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Philosophy for Children and the Incidence of Teachers’ Questions on the Mobilization of Dialogical Critical Thinking in Pupils  [PDF]
Marie-France Daniel, Karima Belghiti, Emmanuèle Auriac-Slusarczyk
Creative Education (CE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2017.86063
Abstract: More and more, education programs from many countries consider Critical Thinking (CT) to be an essential 21st century competency. Our conception of CT corresponds to a socio-constructivist epistemology and the context of our research is situated in the Philosophy for Children approach. This text presents a study, in which we compared results from two exchanges, one which was conducted with closed anecdotal-type questions, and the other with open philosophically-oriented questions. The analysis tool was the operational model of the developmental process of Dialogical Critical Thinking (DCT), developed and validated in previous studies. Participants were five groups of Moroccan pupils aged 10 to 15 years. Results indicate that in the exchange conducted with closed anecdotal-type questions, the overall epistemology of groups of pupils aged 10 to 15 years was simple, and the dominant epistemological perspective was post-egocentricity. In the exchange conducted with open philosophically-oriented questions, the overall epistemology for the majority of pupil groups was simple with a tendency toward a complex epistemology, and the dominant perspective for the majority of groups was relativism.
The potential of a dialogical understanding of language for empirical research in developmental psychology
Carolin Demuth
Journal für Psychologie , 2011,
Abstract: Based on recent developments within the field of discursive psychology that integrate the works of Bakhtin, the present paper discusses the dialogical self with regard to early infancy research. It draws on examples from a comparative study of mother-infant interactions among North German middle class families and Cameroonian Nso to illustrate the potential of a dialogical approach to language and self for developmental psychology and to demonstrate empirical ways of studying child development from this perspective.
Pupils’ Thinking Skills Development across Grade 4 - 6: An Investigation of 2096 Pupils in Mainland China Based on APTS  [PDF]
Guoqing Zhao, Dan Wang, Qianqian Chen, Yingjun Shen, Wanzhi Han, Yawen Xiong, Shiyan Jiang
Creative Education (CE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2017.89102
Abstract: A variety of thinking skills interventions have been implemented in schools and relative assessments emerged. However, due to inconsistencies of assessment techniques and lack of norms from large-scale samples, it remains problematic to compare the effects of various thinking interventions in general. This study aimed to investigate the current situation of thinking skills of 2096 pupils in 4th, 5th, and 6th grade from six primary schools located in Beijing, Guangzhou, and Xi’an respectively. The “Assessment of Pupils’ Thinking Skills (APTS)” measure developed by Burke and Williams (2012) was translated into Chinese and used as the instrument. Results demonstrated that there were significant improvements in the pupils’ overall thinking skills from 4th to 5th grade and from 5th to 6th grade as well. However, the pupils’ metacognitive reflection did not improve significantly from 4th grade to 5th grade while they increased dramatically from 5th to 6th grade. The pupils’ definition of thinking skills and application of some thinking skills (i.e., Grouping, Finding Reasons and Conclusions, Decision Making and Problem Solving) showed the same trends as metacognitive reflection. Differentiations in thinking skills development were found when compared among schools. Reasons for these differentiations and implications for teaching thinking in primary schools were discussed.
Critical Thinking for Pupils with Special Education Needs: Indulgence or Necessity?  [PDF]
Maggie Bowen
Analytic Teaching and Philosophical Praxis , 2000,
Abstract: During the last decade, the role of the self-advocate has gained popularity among people with learning disabilities. In Great Britain, a number of self-advocacy groups exist and voluntaryorganisations such as The Standing Committee of Voluntary Organisations in Wales (SCOVO) produce journals which keep people with learning disabilities and their families abreast of new projects and developments in the field, welcoming and promoting their contributions. Schools for pupils with special educational needs are also trying to encourage individuals to take control over their environment. The Advisory Group on Citizenship (1998, p.39) cites Ashley Special School, Widnes, as an example ofgood practice. The school has a council which is central to the life of the school and, in 1995, pupils voted to change the name of the school to Ashley School in honour of Jack Ashley, a Member ofParliament and supporter of people with disabilities. The sculptor, David Gross, worked with pupils who have met with politicians in the Houses of Parliament and Brussels, to produce a work of art thatrepresents the values of the School Charter, ‘commitment to justice and global citizenship.’ The general philosophy is therefore one of encouraging people with learning disabilities to take control of their own lives. However, if people with learning disabilities are to be true self-advocates, capable of making decisions about important life issues, then they will need to be involved in a teaching programme that, over time, develops their skills in thinking, reasoning and argument. This paper examines the ways in whichthis might realistically happen.
Exploring Parents’ and Teachers’ Views of Primary Pupils’ Thinking Skills and Problem Solving Skills  [PDF]
Subadrah Nair, Tang Keow Ngang
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.31005
Abstract: This article is based on a descriptive study using survey method and focus group interviews. Thinking skills and problem solving skills are vital for pupils in their daily lives and facing their future challenges. Therefore, parents and teachers play an important role in nurturing these skills among pupils. The objective of the study is to explore parents’ and teachers’ views of pupils’ thinking skills and problem solving skills according to locations of the school (urban and rural). This study also explores parents’ and teachers’ suggestions to enhance pupils’ thinking skills and problem solving skills. The sample consists of 302 parents of the pupils and 104 teachers who are teaching Year 4, Year 5 and Year 6. The quantitative data for the research was collected using questionnaires which were developed by the researchers. Each set of questionnaire consists of 23 items. While the qualitative data was collected through the focus group interview method among parents and teachers to get their suggestions on how to enhance pupils’ thinking skills and problem solving skills. The findings show that the urban parents’ views of children’s thinking skills and problem solving skills is significantly higher than those from the rural. The results also indicate that there is no significant difference between the urban school teachers’ and the rural school teachers’ views of pupils’ thinking skills and problem solving skills. Findings from the focus group interviews show that most parents engage their children in hands on activities at home to enhance their thinking skills and problem solving skills. On the other hand, teachers encourage active participation of pupils in co-curricular activities to enhance pupils’ thinking skills and problem solving skills.
The Dialogical Path to Wisdom Education  [PDF]
Maya Levanon
Analytic Teaching and Philosophical Praxis , 2011,
Abstract: ABSTRACT: In the following pages, I make an argument on behalf of “wisdom education,” i.e., an approach to education that emphasizes the development of better thinking skills as well as socialization and the development of students’ sense-of-self. Wisdom education can best be facilitated through dialogical interactions that encourage critical reflection and modification of one’s presuppositions. This account presupposes that wisdom is given to dialectical forces. While the paper is primarily theoretical, it touches upon my work as a teachers’ educator, which almost always utilizes dialogical pedagogies in the belief that these pedagogies are potent platforms for better learning and thinking and thus are more meaningful and transformative.
The Incidence of Developmental Disorders Linked to Stature and Weight in the Case of Secondary School Pupils  [PDF]
Mihaela ORAVI?AN,Sanda ORAVI?AN,Oana GHEORGHI??,Cristina ?OM?CU
Timisoara Physical Education and Rehabilitation Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.2478/v10325-012-0004-x
Abstract: The development of stature and weight during puberty represents the results of complex interactions between a series of intrinsic and extrinsic factors which determine the accelerated change of the anthropometric parameters and indexes. The purpose of this study is to determine the quality of physical development in the case of secondary school pupils (in puberty) and to identify the ways in which one can intervene to improve it. Material and method. The study group consisted of a representative lot from a school in Timisoara who underwent a questionnaire with questions oriented mostly towards lifestyle, level of physical activities conducted and nutritional habits, as well as a complex protocol of somatoscopic and somatometric evaluation. Results: the values of the anthropometric parameters and indexes are situated as average values within the normal limits according to the age and gender of those investigated; still, there is a relatively high percentage of deviations from these values (concerning both dimensions), both in regard to nutritional state and in regard to the stature’s development; even though these deviations can be partially explained by the fact that the evaluated pupils were in various stages of puberty, still the presence of some unfavourable influences due to nutritional habits, a low level of physical activity and passive resting in the case of many of the pupils questioned is remarkable. Conclusions: an important part of the study group is aware of the existence of some negative aspects related to physical aspect, nutritional habits, physical activity conducted, and is willing to be counselled by specialists in these areas; there is also a small percentage of pupils who have acknowledged their problems upon being questioned for this study and is willing to address them.
Long-Term Retention of Knowledge and Critical Thinking Skills in Developmental Biology  [cached]
Diane C. Darland,Jeffrey S. Carmichael
Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education , 2012, DOI: 10.1128/jmbe.v13i2.331
Abstract: The primary goal of this project was to assess long-term retention of concepts and critical thinking skills in individuals who completed a Developmental Biology course. Undergraduates who had completed the course between 2006 and 2009 were recently contacted and asked to complete a professional goals survey and a multiple-choice developmental biology assessment test (DBAT) targeting four levels of learning. The DBAT was designed to assess students’ retention of knowledge and skills related to factual recall, concept application, data analysis, and experimental design. Performance of the 2006–2009 cohorts was compared to that of students enrolled in 2010 who completed the DBAT at the beginning and the end of the semester. Participants from the 2010 course showed significant learning gains based on pre- and posttest scores overall and for each of the four levels of learning. No significant difference in overall performance was observed for students grouped by year from 2006–2010. Participants from the 2006–2009 cohorts scored slightly, but significantly, higher on average if they enrolled in graduate or professional training. However, performance on individual question categories revealed no significant differences between those participants with and without post-undergraduate training. Scores on exams and a primary literature critique assignment were correlated with DBAT scores and thus represent predictors of long-term retention of developmental biology knowledge and skills.
Developing Thinking Skills among Third Grade (Class 4) Pupils in Some Elementary Practising Schools in Edéa, Cameroon Using Lessons on the Human Skeleton
Jeannette Mothia, Emmanuel Noumi, George Nditafon
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102071
Abstract: The objective of this study was to introduce an educational tool in primary school that could facilitate the development of thinking skills in learners. Klopfer’s taxonomy of educational objectives was used to introduce the fundamental notion of the hypothetico-deductive theory aimed at immersing the class into task situations of identifying the educational aspects in a lesson. A total of 270 Class 4 (third graders) participated in the study. Result revealed that at the pretest, the mean performance of those in the control group was 9.53/20 and for those in the experimental group it was 9.09/20. Up to one month following experimentation, pupils in the experimental group registered an improved mean performance (11.33/20) in the posttest, while the control group registered a drop (8.84/20) compared to their mean pretest performances. Those in the experimental group further showed greater interest and involvement in the construction of their knowledge and thinking skill compared to those in the control group. The approach appeared to be beneficial to both pupils and teachers. It places learners in a teaching/learning situation that motivates the development of thinking and problem-solving skills.
An international project for the development of data handling skills of teachers and pupils  [PDF]
Neville Davies,Doreen Connor,Nancy Spencer
Advances in Decision Sciences , 2003, DOI: 10.1155/s1173912603000075
Abstract: In this paper we provide an overview of the international CensusAtSchool project, designed, written and implemented first in the UK from October 2000 - April 2001 for pupils aged 7 -16 in primary and secondary schools. It has been adapted for similar aged school children in South Africa and Australia and was implemented in those countries in July and October 2001, respectively. We present our motivation, aims and objectives for carrying out such a project and show some results of analysis from the returns we have received from all three countries. Key outputs from the project include: worksheets that are suitable for enhancing data handling skills of pupils; a training course that wraps information and communications technology with data handling skills that is suitable to enhance the professional development of teachers; a raised awareness amongst pupils and teachers of the need to properly collect, present and analyze primary data; a contribution to improving the statistical numeracy and thinking skills of both teachers and pupils.
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