessed in 18% of the total sample and only 10% combined this positive balance with recommended amount of MVPA. Secondary schoolgirls were most at risk, with only 1% of the sample combining a positive LIPA-SB balance with sufficient MVPA. Another risk group was the large proportion (43%) of adult men who combined sufficient MVPA with a negative LIPA-SB balance. Conclusion A high proportion of the Belgian population is at risk if taking into account both SB and PA levels. Secondary schoolgirls have the unhealthiest SB and PA profile and are therefore an important target group for interventions both increasing MVPA and decreasing SB. In men more attention should be given in promoting a positive LIPA-SB balance independently from their compliance with the MVPA guidelines.
Does Birth Weight Influence Physical Activity in Youth? A Combined Analysis of Four Studies Using Objectively Measured Physical Activity  [PDF]
Charlotte L. Ridgway,S?ren Brage,Stephen J. Sharp,Kirsten Corder,Kate L. Westgate,Esther M. van Sluijs,Ian M. Goodyer,Pedro C. Hallal,Sigmund A. Anderssen,Luis B. Sardinha,Lars Bo Andersen,Ulf Ekelund
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0016125
Abstract: Animal models suggest growth restriction in utero leads to lower levels of motor activity. Furthermore, individuals with very low birth weight report lower levels of physical activity as adults. The aim of this study was to examine whether birth weight acts as a biological determinant of physical activity and sedentary time. This study uses combined analysis of three European cohorts and one from South America (n = 4,170). Birth weight was measured or parentally reported. Height and weight were measured and used to calculate Body Mass Index (BMI). PA was objectively measured using accelerometry for ≥3 days, ≥10 hours day. Data was standardized to allow comparisons between different monitors. Total physical activity was assessed as counts per minute (cpm), with time spent above moderate activity (MVPA) >2,000 counts and time spent sedentary (<100 counts). There was no evidence for an association between birth weight and total physical activity (p = 0.9) or MVPA (p = 0.7). Overall there was no evidence for an association between birth weight and sedentary time (p = 0.8). However in the Pelotas study we did find an association between higher birth weight (kg) and lower overall physical activity (cpm) (β = ?31, 95%CI: ?58, ?46, p = 0.03) and higher birth weight and greater sedentary time (mins/day) (β = 16.4, 95%CI: 5.3, 27.5, p = 0.004), although this was attenuated and no longer significant with further adjustment for gestational age. Overall this combined analysis suggests that birth weight may not be an important biological determinant of habitual physical activity or sedentary behaviour in children and adolescents.
Associations of Sedentary Behavior, Sedentary Bouts and Breaks in Sedentary Time with Cardiometabolic Risk in Children with a Family History of Obesity  [PDF]
Travis John Saunders, Mark Stephen Tremblay, Marie-ève Mathieu, Mélanie Henderson, Jennifer O’Loughlin, Angelo Tremblay, Jean-Philippe Chaput, on behalf of the QUALITY cohort research group
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079143
Abstract: Background Although reports in adults suggest that breaks in sedentary time are associated with reduced cardiometabolic risk, these findings have yet to be replicated in children. Purpose To investigate whether objectively measured sedentary behavior, sedentary bouts or breaks in sedentary time are independently associated with cardiometabolic risk in a cohort of Canadian children aged 8–11 years with a family history of obesity. Methods Data from 286 boys and 236 girls living in Quebec, Canada, with at least one biological parent with obesity (QUALITY cohort) were collected from 2005–2008, and analyzed in 2013. Sedentary behavior, light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were measured over 7 days using accelerometry. Leisure time computer/video game use and TV viewing over the past 7 days were self-reported. Outcomes included waist circumference, body mass index Z-score, fasting insulin, fasting glucose, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, C-reactive protein and a continuous cardiometabolic risk score. Results After adjustment for confounders, breaks in sedentary time and the number of sedentary bouts lasting 1–4 minutes were associated with reduced cardiometabolic risk score and lower BMI Z-score in both sexes (all p<0.05). The number of sedentary bouts lasting 5–9 minutes was negatively associated with waist circumference in girls only, while the number of bouts lasting 10–14 minutes was positively associated with fasting glucose in girls, and with BMI Z-score in boys (all p<0.05). Leisure time computer/video game use was associated with increased cardiometabolic risk score and waist circumference in boys, while TV viewing was associated with increased cardiometabolic risk, waist circumference, and BMI Z-score in girls (all p<0.05). Conclusions These results suggest that frequent interruptions in sedentary time are associated with a favourable cardiometabolic risk profile and highlight the deleterious relationship between screen time and cardiometabolic risk among children with a family history of obesity.
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