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In vitro Antioxidant of a Water-Soluble Polysaccharide from Dendrobium fimhriatum Hook.var.oculatum Hook  [PDF]
Aoxue Luo,Yijun Fan
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/ijms12064068
Abstract: A water-soluble crude polysaccharide (DFHP) obtained from the aqueous extracts of the stem of Dendrobium fimhriatum Hook.var.oculatum Hook through hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation , was found to have an average molecular weight (Mw) of about 209.3 kDa. Monosaccharide analysis revealed that DFHP was composed of mannose, glucose and galactose in a content ratio of 37.52%; 43.16%; 19.32%. The investigation of antioxidant activity in vitro showed that DFHP is a potential antioxidant.
In Vitro and In Vivo Antioxidant Activity of a Water-Soluble Polysaccharide from Dendrobium denneanum  [PDF]
Aoxue Luo,Zhongfu Ge,Yijun Fan,Aoshuang Luo,Ze Chun,XingJin He
Molecules , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/molecules16021579
Abstract: The water-soluble crude polysaccharide (DDP) obtained from the aqueous extracts of the stem of Dendrobium denneanum through hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation, was found to have an average molecular weight (Mw) of about? 484.7 kDa. Monosaccharide analysis revealed that DDP was composed of arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 1.00:2.66:8.92:34.20:10.16. The investigation of antioxidant activity both in vitro and in vivo showed that DDP is a potential antioxidant.
Biodegradable Polysaccharide Gels for Skin Scaffolds  [PDF]
Stephen Juris, Anja Mueller, Brian Smith, Samantha Johnston, Robert Walker, Robert Kross
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2011.23027
Abstract: A variety of skin substitutes are used in the treatment of full-thickness burns. Substitutes made from skin can harbor latent viruses, and artificial skin grafts can heal with extensive scarring, failing to regenerate structures such as glands, nerves, and hair follicles. Biodegradable and biocompatible hydrogels, however, rarely mimic the strength of the epidermis. Therefore, novel and practical skin scaffold materials remain to be developed. Polysaccharides form hydrogels with predicted inherent biocompatibility. This paper describes the preparation and biocompatibility of unique hydrogel skin scaffolds from plant-extracted polysaccharide mixtures of specific sources, types, and molecular weight fractions. These hydrogels have a range of mechanical and degradation properties with the potential to fulfill the multiple, diverse functions of artificial skin, including protection, compatibility with different cell types, biodegradation, and release of needed signals for cell growth and wound healing.
Grapefruit Pamplemousse  [cached]
Catharine Savage?Brosman
Revue LISA / LISA e-journal , 2007, DOI: 10.4000/lisa.481
Abstract: Tossing a grapefruit in the air to catch it, as I skippast squash and eggplants to my shopping cart,I can imagine juggling two or three—just possible, perhaps—or five or six: why not,since it’s a fantasy? Or holding like a godone golden planet, as I swing, beneath a tentof stars, from a trapeze, then pitch the orb,a flaming meteorite, in softball fashionto another acrobat below. Or even, most amazing,tightrope-walking, with a grapefruitin each hand as balance, and the crowd in silence,breathl...
Orthogonal test design for optimization of the extraction of polysaccharide from Paeonia sinjiangensis K.Y. Pan
Tian Shuge,Zhou Xiaoying,Gong Haiyan,Ma Xiuming
Pharmacognosy Magazine , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Paeonia sinjiangensis K.Y. Pan is a perennial herb belonging to the ranunculaceae family and it is one of the most important crude drugs in traditional Chinese medicine. In this article, Paeonia sinjiangensis K.Y. Pan rich in polysaccharide is used as an experimental material. Materials and Method: Study the effects of proportion, temperature, times and time taken for the extraction yield of polysaccharide through a single-factor exploration. Then, through an orthogonal experiment (L9(3)4), it was investigated to get the best extraction conditions. Results: The results showed that the ratio of solvent to raw material, number of extractions and duration of extraction were the main variables that influenced the yields of extracts. The separation procedure of precipitation with alcohol and the purification from the removing proteins were deeply analyzed. Meanwhile the contents of polysaccharide were determined by anthrone colorimetry. Conclusion: The highest yield was obtained when the ratio of solvent to raw material, number of extractions, and duration of extraction were 8:1, 2, and 1.5 h, respectively. The content of soluble polysaccharide is 51.57%.
Drug interactions with grapefruit juice  [cached]
Prasad Tandale
Pharmaceutical Reviews , 2007,
Abstract: Concomitant intake with grapefruit juice increases the concentrations of many drugs in humans. The effect seems to be mediated mainly by suppression of the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP3A4 in the small intestine wall. This results in a diminished first pass metabolism with higher bioavailability and increased maximal plasma concentrations of substrates of this enzyme. The effect was most pronounced in drugs with high first pass degradation. The components of grapefruit juice which are the most probable causes of the interaction are furanocoumarins derivatives, but the flavonoid naringenin may also contribute. Concomitant grapefruit juice intake does not generally decrease the variability of drug pharmacokinetic parameters. Therefore, it is recommended that patients abstain from drinking grapefruit juice when they are taking a drug that is extensively metabolised, unless a lack of interaction has already been demonstrated for that drug. It is also recommended that drugs possibly interacting with grapefruit juice should be appropriately labelled.
Drug interactions with grapefruit  [PDF]
Bojani? Zoran ?.,Bojani? Novica Z.,Bojani? Vladmila V.
Medicinski Pregled , 2010, DOI: 10.2298/mpns1012805b
Abstract: Introduction. The concentration of many orally given medications may be affected by grapefruit or grapefruit juice consumption. It may result in numerous harmful effects. Interaction of grapefruit with drugs. Taking only one cup of juice may induce interactions with different drugs even during the period of a few days. The effect is induced by suppression of cytochrome P450 isoenzyme CYP3A4 in the intestinal wall. The Latin name of grapefruit, Citrus paradisi, is quite opposite to the effects which could be induced by taking grapefruit and some medications at the same time. It is necessary to avoid taking grapefruit with the drugs whose pharmacokinetics could be altered by the active principles found in that fruit. Discussion. The coloured grapefruit contains less furanocoumarins, but there is no difference in induction and intensity of pharmacokinetic interaction with drugs related to its colour. Other citrus fruits (orange, lemon) do not have such effects, but some other fruits (pomegranate, stella fruit, banpeiyu, hassaku, takaoka-buntan and kinkan) exert inhibitory effects on the activity of cytochrome P450 isoenzyme.
A Water-Soluble Polysaccharide from the Fruit Bodies of Bulgaria inquinans (Fries) and Its Anti-Malarial Activity
Hongtao Bi,Han Han,Zonghong Li,Weihua Ni,Yan Chen,Jingjing Zhu,Tingting Gao,Miao Hao,Yifa Zhou
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/neq070
Abstract: A water-soluble polysaccharide (BIWS-4b) was purified from the fruit bodies of Bulgaria inquinans (Fries). It is composed of mannose (27.2%), glucose (15.5%) and galactose (57.3%). Its molecular weight was estimated to be 7.4 kDa (polydispersity index, Mw/Mn: 1.35). Structural analyses indicated that BIWS-4b mainly contains (1→6)-linked, (1→5)-linked and (1→5,6)-linked -Galf units; (1→4)-linked and non-reducing terminal -Glcp units; and (1→2)-linked, (1→6)-linked, (1→2,6)-linked and non-reducing terminal -Manp units. When examined by the 4-day method and in a prophylactic assay in mice, BIWS-4b exhibited markedly suppressive activity against malaria while enhancing the activity of artesunate. Immunological tests indicated that BIWS-4b significantly enhanced macrophage phagocytosis and splenic lymphocyte proliferation in malaria-bearing mice and normal mice. The anti-malarial activity of BIWS-4b might be intermediated by enhancing immune competence and restoring artesunate-suppressed immune function. Thus, BIWS-4b is a potential adjuvant of anti-malaria drugs.
Comparison and optimization of the methods for analyzing the water soluble polysaccharides in Cordyceps militaris

XUE Jun-Jie,TANG Qing-Jiu,LIU Yan-Fang,ZHOU Shuai,ZHAO Ming-Wen,ZHANG Jing-Song,

菌物学报 , 2012,
Abstract: There are significant differences of the polysaccharide content from Cordyceps militaris assayed with different methods in previous literatures, which could be mainly caused by removing the interfering substances or not. After monitoring the interfering substances by high performance anion exchange chromatography, two common analysis methods for determination of the polysaccharides of C. militaris were compared. We found that the extraction with 80% ethanol in twice could effectively remove the interfering substance. Our study showed that it was a sensitive, accurate and reproducible method and could be successfully applied to analyze the water soluble polysaccharides produced by C. militaris.
Postharvest quality of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) produced from initial plantings in Ceará state, Brazil
Machado, Francisca Ligia de Castro;Oliveira, Valéria Santos de;Costa, José Maria Correia da;
Revista Ciência Agron?mica , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1806-66902011000400019
Abstract: ceará state, northeast brazil, is gaining attention as the most significant emerging fruit production region in the country. citrus, including grapefruit, traditionally cultivated in the south, was recently implanted. however, data on postharvest quality of grapefruit grown under local conditions are nonexistent. a study was designed to examine postharvest quality of locally grown 'star ruby' and 'ruby red' grapefruits. fruits were assessed for size and shape, pulp color, peel thickness, juice content, soluble solids (ss), titratable acidity (ta), ph, ss/ta ratio, and ascorbic acid at harvest and at the fifteenth day of storage. a second set of fruits were accessed for mass loss and peel color. results suggested that locally grown grapefruits are of good size and shape, presenting orange peel color and reddish pulp color, and appropriate peel thickness. fruits yielded a high amount of juice, rich in ascorbic acid, and with values of ss, ta, and ph comparable to those found in traditional grapefruit growing areas. ss to ta ratio was above the least recommended for good flavor. peel color varied from yellow to pinkish. mass loss increased, while luminosity and hue angle decreased following the same pattern for the two varieties.
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