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Clinical features of panic patients sensitive to hyperventilation or breath-holding methods for inducing panic attacks
Nardi, A.E.;Valen?a, A.M.;Lopes, F.L.;Nascimento, I.;Mezzasalma, M.A.;Zin, W.A.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2004000200013
Abstract: our aim was to compare the clinical features of panic disorder (pd) patients sensitive to hyperventilation or breath-holding methods of inducing panic attacks. eighty-five pd patients were submitted to both a hyperventilation challenge test and a breath-holding test. they were asked to hyperventilate (30 breaths/min) for 4 min and a week later to hold their breath for as long as possible, four times with a 2-min interval. anxiety scales were applied before and after the tests. we selected the patients who responded with a panic attack to just one of the tests, i.e., those who had a panic attack after hyperventilating (hpa, n = 24, 16 females, 8 males, mean age ± sd = 38.5 ± 12.7 years) and those who had a panic attack after breath holding (bhpa, n = 20, 11 females, 9 males, mean age ± sd = 42.1 ± 10.6 years). both groups had similar (c2 = 1.28, d.f. = 1, p = 0.672) respiratory symptoms (fear of dying, chest/pain disconfort, shortness of breath, paresthesias, and feelings of choking) during a panic attack. the criteria of briggs et al. [british journal of psychiatry, 1993; 163: 201-209] for respiratory pd subtype were fulfilled by 18 (75.0%) hpa patients and by 14 (70.0%) bhpa patients. the hpa group had a later onset of the disease compared to bhpa patients (37.9 ± 11.0 vs 21.3 ± 12.9 years old, mann-whitney, p < 0.001), and had a higher family prevalence of pd (70.8 vs 25.0%, c2 = 19.65, d.f. = 1, p = 0.041). our data suggest that these two groups - hpa and bhpa patients - may be specific subtypes of pd.
Clinical features of panic patients sensitive to hyperventilation or breath-holding methods for inducing panic attacks  [cached]
Nardi A.E.,Valen?a A.M.,Lopes F.L.,Nascimento I.
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2004,
Abstract: Our aim was to compare the clinical features of panic disorder (PD) patients sensitive to hyperventilation or breath-holding methods of inducing panic attacks. Eighty-five PD patients were submitted to both a hyperventilation challenge test and a breath-holding test. They were asked to hyperventilate (30 breaths/min) for 4 min and a week later to hold their breath for as long as possible, four times with a 2-min interval. Anxiety scales were applied before and after the tests. We selected the patients who responded with a panic attack to just one of the tests, i.e., those who had a panic attack after hyperventilating (HPA, N = 24, 16 females, 8 males, mean age ± SD = 38.5 ± 12.7 years) and those who had a panic attack after breath holding (BHPA, N = 20, 11 females, 9 males, mean age ± SD = 42.1 ± 10.6 years). Both groups had similar (chi2 = 1.28, d.f. = 1, P = 0.672) respiratory symptoms (fear of dying, chest/pain disconfort, shortness of breath, paresthesias, and feelings of choking) during a panic attack. The criteria of Briggs et al. [British Journal of Psychiatry, 1993; 163: 201-209] for respiratory PD subtype were fulfilled by 18 (75.0%) HPA patients and by 14 (70.0%) BHPA patients. The HPA group had a later onset of the disease compared to BHPA patients (37.9 ± 11.0 vs 21.3 ± 12.9 years old, Mann-Whitney, P < 0.001), and had a higher family prevalence of PD (70.8 vs 25.0%, chi2 = 19.65, d.f. = 1, P = 0.041). Our data suggest that these two groups - HPA and BHPA patients - may be specific subtypes of PD.
Rapid Point-Of-Care Breath Test for Biomarkers of Breast Cancer and Abnormal Mammograms  [PDF]
Michael Phillips, J. David Beatty, Renee N. Cataneo, Jan Huston, Peter D. Kaplan, Roy I. Lalisang, Philippe Lambin, Marc B. I. Lobbes, Mayur Mundada, Nadine Pappas, Urvish Patel
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090226
Abstract: Background Previous studies have reported volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath as biomarkers of breast cancer and abnormal mammograms, apparently resulting from increased oxidative stress and cytochrome p450 induction. We evaluated a six-minute point-of-care breath test for VOC biomarkers in women screened for breast cancer at centers in the USA and the Netherlands. Methods 244 women had a screening mammogram (93/37 normal/abnormal) or a breast biopsy (cancer/no cancer 35/79). A mobile point-of-care system collected and concentrated breath and air VOCs for analysis with gas chromatography and surface acoustic wave detection. Chromatograms were segmented into a time series of alveolar gradients (breath minus room air). Segmental alveolar gradients were ranked as candidate biomarkers by C-statistic value (area under curve [AUC] of receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve). Multivariate predictive algorithms were constructed employing significant biomarkers identified with multiple Monte Carlo simulations and cross validated with a leave-one-out (LOO) procedure. Results Performance of breath biomarker algorithms was determined in three groups: breast cancer on biopsy versus normal screening mammograms (81.8% sensitivity, 70.0% specificity, accuracy 79% (73% on LOO) [C-statistic value], negative predictive value 99.9%); normal versus abnormal screening mammograms (86.5% sensitivity, 66.7% specificity, accuracy 83%, 62% on LOO); and cancer versus no cancer on breast biopsy (75.8% sensitivity, 74.0% specificity, accuracy 78%, 67% on LOO). Conclusions A pilot study of a six-minute point-of-care breath test for volatile biomarkers accurately identified women with breast cancer and with abnormal mammograms. Breath testing could potentially reduce the number of needless mammograms without loss of diagnostic sensitivity.
Hydrogen peroxide assessment in exhaled breath condensate: condensing equipment-rapid flow injection chemiluminescence method
Vasiliou, Efstathios G.;Makarovska, Yaroslava M.;Pneumatikos, Ioannis A.;Lolis, Nikolaos V.;Kalogeratos, Evangelos A.;Papadakis, Emmanuel K.;Georgiou, Constantinos A.;
Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-50532007000500025
Abstract: several biomolecules in exhaled breath condensate (ebc) can be used as breath biomarkers providing useful clinical information concerning inflammatory lung diseases. hydrogen peroxide has a special place among biomarkers as it can be directly linked to oxidative stress built up in the human body. methods for hydrogen peroxide in ebc are essential for a vast number of studies spanning from basic studies to disease diagnosis. methods currently in use are not automated, time-consuming and tedious. moreover, most condensing equipment in use is not portable. to address these, we developed portable condensing equipment as an extra alternative and a fully automated flow injection (fi) - chemiluminescence method for hydrogen peroxide determination. the proposed condensing equipment provides collection efficiency better than 86% allowing the collection of 2-3 ml sample in 20 min. the method involves mixing a luminol solution stream that is used as sample carrier with a cobalt(ii) stream. reaction of ebc with luminol in the presence of cobalt(ii) catalyst produces light proportional to hydrogen peroxide concentration. the automated fi method features a 10 nmol l1 detection limit and good linearity (r= 0.997). precision and recoveries are better than 6.0% rsd and 64.9%, respectively. comparison with the, commonly used for ebc, manual fluorimetric method showed no significant difference, p > 0.001, while correlation of the methods is high, r=0.94. the method provides automation in sample handling, sample throughput of 180 samples h1 and low detection limit.
Electrochemical Biosensor for Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Magnetically Extracted Bacterial Pathogens  [PDF]
Emma B. Setterington,Evangelyn C. Alocilja
Biosensors , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/bios2010015
Abstract: Biological defense and security applications demand rapid, sensitive detection of bacterial pathogens. This work presents a novel qualitative electrochemical detection technique which is applied to two representative bacterial pathogens, Bacillus cereus (as a surrogate for B. anthracis) and Escherichia coli O157:H7, resulting in detection limits of 40 CFU/mL and 6 CFU/mL, respectively, from pure culture. Cyclic voltammetry is combined with immunomagnetic separation in a rapid method requiring approximately 1 h for presumptive positive/negative results. An immunofunctionalized magnetic/polyaniline core/shell nano-particle (c/sNP) is employed to extract target cells from the sample solution and magnetically position them on a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) sensor. The presence of target cells significantly inhibits current flow between the electrically active c/sNPs and SPCE. This method has the potential to be adapted for a wide variety of target organisms and sample matrices, and to become a fully portable system for routine monitoring or emergency detection of bacterial pathogens.
Breath psychotherapy
SD Edwards
Inkanyiso: Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Breath psychotherapy is an approach that makes direct use of the breath in healing. There are many forms of breathbased healing: basic breathing and relaxation methods, with or without the practice of psychological skills such as imagery, centring and concentration; expressive physical and emotional techniques; advanced meditation, prayer and other spiritual exercises. Such an approach has been extolled for millennia in the form of various spiritual, wisdom and healing traditions, including ancestor reverence, Judaism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism, Christianity, and Islam which have holistically equated breath, consciousness, energy and spirit, as well as viewing breath as the vital link between body and mind. This approach distils into a perennial psychology, which recognizes a pre-reflective unity underlying and interlinking the various traditions and forms of breath-based healing and therapy. Accordingly, breath psychotherapy is based on an understanding and healing of the total psyche in the original, holistic meaning of this term. The present article is an appreciative inquiry into more recent forms of breath psychotherapy as promoted and used by modern authors and practitioners. Key Words: Breath-based, psychotherapy, breath therapy, consciousness, spirituality, healing.
Ultrathin plasmonic nanogratings for rapid and highly-sensitive detection  [PDF]
Beibei Zeng,Yongkang Gao,Filbert J. Bartoli
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: We developed a nanoplasmonic sensor platform employing the extraordinary optical properties of one-dimensional nanogratings patterned on 30nm-thick ultrathin Ag films. Excitation of Fano resonances in the ultrathin Ag nanogratings results in transmission spectra with high amplitude, large contrast, and narrow bandwidth, making them well-suited for rapid and highly-sensitive sensing applications. The ultrathin nanoplasmonic sensor chip was integrated with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channel, and the measured refractive index resolution was found to be 1.46x10-6 refractive index units (RIU) with a high temporal resolution of 1 sec. This compares favorably with commercial prism-based surface plasmon resonance sensors, but is achieved using a more convenient collinear transmission geometry and a significantly smaller sensor footprint of 50x50um2. In addition, an order-of-magnitude improvement in the temporal and spatial resolutions was achieved relative to state-of-the-art nanoplasmonic sensors, for comparable detection resolutions.
Rapid “Breath-Print” of Liver Cirrhosis by Proton Transfer Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry. A Pilot Study.  [PDF]
Filomena Morisco, Eugenio Aprea, Vincenzo Lembo, Vincenzo Fogliano, Paola Vitaglione, Giovanna Mazzone, Luca Cappellin, Flavia Gasperi, Stefania Masone, Giovanni Domenico De Palma, Riccardo Marmo, Nicola Caporaso, Franco Biasioli
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059658
Abstract: The aim of the present work was to test the potential of Proton Transfer Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) in the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis and the assessment of disease severity by direct analysis of exhaled breath. Twenty-six volunteers have been enrolled in this study: 12 patients (M/F 8/4, mean age 70.5 years, min-max 42–80 years) with liver cirrhosis of different etiologies and at different severity of disease and 14 healthy subjects (M/F 5/9, mean age 52.3 years, min-max 35–77 years). Real time breath analysis was performed on fasting subjects using a buffered end-tidal on-line sampler directly coupled to a PTR-ToF-MS. Twelve volatile organic compounds (VOCs) resulted significantly differently in cirrhotic patients (CP) compared to healthy controls (CTRL): four ketones (2-butanone, 2- or 3- pentanone, C8-ketone, C9-ketone), two terpenes (monoterpene, monoterpene related), four sulphur or nitrogen compounds (sulfoxide-compound, S-compound, NS-compound, N-compound) and two alcohols (heptadienol, methanol). Seven VOCs (2-butanone, C8-ketone, a monoterpene, 2,4-heptadienol and three compounds containing N, S or NS) resulted significantly differently in compensate cirrhotic patients (Child-Pugh A; CP-A) and decompensated cirrhotic subjects (Child-Pugh B+C; CP-B+C). ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis was performed considering three contrast groups: CP vs CTRL, CP-A vs CTRL and CP-A vs CP-B+C. In these comparisons monoterpene and N-compound showed the best diagnostic performance. Conclusions Breath analysis by PTR-ToF-MS was able to distinguish cirrhotic patients from healthy subjects and to discriminate those with well compensated liver disease from those at more advanced severity stage. A breath-print of liver cirrhosis was assessed for the first time.
Technologies for Clinical Diagnosis Using Expired Human Breath Analysis  [PDF]
Thalakkotur Lazar Mathew,Prabhahari Pownraj,Sukhananazerin Abdulla,Biji Pullithadathil
Diagnostics , 2015, DOI: 10.3390/diagnostics5010027
Abstract: This review elucidates the technologies in the field of exhaled breath analysis. Exhaled breath gas analysis offers an inexpensive, noninvasive and rapid method for detecting a large number of compounds under various conditions for health and disease states. There are various techniques to analyze some exhaled breath gases, including spectrometry, gas chromatography and spectroscopy. This review places emphasis on some of the critical biomarkers present in exhaled human breath, and its related effects. Additionally, various medical monitoring techniques used for breath analysis have been discussed. It also includes the current scenario of breath analysis with nanotechnology-oriented techniques
A rapid and sensitive bioassay to measure bone morphogenetic protein activity
Lior Zilberberg, Peter ten Dijke, Lynn Y Sakai, Daniel B Rifkin
BMC Cell Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2121-8-41
Abstract: Two cells lines, C2C12 and HepG2 were stably transfected with a reporter plasmid consisting of BMP-responsive elements from the Id1 promoter fused to a luciferase reporter gene. Exposure of cells containing this construct to BMPs induces the expression of luciferase, which can be quantified with a luminometer. The bioassay is specific for BMPs and can detect BMP-4 activity at a concentration as low as 3 pM. Related family members, such as TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta3, do not induce the reporter gene.The assay is rapid (less than 24 hours) and can be used, as described in this paper, to measure BMP activity in complex solutions and in cell culture in a simple and efficient way.Bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) are members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily that consists of a number of structurally related polypeptides that control a broad array of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation [1,2]. Although BMPs originally were identified as proteins that induced formation of bone when implanted into the muscle of adult rats [3,4], BMPs also play crucial roles in dorsoventral patterning of the mesoderm, neural patterning, skeletal development, and limb formation [5]. Altered BMP signaling pathways are associated with several human diseases including arthritis, osteoporosis, kidney diseases, cancer and pulmonary hypertension [6-10].BMPs are synthesized as precursor proteins. After dimerization, the precursor molecules are proteolytically cleaved within the cell by proprotein convertases at the multibasic motif RXXR to yield the active, carboxy-terminal mature protein dimer [11-13]. BMPs exert their biological activity through combinations of type I and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors. Three distinct BMP type I receptors, i.e. activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)-2, ALK3 (also termed BMPRIA) and ALK6 (BMPRIB) and three distinct type II receptors, i.e. BMP type II receptor (BMPRII) and two activin t
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