Abstract:
The Newtonian as well as the special relativistic dynamics are used to study the stability of orbits of a test particle moving around a black hole plus a dipolar halo. The black hole is modeled by either the usual monopole potential or the Paczynki-Wiita pseudo-Newtonian potential. The full general relativistic similar case is also considered. The Poincare section method and the Lyapunov characteristic exponents show that the orbits for the pseudo-Newtonian potential models are more unstable than the corresponding general relativistic geodesics.

Abstract:
The relativistic Boltzmann equation for a constant differential cross section and with periodic boundary conditions is considered. The speed of light appears as a parameter $c>c_0$ for a properly large and positive $c_0$. A local existence and uniqueness theorem is proved in an interval of time independent of $c>c_0$ and conditions are given such that in the limit $c\to +\infty$ the solutions converge, in a suitable norm, to the solutions of the non-relativistic Boltzmann equation for hard spheres.

Abstract:
We explore possible applications of the Lattice-Boltzmann Method for the simulation of geophysical flows. This fluid solver, while successful in other fields, is still rarely used for geotechnical applications. We show how the standard method can be modified to represent free-surface realization of mudflows, debris flows, and in general any plastic flow, through the implementation of a Bingham constitutive model. The chapter is completed by an example of a full-scale simulation of a plastic fluid flowing down an inclined channel and depositing on a flat surface. An application is given, where the fluid interacts with a vertical obstacle in the channel.

Abstract:
A simple re-scaling of velocities calculated from the Paczy{\'n}ski \& Wiita (1980) pseudo-Newtonian potential makes them consistent with special relativity and greatly improves the agreement with the exact relativistic calculations. The improvement is relevant in calculations of the Doppler effect, spectra and radiation transfer which all involve effects of special relativity.

Abstract:
We study the Cauchy Problem for the relativistic Boltzmann equation with near Vacuum initial data. Unique global in time "mild" solutions are obtained uniformly in the speed of light parameter $c \ge 1$. We furthermore prove that solutions to the relativistic Boltzmann equation converge to solutions of the Newtonian Boltzmann equation in the limit as $c\to\infty$ on arbitrary time intervals $[0,T]$, with convergence rate $1/c^{2-\epsilon}$ for any $\epsilon \in(0,2)$. This may be the first proof of unique global in time validity of the Newtonian limit for a Kinetic equation.

Abstract:
We describe a pseudo-Newtonian potential which, to within 1% error at all angular momenta, reproduces the precession due to general relativity of particles whose specific orbital energy is small compared to c^2 in the Schwarzschild metric. For bound orbits the constraint of low energy is equivalent to requiring the apoapsis of a particle to be large compared to the Schwarzschild radius. Such low energy orbits are ubiquitous close to supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei, but the potential is relevant in any context containing particles on low energy orbits. Like the more complex post-Newtonian expressions, the potential correctly reproduces the precession in the far-field, but also correctly reproduces the position and magnitude of the logarithmic divergence in precession for low angular momentum orbits. An additional advantage lies in its simplicity, both in computation and implementation. We also provide two simpler, but less accurate potentials, for cases where orbits always remain at large angular momenta, or when the extra accuracy is not needed. In all of the presented cases the accuracy in precession in low energy orbits exceeds that of the well known potential of Paczynski & Wiita (1980), which has ~30% error in the precession at all angular momenta.

Abstract:
Pseudo-Newtonian gravitational potential describing the gravitational field of static and spherically symmetric black holes in the universe with a repulsive cosmological constant is introduced. In order to demonstrate the accuracy of the pseudo-Newtonian approach, the related effective potential for test-particle motion is constructed and compared with its general relativistic counterpart given by the Schwarzschild-de Sitter geometry. The results indicate that such an approach could be useful in applications of developed Newtonian theories of accretion discs in astrophysically interesting situations in large galactic structures for the Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetimes with the cosmological parameter y=(1/3)\Lambda M^2<10^{-6}.

Abstract:
In this article, we present a detailed asymptotic analysis of the lattice Boltzmann method with two different collision mechanisms of BGK-type on the D2Q9-lattice for generalized Newtonian fluids. Unlike that based on the Chapman-Enskog expansion leading to the compressible Navier-Stokes equations, our analysis gives the incompressible ones directly and exposes certain important features of the lattice Boltzmann solutions. Moreover, our analysis provides a theoretical basis for using the iteration to compute the rate-of-strain tensor, which makes sense specially for generalized Newtonian fluids. As a by-product, a seemingly new structural condition on the generalized Newtonian fluids is singled out. This condition reads as "the magnitude of the stress tensor increases with increasing the shear rate". We verify this condition for all the existing constitutive relations which are known to us. In addition, it it straightforward to extend our analysis to MRT models or to three-dimensional lattices.

Abstract:
This paper is devoted to investigate the structure of the pseudo-Newtonian force and potential of the stringy black holes. We discuss conditions for the force character from an attractive to repulsive. It is also found that the force will reach a maximum under certain conditions. Also, the ratio of mass and charge is evaluated for the maximum force.