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Relationships between physical activity, physical fitness, somatic fitness, and coordination along childhood and adolescence  [PDF]
J.P. Saraiva,L.P. Rodrigues
Motricidade , 2010,
Abstract: The two main goals of this review were to understand how the relationships between physical activity, physical fitness, somatic fitness, and coordination are established along the motor development of children and adolescents, and how they would influence their future lives. The web based bibliographic database B-On was searched for peer-reviewed publications during the last decade (2000 to 2009). Search criteria included all articles on relationships between any two of the above named factors. Although different methodological designs and variables were found as markers for the same factor, overall results suggested the existence of a clear positive relationship among physical activity, physical fitness, somatic fitness, and coordination from childhood to adolescence, with a special relevance for the relationship between physical activity and coordination. It was also noted a renewed interest on physical activity and motor coordination developmental characteristics and relationships as well as on their lifelong health effects.
Suspected Motor Problems and Low Preference for Active Play in Childhood Are Associated with Physical Inactivity and Low Fitness in Adolescence  [PDF]
Marko T. Kantomaa,Jarno Purtsi,Anja M. Taanila,Jouko Remes,Helena Viholainen,Pauli Rintala,Timo Ahonen,Tuija H. Tammelin
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0014554
Abstract: This prospective longitudinal study investigates whether suspected motor problems and low preference for active play in childhood are associated with physical inactivity and low cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence.
Weight Misperception, Self-Reported Physical Fitness, Dieting and Some Psychological Variables as Risk Factors for Eating Disorders  [PDF]
Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera,Mercedes Ezquerra-Cabrera,Rocío Carbonero-Carre?o,Inmaculada Ruiz-Prieto
Nutrients , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/nu5114486
Abstract: The aims of the current study were to explore possible gender differences in weight misperception, self-reported physical fitness, and dieting, and to analyze the relationship between these variables and others, such as self-esteem, body appreciation, general mental health, and eating- and body image-related variables among adolescents. In addition, the specific risk for eating disorders was examined, as well as the possible clusters with respect to the risk status. The sample comprised 655 students, 313 females and 342 males, aged 16.22 ± 4.58. Different scales of perceived overweight, self-reported physical fitness and dieting together with the Body Mass Index (BMI) were considered along with instruments such as the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), Self-Esteem Scale (SES), Body Appreciation Scale (BAS) and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2). Since some gender differences were found with respect to these adolescent groups, it is necessary to design prevention programs that not only focus on traditional factors such as BMI or body image, but also on elements like weight perception, self-reported fitness and nutritional education.
Tracking of physical activity, fitness, body composition and diet from adolescence to young adulthood: The Young Hearts Project, Northern Ireland
Colin Boreham, Paula J Robson, Alison M Gallagher, Gordon W Cran, J Maurice Savage, Liam J Murray
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-1-14
Abstract: Males (n 245) and females (n 231) were assessed at age 15 y, and again in young adulthood [mean (SD) age 22 (1.6) y]. At both timepoints, height, weight and skinfold thicknesses were measured, and physical activity and diet were assessed by questionnaire and diet history method respectively. At 15y, fitness was assessed using the 20 metre shuttle run, while at young adulthood, the PWC170 cycle ergometer test was used. For each measurement made at 15y, subjects were ranked into 'low' (L1; lowest 25%), 'medium' (M1; middle 50%) or 'high' (H1; highest 25%) categories. At young adulthood, similar categories (L2, M2, H2) were created. The extent of tracking of each variable over time was calculated using 3 × 3 matrices constructed using these two sets of categories, and summarised using kappa (κ) statistics.Tracking of diet and fitness was poor (κ ≤ 0.20) in both sexes, indicating substantial drift of subjects between the low, medium and high categories over time. The tracking of physical activity in males was fair (κ 0.202), but was poor in females (κ 0.021). In contrast, anthropometric variables such as weight, body mass index and sum of skinfolds tracked more strongly in females (κ 0.540, κ 0.307, κ 0.357 respectively) than in males (κ 0.337, κ 0.199, κ 0.216 respectively).The poor tracking of fitness and diet in both sexes, and physical activity in females, suggests that these aspects of adolescent lifestyle are unlikely to be predictive of behaviours in young adulthood. In contrast, the fair to moderate tracking of anthropometric variables, particularly in females, suggests that attempts to reduce the ever increasing incidence of overweight and obesity in adults, should probably begin in earlier life.Numerous epidemiological studies in adults have identified environmental and physiological risk factors that are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Among the many that have been identified [1], the major modifiable risk factors include phys
Relationships between physical activity, physical fitness, somatic fitness, and coordination along childhood and adolescence Rela es entre actividade física, aptid o física, morfológica e coordenativa na infancia e adolescência  [cached]
Jo?o Paulo Saraiva,Luís Paulo Rodrigues
Motricidade , 2010, DOI: 10.6063/motricidade.6(4).136
Abstract: The two main goals of this review were to understand how the relationships between physical activity, physical fitness, somatic fitness, and coordination are established along the motor development of children and adolescents, and how they would influence their future lives. The web based bibliographic database B-On was searched for peer-reviewed publications during the last decade (2000 to 2009). Search criteria included all articles on relationships between any two of the above named factors. Although different methodological designs and variables were found as markers for the same factor, overall results suggested the existence of a clear positive relationship among physical activity, physical fitness, somatic fitness, and coordination from childhood to adolescence, with a special relevance for the relationship between physical activity and coordination. It was also noted a renewed interest on physical activity and motor coordination developmental characteristics and relationships as well as on their lifelong health effects. Neste trabalho procuramos perceber como se estabelecem as rela es entre a actividade física, a aptid o física, a aptid o morfológica e a aptid o coordenativa ao longo do percurso de desenvolvimento motor de crian as e jovens, e qual o possível impacto sobre a sua vida futura. Foi realizada uma pesquisa na base de dados B-On e seleccionados os trabalhos publicados na última década (2000 a 2009) e que estudaram as rela es entre qualquer um dos factores de interesse. No seu conjunto, e n o obstante as diferen as metodológicas ao nível dos instrumentos utilizados na recolha dos dados, os artigos revistos sugerem a existência clara de associa es positivas entre todos os factores estudados, mas com especial relevancia para os resultados relativos à actividade física e a aptid o coordenativa. é ainda perceptível um interesse actual e particular dos investigadores relativamente à actividade física e aos níveis de coordena o motora exibidos por crian as e jovens, bem como aos seus resultados na determina o das condi es de saúde ao longo da vida.
Moderators of the intention-behaviour and perceived behavioural control-behaviour relationships for leisure-time physical activity
Steve Amireault, Gaston Godin, Marie-Claude Vohl, Louis Pérusse
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-5-7
Abstract: This was tested in reference to Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour. A sample of 300 volunteers, 192 women and 108 men, aged 18 to 55, participated in the study. At baseline, the participants completed a self-administrated psychosocial questionnaire assessing Ajzen's theory variables (i.e., intention and perceived behavioural control). The behavioural measure was obtained by mail three months later.Multiple hierarchical regression analyses indicated that age and annual income moderated the intention-behaviour and PBC-behaviour relationships. However, in the final model predicting behaviour (R2 = .46), only the interaction term of PBC by annual income (β = .24, p = 0.0003) significantly contributed to the prediction of behaviour along with intention (β = .49, p = 0.0009) and past behaviour (β = .44, p < 0.0001).Physical activity promotion programs would benefit not only from focusing on increasing the intention of low intenders, but also from targeting factors that moderate the perceived behavioural control-behaviour relationships.Regular physical activity and high physical fitness are associated with numerous health benefits such as reduced risk of premature death from all causes and cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, specific types of cancer (i.e., colon and breast cancer) and osteoporosis (see Warburton, Shannon and Bredin [1] for review). However, depending on survey methods, it is estimated that only 25% to 40% of the adult population reaches the physical activity level recommended for health benefits [2,3]. This observation highlights the need to devote more attention to factors explaining why some people are active while others remain sedentary.In the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB; Ajzen [4]), considered as one of the most useful theories to study the cognitive determinants of behaviour, intention is a key predictor of behaviour in a wide range of health domains. Reviews and meta-analyses provide empirical support for the predictive power of intentio
Research on a Community-based Platform for Promoting Health and Physical Fitness in the Elderly Community  [PDF]
Tsai-Hsuan Tsai, Alice May-Kuen Wong, Chien-Lung Hsu, Kevin C. Tseng
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057452
Abstract: This study aims to assess the acceptability of a fitness testing platform (iFit) for installation in an assisted living community with the aim of promoting fitness and slowing the onset of frailty. The iFit platform develops a means of testing Bureau of Health Promotion mandated health assessment items for the elderly (including flexibility tests, grip strength tests, balance tests, and reaction time tests) and integrates wireless remote sensors in a game-like environment to capture and store subject response data, thus providing individuals in elderly care contexts with a greater awareness of their own physical condition. In this study, we specifically evaluated the users’ intention of using the iFit using a technology acceptance model (TAM). A total of 101 elderly subjects (27 males and 74 females) were recruited. A survey was conducted to measure technology acceptance, to verify that the platform could be used as intended to promote fitness among the elderly. Results indicate that perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and usage attitude positively impact behavioral intention to use the platform. The iFit platform can offer user-friendly solutions for a community-based fitness care and monitoring of elderly subjects. In summary, iFit was determined by three key drivers and discussed as follows: risk factors among the frail elderly, mechanism for slowing the advance frailty, and technology acceptance and support for promoting physical fitness.
Childhood and adolescent predictors of leisure time physical activity during the transition from adolescence to adulthood: a population based cohort study
Kim A Jose, Leigh Blizzard, Terry Dwyer, Charlotte McKercher, Alison J Venn
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-8-54
Abstract: Childhood and adolescent data (at ages 7-15 years) were collected as part of the 1985 Australian Health and Fitness Survey and subdivided into sociodemographics (socioeconomic status, parental education), behavioral (smoking, alcohol, sports diversity, outside school sports), sociocultural (active father, active mother, any older siblings, any younger siblings, language spoken at home), attitudinal (sports/recreational competency, self-rated health, enjoyment physical education/physical activity, not enjoying school sports) and physical (BMI, time taken to run 1.6 km, long jump) factors. Physical activity between the ages 15 and 29 years was reported retrospectively using the Historical Leisure Activity Questionnaire at follow-up in 2004-2006 by 2,048 participants in the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health Study (CDAH). Australia's physical activity recommendations for children and adults were used to categorize participants as persistently active, variably active or persistently inactive during the transition from adolescence to adulthood.For females, perceived sports competency in childhood and adolescence was significantly associated with being persistently active (RR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.39, 2.55). Smoking (RR = 0.31 CI = 0.12, 0.82) and having younger siblings (RR = 0.69 CI = 0.52, 0.93) were inversely associated with being persistently active after taking physical and attitudinal factors into account. For males, playing sport outside school (RR = 1.47 CI = 1.05, 2.08), having active fathers (RR = 1.25 CI = 1.01, 1.54) and not enjoying school sport (RR = 4.07 CI = 2.31, 7.17) were associated with being persistently active into adulthood. Time taken to complete the 1.6 km run was inversely associated with being persistently active into adulthood (RR = 0.85 CI = 0.78, 0.93) after adjusting for recreational competency.Perceived sports competency (females) and cardiorespiratory fitness, playing sport outside school and having active fathers (males) in childhood an
Behavioral Regulations: What is Physical Education Role in Students’ Physically Active Lifestyle?
Vali Khalkhali
International Online Journal of Educational Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Physical education can play a vital role in students’ psychomotor, cognitive and emotional development, which can influence young people to adopt physically active adult lifestyles that can in turn improve public health. Lifelong participation in fitness activities might not be achieved unless physical education teachers create an appropriate environment that motivates students to engage in physical education. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of behavioral regulation to student intention for physical activity outside of university. The authors argue autonomy-supportive versus controlling situations could positively predict the intention of students to be physically active outside of university. The subjects were 320 Iranian male students who participated in 16 regular physical education classes. All subjects completed perceived locus of causality scale and intention to be physically active questionnaires. The results of regression analysis showed that more self-determined forms of behavioral regulation foster more autonomous forms of intention. These results were not found for amotivation. The results further indicated that students’ intentions for physical activity outside of university increase with more self-determined forms of behavioral regulation. With respect to intention for physical activity after university, these results highlight the importance of taking into account the fostering of more self-determined forms of behavioral regulation.
The relationship between physical fitness and clustered risk, and tracking of clustered risk from adolescence to young adulthood: eight years follow-up in the Danish Youth and Sport Study
Lars Bo Andersen, Henriette Hasselstr?m, Vivian Gr?nfeldt, Stig Hansen, Froberg Karsten
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-1-6
Abstract: Two examinations were conducted 8 years apart. The first time, 133 males and 172 females were 16–19 years of age. Eight years later, 98 males and 137 females participated. They were each time ranked into quartiles by sex in four CVD risk factors all related to the metabolic syndrome. Risk factors were the ratio between total cholesterol and HDL, triglyceride, systolic BP and body fat. The upper quartile was defined as being at risk, and if a subject had two or more risk factors, he/she was defined as a case (15–20 % of the subjects). Odds ratios (OR) for being a case was calculated between quartiles of fitness in both cross-sectional studies. The stability of combined risk was calculated as the OR between cases and non-cases at the first examination to be a case at the second examination.ORs for having two or more risk factors between quartiles of fitness were 3.1, 3.8 and 4.9 for quartiles two to four, respectively. At the second examination, OR were 0.7, 3.5 and 4.9, respectively. The probability for "a case" at the first examination to be "a case" at the second was 6.0.The relationship between an exposure like physical fitness and CVD risk factors is much stronger when clustering of risk factors are analysed compared to the relationship to single risk factors. The stability over time in multiple risk factors analysed together is strong. This relationship should be seen in the light of moderate or weak tracking of single risk factors, and is strong evidence for early intervention in children where risk factors cluster.Hard endpoints of atherosclerotic CVD are not prevalent in young people, but as atherosclerosis develops gradually over the years, it may be effective to prevent high levels of CVD risk factors already present in children. The rationale behind this thinking is that risk factors track, i.e. subjects keep rank order within a risk factor. Most CVD risk factors show moderate tracking [1,2]. A tracking coefficient is a measure of variability between two t
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