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DEVELOPING LOCAL-LEVEL INDICATORS TO MEASURE THE SUSTAINABILITY OF RICE-PRODUCTION AREAS IN SABAH  [PDF]
UBONG IMANG,IBRAHIM NGAH
Journal of Sustainability Science and Management , 2012,
Abstract: The development of local sustainability indicators has become a primary concern in implementing and monitoring sustainable development agenda and progress. Following the execution of local Agenda 21, researchers and managers continue to debate the appropriate methods for developing indicators that suit local circumstances, i.e. the dichotomy between top-down and bottom-up approaches. The input level from local stakeholders and experts are also concerned. This study served to initiate a sustainable development indicator for rice-cultivation areas in Sabah, Malaysia. It also addressed the need to ensure the continuity of rice production for food security and self-sufficiency. Therefore, in an effort to guide policy-makers in addressing the issue, the identification of indicators for sustainable rice production is critical. The Delphi method was applied in collecting information and opinions from stakeholders to develop a set of indicators for sustainable development in Sabah rice-growing areas. The Delphi survey method enables potential indicators to be evaluated and short-listed, before additional filtering using factor analysis. Indicators derived from this process were applied in the field to measure the sustainability level of rice cultivation in four different villages in the study area. Results of the analysis showed that a set of 14 indicators developed through this study measures various dimensions of sustainable development of rice growing areas such as economic, social, support services and environmental. The ability of the developed set of indicators to differentiate the level of sustainability of the study areas showed that it can be used as a tool to measure the sustainable development of rice-growing areas, particularly in Sabah. The findings also indicated that extensive involvement from local people and experts in the development of indicators provide a good foundation for the integration of top-down and bottom-up approaches in the development of sustainable indicators at the local level, particularly in developing countries.
Integrating Methods for Developing Sustainability Indicators to Facilitate Learning and Action  [cached]
Mark Reed,Evan D. G. Fraser,Stephen Morse,Andrew J. Dougill
Ecology and Society , 2005,
Abstract: Bossel's (2001) systems-based approach for deriving comprehensive indicator sets provides one of the most holistic frameworks for developing sustainability indicators. It ensures that indicators cover all important aspects of system viability, performance, and sustainability, and recognizes that a system cannot be assessed in isolation from the systems upon which it depends and which in turn depend upon it. In this reply, we show how Bossel's approach is part of a wider convergence toward integrating participatory and reductionist approaches to measure progress toward sustainable development. However, we also show that further integration of these approaches may be able to improve the accuracy and reliability of indicators to better stimulate community learning and action. Only through active community involvement can indicators facilitate progress toward sustainable development goals. To engage communities effectively in the application of indicators, these communities must be actively involved in developing, and even in proposing, indicators. The accuracy, reliability, and sensitivity of the indicators derived from local communities can be ensured through an iterative process of empirical and community evaluation. Communities are unlikely to invest in measuring sustainability indicators unless monitoring provides immediate and clear benefits. However, in the context of goals, targets, and/or baselines, sustainability indicators can more effectively contribute to a process of development that matches local priorities and engages the interests of local people.
Hydrological and environmental diagnostic of the Cachoeira das Pombas’s watershed, Guanh es, MG, Brazil  [cached]
Kelly Cristina Tonello,Herly Carlos Teixeira Dias,Agostinho Lopes de Souza,Carlos Antonio Alvares Soares Ribeiro
Ambiente e água : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Science , 2009,
Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate hydrological and environmental issues of Cachoeira das Pombas watershed, in Guanh es, eastern Minas Gerais State, Brazil, to support its management plan. The characterization of water springs included the definition of its types, assessment of flow persistence, conservation state, outflow values, and the hydrological and environmental conservation state of the watershed. For a detailed analysis, the watershed was studied considering each of its small watersheds. Analyzing the hydrological and environmental conservation state of the watershed, it was concluded that an integrated management of natural resources is necessary inasmuch as the flow rate showed to be irregular, with great variation between the rainy and dry seasons and several erosion and silting spots observed during the study period.
Hydrological Modeling in a watershed of the Lower Araguaia River Basin, TO  [cached]
Marcelo Ribeiro Viola,Carlos Rogério de Mello,Marcos Giongo,Samuel Beskow
Journal of Biotechnology and Biodiversity , 2012,
Abstract: Hydrological simulation is an important tool for water resources management since it allows for practitioners toevaluate the impacts of anthropic activities and climatic changes on water availability. The Lontra River watershedis situated in the Lower Araguaia River Basin which is an important economic region of Northern Tocantins State.The understanding of its hydrological features is fundamental for the development of environmental studies forsupporting the decision-making related to the water resources management as strong pressure has been observeddue to both the agricultural frontier expansion and installed economic center. The LASH hydrological model (standsfor Lavras Simulation of Hydrology) is characterized as a deterministic, semi conceptual and spatially distributedmodel and has been successfully applied in watersheds located in Southeastern Brazil. It was found in this study thatthe model was able to adequately capture the overall hydrological regime in the studied watershed. Three statisticalcoefficients used for measuring the model goodness-of-fit, Nash-Sutcliffe (CNS), Log (CNS) and determinationcoefficient (R2), have shown values greater than 0.74, 0.80 and 0.90, respectively. The simulated flow duration curvepresented a good fit in relation to the observed one, with small errors for prediction of minimum and maximumstream flows. Thus, we can be conclude that LASH model simulated properly the hydrological regime in the LontraRiver Watershed and it can be applied for either evaluation water availability or planning and management ofwater resources in the Lower Araguaia River Basin.
Morphometric Analysis to Infer Hydrological Behaviour of Lidder Watershed, Western Himalaya, India  [PDF]
Farrukh Altaf,Gowhar Meraj,Shakil A. Romshoo
Geography Journal , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/178021
Abstract: West Lidder River, in the Northwest Greater-Himalayan mountain range, is the major source of irrigation and drinking water supplies for the Kashmir Valley with a population of seven million people. The major source of water for the whole Lidder River is snow and icemelt emanating from its two subcatchments East Lidder and West Lidder. Snowmelt significantly contributes to the evolution of drainage patterns in this area. Quantitative morphometry plays a vital role in routing the snowmelt and other hydrological processes. Morphometric analysis of the West Lidder River catchment was carried out using geospatial technique. The outcome revealed that the entire study area has uniform lithology and is structurally permeable. The high drainage density of all subwatersheds indicate more surface runoff. The morphometric analysis also indicates that the area is more prone to weathering due to very-coarse to coarse drainage texture. All the subwatersheds showed dendritic to subdendritic drainage pattern. An immense control of structure on the drainage in some subwatersheds is indicated by their high bifurcation ratios. Circulatory and elongation ratios show that the subwatersheds have elongated to circular shapes. From the integrated analysis of the morphometric parameters, important hydrologic behaviour of 17 subwatersheds could be inferred. 1. Introduction The measurement and mathematical analysis of the configuration of the earth’s surface, shape, and dimension of its landforms is called morphometry [1–3]. To understand the evolution and behaviour of drainage patterns, several quantitative methods have been developed [4, 5]. In hydrology, basin drainage characteristics are fundamental in understanding various hydrological processes. Since watershed is the basic unit in hydrology; therefore, morphometric analysis at watershed scale is advantageous and preferable rather carry it out on individual channel or inconsistent segment areas. Watershed is an area of surface whose major runoff is conveyed to the single outlet and is the appropriate unit to study several processes of the land surface. For example, watershed is considered a fundamental erosional landscape element, wherein conspicuous interaction of land and water resources takes place. Being fundamental units of fluvial terrain, considerable research focal point has been done on watershed geometric characterization such as stream network topology and quantitative narration of shape, pattern, and drainage texture [5]. Hydrologic and geomorphic processes occur within the watershed, and morphometric
Quantifying different sources of uncertainty in hydrological projections in an Alpine watershed
C. Dobler, S. Hagemann, R. L. Wilby,J. St tter
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2012,
Abstract: Many studies have investigated potential climate change impacts on regional hydrology; less attention has been given to the components of uncertainty that affect these scenarios. This study quantifies uncertainties resulting from (i) General Circulation Models (GCMs), (ii) Regional Climate Models (RCMs), (iii) bias-correction of RCMs, and (iv) hydrological model parameterization using a multi-model framework. This consists of three GCMs, three RCMs, three bias-correction techniques, and sets of hydrological model parameters. The study is performed for the Lech watershed (~ 1000 km2), located in the Northern Limestone Alps, Austria. Bias-corrected climate data are used to drive the hydrological model HQsim to simulate runoff under present (1971–2000) and future (2070–2099) climate conditions. Hydrological model parameter uncertainty is assessed by Monte Carlo sampling. The model chain is found to perform well under present climate conditions. However, hydrological projections are associated with high uncertainty, mainly due to the choice of GCM and RCM. Uncertainty due to bias-correction is found to have greatest influence on projections of extreme river flows, and the choice of method(s) is an important consideration in snowmelt systems. Overall, hydrological model parameterization is least important. The study also demonstrates how an improved understanding of the physical processes governing future river flows can help focus attention on the scientifically tractable elements of the uncertainty.
Hydrological Modeling of Aguibat Ezziar Watershed (Morocco), Comparative Study of Two Different Hydrological Models  [PDF]
Mourad Khattat?, Mostapha Serroukh, Ismail Raf?k, Hakim Mesmoud?, Hassane Br?rhet, Yassine Bousl?h?m, Fatima Hara
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2016.81005
Abstract: This study aims to compare the performance of two hydrological models, conceptual (HEC-HMS) and spatial (ATHYS) on the Aguibat Ezziar watershed. The comparative analysis is based on the performances of simulation in terms of Nash-Sutcliffe and RSR. The study requires the collection of a series of data as inputs models namely rainfall data, water quantity, soil occupation, DTM and requires also a calibration in order to evaluate these models in validation phase. The simulation results were obtained from the validation phase aiming to replicate the operation of watershed Aguibat Ezziar, and present a suitable adjustment perspective of the observed hydrograph. These results show that the objective is achieved and a model distributed like ATHYS plays an effective role to improve the efficiency and present a high advantage in anticipation of runoff volume comparing with other models.
Sensitivity Analysis and Calibration of Hydrological Modeling of the Watershed Northeast Brazil  [PDF]
Marinoé Gonzaga da Silva, Antenor de Oliveira de Aguiar Netto, Ramiro Joaquim de Jesus Neves, Anderson Nascimento do Vasco, Carina Almeida, Gregório Guirado Faccioli
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2015.68076
Abstract: Mathematical models of the quantity and quality of water in hydrographic basins enable simulation of a wide variety of processes, including the production of water and sediments, and the dynamics of point and nonpoint sources of pollution. These models have become increasingly complex, requiring large amounts of input data, which can increase the uncertainty of the results of simulations. For this reason, it is essential to perform calibration and validation procedures. The objective of this work was to conduct sensitivity analysis and calibration of a distributed hydrological model (SWAT) applied to the flows of water in the watershed of the Poxim River. Satisfactory performance of the model was indicated by the values obtained for the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (0.77), the percent bias (5.05), the root mean square error (0.48), and the ratio of the RMSE to the standard deviation of the observations (RSR) (0.49). The set of parameters identified here could be used for the simulation and evaluation of other scenarios.
Progress in Watershed Hydrological Models
流域水文模型研究的若干进展

WU Xian feng,LIU Chang ming,
吴险峰
,刘昌明

地理科学进展 , 2002,
Abstract: With the development of computer technology and intercross subjects, the methods of hydrology simulation have great advances. The remarkable trends of watershed hydrological models are the research of physically distributed based models and the use of Geography Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) technology. The hydrological model integrated with GIS has many advantages, but it does not mean that the model itself is with high quality. The data arrived from RS is difficult to use in hydrological model directly. Study on mechanism of runoff and streamflow has great foreground to build hydrological model coupled with GIS and RS, and hydrological scale problems should always be paid attention to.
Adaptation Technology: Benefits of Hydrological Services—Watershed Management in Semi-Arid Region of India  [PDF]
Anupam Khajuria, Sayaka Yoshikawa, Shinjiro Kanae
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.66055
Abstract:

Watershed management consists of multifunctional activities to manage and address the increasing water resource problems. Ever increasing water demand and rapidly depleting water resources, it has become necessary to develop the adaptation options to recharge groundwater resources. A watershed is a special kind of Common Pool Resources (CPRs); an area is defined by hydrological linkages where optimal management requires coordinating the use of natural resources by public participation. Watershed developments have shown significant positive impacts on water table, perennially of water in wells and water availability especially in semi-arid regions. This paper describes direct and indirect impacts of the watershed activities and benefits of hydrological services dealing with watershed management with future prediction of net irrigation water supply. In the present work, we have also discussed the multiple impacts of watershed of CPRs for improving groundwater and surface water resources.

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