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Effect of cortisol levels on working memory performance in elderly subjects with Alzheimer's disease
Souza-Talarico, Juliana Nery de;Caramelli, Paulo;Nitrini, Ricardo;Chaves, Eliane Corrêa;
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-282X2008000500003
Abstract: background: subjects with alzheimer's disease (ad) have elevated cortisol levels as a result of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (hpa) axis dysfunction. acute administration of hydrocortisone has been associated with working memory (wm) performance in young adults. objective: to investigate whether cortisol levels are associated with wm performance in subjects with ad. method: eighty subjects were included, comprising 40 patients with mild ad and 40 healthy elderly controls. wm was assessed using the digit span backward test (dsb). saliva samples were collected to determine cortisol levels. results: ad subjects had poorer performance on the dsb than controls (p=0.002) and also presented higher levels of cortisol than control group (p=0.04). no significant correlation was observed between the dsb and cortisol levels in both groups (r= -0.29). conclusion: in this study, elevated cortisol levels were not associated with poorer wm performance in patients with ad or in healthy elderly subjects.
Effects of resistance training exercise on cognitive performance in elderly individuals with memory impairment: results of a controlled trial  [PDF]
Alexandre Leopold Busse,Wilson Jacob Filho,Regina Miskian Magaldi,Venceslau Ant?nio Coelho
Einstein (S?o Paulo) , 2008,
Abstract: Objective: To detect the effects of a resistance training programon cognitive performance and muscle strength in sedentaryelderly individuals with memory impairment. Methods: Thirty-onesedentary elderly persons with no dementia or depression wererandomly distributed into two groups: Physical Activity Group andControl Group. The resistance training exercise program lastednine months and consisted of three series of six exercises persession, carried out on lever-type equipment for approximatelyone hour, twice a week. Every three months, both groups weresubmitted to the following cognitive tests: Rivermead BehavioralMemory Test (RBMT), Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)Direct and Indirect Digit Span, Memory Complaints Scale, andCambridge Cognitive Test (CAMCOG). Results: After nine months,the group that did resistance exercises showed a significantincrease in the standardized RBMT score (p = 0.021) and in musclestrength (p < 0.001), with no significant difference in the otherparameters evaluated. Conclusions: These results indicate thatsupervised resistance exercises can improve memory performancein sedentary elderly individuals with prior memory compromise,besides increasing muscle strength.
Cognitive performance of young and elderly subjects on the free word recall memory test: effect of presentation order on recall order
Santos-Galduróz, R.F.;Oliveira, F.G.;Galduróz, J.C.F.;Bueno, O.F.A.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2009001000019
Abstract: the influence of aging on memory has been extensively studied, but the importance of short-term memory and recall sequence has not. the objective of the current study was to examine the recall order of words presented on lists and to determine if age affects recall sequence. physically and psychologically healthy male subjects were divided into two groups according to age, i.e., 23 young subjects (20 to 30 years) and 50 elderly subjects (60 to 70 years) submitted to the wechsler adult intelligence scale-revised and the free word recall test. the order of word presentation significantly affected the 3rd and 4th words recalled (p < 0.01; f = 14.6). in addition, there was interaction between the presentation order and the type of list presented (p < 0.05; f = 9.7). also, both groups recalled the last words presented from each list (words 13-15) significantly more times 3rd and 4th than words presented in all remaining positions (p < 0.01). the order of word presentation also significantly affected the 5th and 6th words recalled (p = 0.05; f = 7.5) and there was a significant interaction between the order of presentation and the type of list presented (p < 0.01; f = 20.8). the more developed the cognitive functions, resulting mainly from formal education, the greater the cognitive reserve, helping to minimize the effects of aging on the long-term memory (episodic declarative).
Strength and power training did not modify cardiovascular responses to aerobic exercise in elderly subjects
Queiroz, A.C.C.;Chehuen, M.R.;Costa, L.A.R.;Wallerstein, L.F.;Mello, M.T.;Ugrinowitsch, C.;Forjaz, C.L.M.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2011007500100
Abstract: resistance training increases muscle strength in older adults, decreasing the effort necessary for executing physical tasks, and reducing cardiovascular load during exercise. this hypothesis has been confirmed during strength-based activities, but not during aerobic-based activities. this study determined whether different resistance training regimens, strength training (st, constant movement velocity) or power training (pt, concentric phase performed as fast as possible) can blunt the increase in cardiovascular load during an aerobic stimulus. older adults (63.9 ± 0.7 years) were randomly allocated to: control (n = 11), st (n = 13, twice a week, 70-90% 1-rm) and pt (n = 15, twice a week, 30-50% 1-rm) groups. before and after 16 weeks, oxygen uptake (vo2), systolic blood pressure (sbp), heart rate (hr), and rate pressure product (rpp) were measured during a maximal treadmill test. resting sbp and rpp were similarly reduced in all groups (combined data = -5.7 ± 1.2 and -5.0 ± 1.7%, respectively, p < 0.05). maximal sbp, hr and rpp did not change. the increase in measured vo2, hr and rpp for the increment in estimated vo2 (absolute load) decreased similarly in all groups (combined data = -9.1 ± 2.6, -14.1 ± 3.9, -14.2 ± 3.0%, respectively, p < 0.05), while the increments in the cardiovascular variables for the increase in measured vo2 did not change. in elderly subjects, st and pt did not blunt submaximal or maximal hr, sbp and rpp increases during the maximal exercise test, showing that they did not reduce cardiovascular stress during aerobic tasks.
EFFECTS OF MEMORY TRAINING ON IMPROVEMENT OF THE COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN ADOLESCENTS,YOUNG AND OLD ADULTS
记忆训练对改善少年、青年和老年人认知功能的作用

Wu Zhenyun,Sun Changhua,Wu Zhiping,Xu Shulian Institute of Psychology,Chinese Academg of Sciences,
吴振云
,孙长华,吴志平,许淑莲

心理学报 , 1992,
Abstract: The study was conducted on memory training with 24 adolescents. 24 young and 22 old subjects using the method of Loci. The purpose of this study focused on comparing the effects of cognitive training on improvement of the memory in different ages with the life span developmental perspective. Further this study investigated the age differences in developmental reserve capdeity of cognitive function and the transfer effect of training. The results indicated that the cog- nitive intervention strategy could improve the memory of the elderly to a certain degree. Meanwhile, it also showed that the result of old adults were obviously worse than that of the young adults and adolescents, and the two latter age groups were similar in develop- mental reserve capacity and the transfer effects of figures.
Effectiveness of cognitive training for Chinese elderly in Hong Kong  [cached]
Kwok T,Wong A,Chan G,Shiu YY
Clinical Interventions in Aging , 2013,
Abstract: Timothy Kwok,1,2 Anita Wong,3 Grace Chan,4 YY Shiu,3 Ko-Chuen Lam,2 Daniel Young,2 Daniel WH Ho,2 Florence Ho21Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 2Jockey Club Centre for Positive Ageing, Shatin, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 3The Hong Kong Chinese Women's Club Madam Wong Chan Sook Ying Memorial Care and Attention Home for the Aged, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 4The Hong Kong Council of Social Service, Hong Kong, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: In Hong Kong, the evidence for cognitive-training programs in fighting against memory complaints is lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Active Mind cognitive-training program in improving the cognitive function and quality of life (QoL) for local community-dwelling Chinese older adults. A total of 200 subjects were recruited from 20 different district elderly community centers (DECCs). Centers were randomly assigned into either the intervention group or control group. The intervention group underwent eight 1-hour sessions of cognitive training, while the control group were included in the usual group activities provided by the DECCs. Standardized neuropsychological tests (the Chinese version of Mattis Dementia Rating Scale [CDRS] and the Cantonese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination) and the QoL questionnaire SF12 were used to assess participants' cognitive function and QoL before and after the trial. A total of 176 subjects completed the study. The intervention group showed greater improvement in the cognitive function measured by total CDRS score (treatment: 12.24 ± 11.57 vs control: 4.37 ± 7.99; P < 0.001) and QoL measured by total SF12 score (treatment: 7.82 ± 13.19 vs control: 3.18 ± 11.61; P = 0.014). Subjects with lower education level were associated with better cognitive response to the cognitive-training program. The current findings indicated that the Active Mind cognitive-training program was effective in improving the cognitive function and QoL for community-dwelling Chinese older adults in Hong Kong.Keywords: cognitive training, cognitive stimulation, memory, older adults, effectiveness
Resting alpha activity predicts learning ability in alpha neurofeedback  [PDF]
Feng Wan
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00500
Abstract: Individuals differ in their ability to learn how to regulate the alpha activity by neurofeedback. This study aimed to investigate whether the resting alpha activity is related to the learning ability of alpha enhancement in neurofeedback and could be used as a predictor. A total of 25 subjects performed 20 sessions of individualized alpha neurofeedback in order to learn how to enhance activity in the alpha frequency band. The learning ability was assessed by three indices respectively: the training parameter changes between two periods, within a short period and across the whole training time. It was found that the resting alpha amplitude measured before training had significant positive correlations with all learning indices and could be used as a predictor for the learning ability prediction. This finding would help the researchers in not only predicting the training efficacy in individuals but also gaining further insight into the mechanisms of alpha neurofeedback.
Connectivity Changes Underlying Neurofeedback Training of Visual Cortex Activity  [PDF]
Frank Scharnowski, Maria Joao Rosa, Narly Golestani, Chloe Hutton, Oliver Josephs, Nikolaus Weiskopf, Geraint Rees
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091090
Abstract: Neurofeedback based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a new approach that allows training of voluntary control over regionally specific brain activity. However, the neural basis of successful neurofeedback learning remains poorly understood. Here, we assessed changes in effective brain connectivity associated with neurofeedback training of visual cortex activity. Using dynamic causal modeling (DCM), we found that training participants to increase visual cortex activity was associated with increased effective connectivity between the visual cortex and the superior parietal lobe. Specifically, participants who learned to control activity in their visual cortex showed increased top-down control of the superior parietal lobe over the visual cortex, and at the same time reduced bottom-up processing. These results are consistent with efficient employment of top-down visual attention and imagery, which were the cognitive strategies used by participants to increase their visual cortex activity.
Effectiveness of cognitive training for Chinese elderly in Hong Kong
Kwok T, Wong A, Chan G, Shiu YY, Lam KC, Young D, Ho DW, Ho F
Clinical Interventions in Aging , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S38070
Abstract: tiveness of cognitive training for Chinese elderly in Hong Kong Original Research (700) Total Article Views Authors: Kwok T, Wong A, Chan G, Shiu YY, Lam KC, Young D, Ho DW, Ho F Published Date February 2013 Volume 2013:8 Pages 213 - 219 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S38070 Received: 12 September 2012 Accepted: 26 October 2012 Published: 18 February 2013 Timothy Kwok,1,2 Anita Wong,3 Grace Chan,4 YY Shiu,3 Ko-Chuen Lam,2 Daniel Young,2 Daniel WH Ho,2 Florence Ho2 1Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 2Jockey Club Centre for Positive Ageing, Shatin, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 3The Hong Kong Chinese Women's Club Madam Wong Chan Sook Ying Memorial Care and Attention Home for the Aged, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 4The Hong Kong Council of Social Service, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China Abstract: In Hong Kong, the evidence for cognitive-training programs in fighting against memory complaints is lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Active Mind cognitive-training program in improving the cognitive function and quality of life (QoL) for local community-dwelling Chinese older adults. A total of 200 subjects were recruited from 20 different district elderly community centers (DECCs). Centers were randomly assigned into either the intervention group or control group. The intervention group underwent eight 1-hour sessions of cognitive training, while the control group were included in the usual group activities provided by the DECCs. Standardized neuropsychological tests (the Chinese version of Mattis Dementia Rating Scale [CDRS] and the Cantonese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination) and the QoL questionnaire SF12 were used to assess participants' cognitive function and QoL before and after the trial. A total of 176 subjects completed the study. The intervention group showed greater improvement in the cognitive function measured by total CDRS score (treatment: 12.24 ± 11.57 vs control: 4.37 ± 7.99; P < 0.001) and QoL measured by total SF12 score (treatment: 7.82 ± 13.19 vs control: 3.18 ± 11.61; P = 0.014). Subjects with lower education level were associated with better cognitive response to the cognitive-training program. The current findings indicated that the Active Mind cognitive-training program was effective in improving the cognitive function and QoL for community-dwelling Chinese older adults in Hong Kong.
Real-Time fMRI Neurofeedback Training of Amygdala Activity in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder  [PDF]
Kymberly D. Young, Vadim Zotev, Raquel Phillips, Masaya Misaki, Han Yuan, Wayne C. Drevets, Jerzy Bodurka
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088785
Abstract: Background Amygdala hemodynamic responses to positive stimuli are attenuated in major depressive disorder (MDD), and normalize with remission. Real-time functional MRI neurofeedback (rtfMRI-nf) offers a non-invasive method to modulate this regional activity. We examined whether depressed participants can use rtfMRI-nf to enhance amygdala responses to positive autobiographical memories, and whether this ability alters symptom severity. Methods Unmedicated MDD subjects were assigned to receive rtfMRI-nf from either left amygdala (LA; experimental group, n = 14) or the horizontal segment of the intraparietal sulcus (HIPS; control group, n = 7) and instructed to contemplate happy autobiographical memories (AMs) to raise the level of a bar representing the hemodynamic signal from the target region to a target level. This 40s Happy condition alternated with 40s blocks of rest and counting backwards. A final Transfer run without neurofeedback information was included. Results Participants in the experimental group upregulated their amygdala responses during positive AM recall. Significant pre-post scan decreases in anxiety ratings and increases in happiness ratings were evident in the experimental versus control group. A whole brain analysis showed that during the transfer run, participants in the experimental group had increased activity compared to the control group in left superior temporal gyrus and temporal polar cortex, and right thalamus. Conclusions Using rtfMRI-nf from the left amygdala during recall of positive AMs, depressed subjects were able to self-regulate their amygdala response, resulting in improved mood. Results from this proof-of-concept study suggest that rtfMRI-nf training with positive AM recall holds potential as a novel therapeutic approach in the treatment of depression.
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