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Smart biomaterials - regulating cell behavior through signaling molecules
Aneta J Mieszawska, David L Kaplan
BMC Biology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1741-7007-8-59
Abstract: See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/57 webciteTissue engineering is an advanced interdisciplinary field that encompasses the design of artificial implant materials for in vivo tissue regeneration where mimicking the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) is often pursued. The natural ECM supports organ and tissue structure and function, and also regulates basic cellular functions like proliferation, growth, migration, differentiation, and survival. These functions are controlled through tissue-specific constituents, such as collagens, laminins, fibronectin or elastins, as well as functional molecules like growth factors or matricellular proteins, among others [1]. Novel biomaterials should allow for the gradual endogenous remodeling of native tissue leading to the replacement of implant material, manufactured to replace a missing biological structure, with fully functional ECM and cells that existed at the implant site prior to damage.The critical point during in vitro tissue engineering is to at least partially recreate conditions that mimic the natural ECM environment for particular cell types in order to support their function. Since cell contact with the biomaterial surface significantly influences cell behavior and performance, trends in biomaterial designs lean towards bioactive materials that can modulate and control cell behavior. In recent years, biomaterial designs have focused on the incorporation of signaling molecules into scaffold materials rather than using them in a diffusive or soluble form [1,2]. Among the most studied molecules are multifunctional proteins like growth factors [3-7] or cytokines [8], while there are also reports on the incorporation of small molecules like neurotransmitters [9] into scaffold materials (Figure 1). This review aims at highlighting examples of specific behavior of cell types that was enhanced with signaling molecules tethered to biomaterials.The development of novel therapeutic approaches that st
Musculoskeletal Regenerative Engineering: Biomaterials, Structures, and Small Molecules  [PDF]
Roshan James,Cato T. Laurencin
Advances in Biomaterials , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/123070
Abstract: Musculoskeletal tissues are critical to the normal functioning of an individual and following damage or degeneration they show extremely limited endogenous regenerative capacity. The future of regenerative medicine is the combination of advanced biomaterials, structures, and cues to re-engineer/guide stem cells to yield the desired organ cells and tissues. Tissue engineering strategies were ideally suited to repair damaged tissues; however, the substitution and regeneration of large tissue volumes and multi-level tissues such as complex organ systems integrated into a single phase require more than optimal combinations of biomaterials and biologics. We highlight bioinspired advancements leading to novel regenerative scaffolds especially for musculoskeletal tissue repair and regeneration. Tissue and organ regeneration relies on the spatial and temporal control of biophysical and biochemical cues, including soluble molecules, cell-cell contacts, cell-extracellular matrix contacts, and physical forces. Strategies that recapitulate the complexity of the local microenvironment of the tissue and the stem cell niche play a crucial role in regulating cell self-renewal and differentiation. Biomaterials and scaffolds based on biomimicry of the native tissue will enable convergence of the advances in materials science, the advances in stem cell science, and our understanding of developmental biology. 1. Introduction Incidents of tissue loss or organ failure due to accidents, injuries, and disease are debilitating and have led to increased health care costs the world over [1]. Current standard of care includes organ and tissue transplantation, allografts, biofactors, and replacements composed of metals, polymers, and ceramics. However, each strategy suffers from a number of?limitations. For example, autografts and allografts are often associated with limited availability and risks of immunogenicity, respectively. Tissue engineering was developed as an alternative strategy to repair and regenerate living tissues and to provide a viable tissue substitute. Bioengineer Fung first proposed the term “tissue engineering” at a 1987 meeting of the National Science Foundation [2], where it was defined as the use of isolated cells or cell substitutes, tissue-inducing substances, and cells placed on or in matrices to repair and regenerate tissue [3, 4]. Early medical devices were physician-driven and made using off-the-shelf materials such as Teflon, high-density polyethylene, poly(methyl methacrylate), stainless steel, polyurethane, titanium, and silicone elastomers. Over the
Growth of immobilized DNA by polymerase: bridging nanoelectrodes with individual dsDNA molecules  [PDF]
Veikko Linko,Jenni Leppiniemi,Boxuan Shen,Einari Niskanen,Vesa P. Hyt?nen,J. Jussi Toppari
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10518c
Abstract: We present a method for controlled connection of gold electrodes with dsDNA molecules (locally on a chip) by utilizing polymerase to elongate single-stranded DNA primers attached to the electrodes. Thiol-modified oligonucleotides are directed and immobilized to nanoscale electrodes by means of dielectrophoretic trapping, and extended in a procedure mimicking PCR, finally forming a complete dsDNA molecule bridging the gap between the electrodes. The technique opens up opportunities for building from the bottom-up, for detection and sensing applications, and also for molecular electronics.
Emerging Applications of Bacterial Spores in Nanobiotechnology
Ezio Ricca, Simon M Cutting
Journal of Nanobiotechnology , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1477-3155-1-6
Abstract: Nanostructured surfaces exhibit unique physical and chemical properties that can be exploited for many important technological applications to produce molecular structures and systems for the assembly within the nanometre size range. Nanotechnology not only can produce surfaces with novel functionality, but also new devices that are cheaper and faster than conventional ones, and which may have other advantages. There are numerous biological applications of nanotechnology, including self-assembly of supramolecular structures, slow release and delivery of enzymes and drugs, biocoatings and molecular switches actuated by chemicals, electrons or light. Many of these applications involve the development of sophisticated self-assembled surface substrates, particularly those with defined spacing. The emerging science of nanobiotechnology relies on the observation that, through evolution, nature has produced highly complex nanostructures using macromolecules, especially nucleic acids, polysaccharides and proteins. Accordingly, by understanding the principles of how these macromolecules interact to produce nanostructures, it should be possible to exploit this knowledge in the design and synthesis of new artificial structures and devices. The advantages of this "learning from nature" approach is that well defined fabrication processes already exist in bacteria.Many organisms, particularly microorganisms, have novel and interesting structures that could be exploited, for example, the lattice-type crystalline arrays of bacterial S-layers [1,2] and bacterial spore coats [3] both of which have protective properties. This review will examine recent studies exploiting the bacterial spore as a vaccine vehicle where the spore coat has been used for the display of heterologous antigens. In principle, the spore coat could be used not only as a delivery vehicle for a variety of different molecules but also as a source of new and novel self-assembling proteins.Biological applications of
Nanobiotechnology in the Management of Glaucoma  [PDF]
Pho Nguyen, Alex Huang, Samuel C. Yiu
Open Journal of Ophthalmology (OJOph) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojoph.2013.34027
Abstract: As the prevalence of glaucoma continues to rise, clinicians and researchers are confronted with an age-old problem: how to reduce risk factors and preserve vision in glaucoma. Current management options revolve around a validated paradigm—intraocular pressure reduction. Active investigations to improve drug delivery efficacy and surgical outcomes are flourishing. This article aims to provide the interested readers with a review of recent discoveries in nanobiotechnology for the management of glaucoma. Targeted drug-delivery systems using mesoscale vectors demonstrate promising delivery profiles. The utility of nanoparticulate therapies to support retinal ganglion cell survival is being investigated. Studies to modulate tissue regeneration and remodeling and improve post-trabeculectomy outcomes are underway. Though these modalities promise new avenues to manage glaucoma, immediate market availability is not anticipated soon.
Alginate-Based Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine Applications  [PDF]
Jinchen Sun,Huaping Tan
Materials , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ma6041285
Abstract: Alginate is a natural polysaccharide exhibiting excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability, having many different applications in the field of biomedicine. Alginate is readily processable for applicable three-dimensional scaffolding materials such as hydrogels, microspheres, microcapsules, sponges, foams and fibers. Alginate-based biomaterials can be utilized as drug delivery systems and cell carriers for tissue engineering. Alginate can be easily modified via chemical and physical reactions to obtain derivatives having various structures, properties, functions and applications. Tuning the structure and properties such as biodegradability, mechanical strength, gelation property and cell affinity can be achieved through combination with other biomaterials, immobilization of specific ligands such as peptide and sugar molecules, and physical or chemical crosslinking. This review focuses on recent advances in the use of alginate and its derivatives in the field of biomedical applications, including wound healing, cartilage repair, bone regeneration and drug delivery, which have potential in tissue regeneration applications.
Applications of nanobiotechnology in cancer
Lorena Favaro Pavon,Oswaldo Keith Okamoto
Einstein (S?o Paulo) , 2007,
Abstract: Application of nanotechnology (or nanobiotechnology) in biomedicinemay contribute to significant advances in imaging diagnosis andtreatment of cancer. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles can be usedto immunologically locate tumor cells, to early detect tumors andmicrometastases by nuclear magnetic resonance. Nanoparticlestaining of tumor cells can also facilitate tumor eradication througha focal heat generation process known as magnetohyperthermia. Inthis study prospective applications of nanobiotechnology in cancerdiagnosis and treatment are discussed, focusing on the improvementof immunological approaches and gene therapies.
Nanobiotechnology: A voyage to future?
Biswa Ranjan Maharana,Manjit Panigrahi,Rubina Kumari Baithalu and Subhashree Parida
Veterinary World , 2010,
Abstract: Nanobiotechnology is an emerging field that is potentially changing the way we treat diseases through drug delivery and tissue engineering. Methods of targeting nanoparticles to specific sites of the body while avoiding capture by vital organs are major hurdles that need to be answered. Whether actual or perceived, the potential health hazards associated with the production, distribution and use of nanomaterial must be balanced by the overall benefit that nanobiotech-nology has to offer biomedical science such as therapeutic and diagnostic applications. It would be difficult to deny the potential benefits of nanobiotechnology and stop development of research related to it since it has already begun to penetrate many different fields of research. However, nanobiotechnology can be developed using guidelines to insure that the technology does not become too potentially harmful. As Richard Feynmann has rightly predicted that “There is plenty of room at the bottom” to modify and enhance existing technologies by manipulating material properties at the nanoscale, therefore with sufficient time and research nanobiotechnology based early detection, diagnosis and treatment of various diseases may become a reality. Nanobiotechnology may bring immense paradigm shift that we would wonder that how did we live without it? [Vet. World 2010; 3(3.000): 145-147]
DNA-Based Applications in Nanobiotechnology
Khalid M. Abu-Salah,Anees A. Ansari,Salman A. Alrokayan
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/715295
Abstract: Biological molecules such as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) have shown great potential in fabrication and construction of nanostructures and devices. The very properties that make DNA so effective as genetic material also make it a very suitable molecule for programmed self-assembly. The use of DNA to assemble metals or semiconducting particles has been extended to construct metallic nanowires and functionalized nanotubes. This paper highlights some important aspects of conjugating the unique physical properties of dots or wires with the remarkable recognition capabilities of DNA which could lead to miniaturizing biological electronics and optical devices, including biosensors and probes. Attempts to use DNA-based nanocarriers for gene delivery are discussed. In addition, the ecological advantages and risks of nanotechnology including DNA-based nanobiotechnology are evaluated.
Prospects and applications of nanobiotechnology: a medical perspective  [cached]
Fakruddin Md,Hossain Zakir,Afroz Hafsa
Journal of Nanobiotechnology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1477-3155-10-31
Abstract: Background Nanobiotechnology is the application of nanotechnology in biological fields. Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that currently recruits approach, technology and facility available in conventional as well as advanced avenues of engineering, physics, chemistry and biology. Method A comprehensive review of the literature on the principles, limitations, challenges, improvements and applications of nanotechnology in medical science was performed. Results Nanobiotechnology has multitude of potentials for advancing medical science thereby improving health care practices around the world. Many novel nanoparticles and nanodevices are expected to be used, with an enormous positive impact on human health. While true clinical applications of nanotechnology are still practically inexistent, a significant number of promising medical projects are in an advanced experimental stage. Implementation of nanotechnology in medicine and physiology means that mechanisms and devices are so technically designed that they can interact with sub-cellular (i.e. molecular) levels of the body with a high degree of specificity. Thus therapeutic efficacy can be achieved to maximum with minimal side effects by means of the targeted cell or tissue-specific clinical intervention. Conclusion More detailed research and careful clinical trials are still required to introduce diverse components of nanobiotechnology in random clinical applications with success. Ethical and moral concerns also need to be addressed in parallel with the new developments.
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