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A UML-based Instructional Modeling Language
Pierre LAFORCADE,Thierry NODENOT,Christian SALLABERRY
STICEF , 2005,
Abstract: This article presents our results about an exploratory research work on the potential add-ons of the UML formalism for the design and implementation of distant learning situations. Our work focus on the specific Problem-Based Learning situations but could be suitable for other learning theories and approaches. Then we propose the CPM language based on a UML profile specialization in order to describe instructional design models upstream formal ones specified with standards like IMS-LD. Our language is implemented within an existent UML-CASE tool which has been customized in order to experiment end-users (instructional designers) facilities for the creation/support/maintenance of CPM models. The language has been tested on a complete case-study. We also briefly present and discuss additional works extending our contribution beyond the design stage. From these results, we stress the potentials of a Model-Driven instructional approach.
Official Language Choice in Ethiopia: Means of Inclusion or Exclusion?
Milkessa Midega
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1100932
Abstract: Official language choice in a multilingual polity is a challenging phenomenon. One of such polities, Ethiopia, took “historical accident” justifications for grant to select its official language which unequivocally disregards its own linguistic diversities. Amharic language has been arbitrarily designated as the sole official language of Ethiopia since the making of modern Ethiopia. This piece uses government documents and other literature to examine Ethiopia’s official language choice and its consequences. Overall, the findings show that the knowledge of Amharic language remained determinant in order to access federal government institutions thereby serving as a means of exclusion of non-official language speakers, such as Oromo, the largest ethnic group in the country. This work thus suggests rethinking official language of Ethiopia.
Language Policy in Ethiopia: History and Current Trends
A Getachew, A Derib
Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: Ethiopia, as one of the multilingual and multicultural countries, has faced the critical problem of development and implementation of language use policy that could satisfy the needs of various societies in question and contribute to their socioeconomic and socio-cultural development. The various governments that ruled Ethiopia since the reign of Emperor Tewodros II followed various language use policies that suit their political orientation. The major objective of this paper was to seek answers to the following questions: a. What type of language policy did Ethiopia have in the past? b. What is the language policy of the country today? c. How is Ethiopia implementing its language policy today? The historical survey of language use policy was made based on the secondary data (i.e. written documents) from different sources. The study on the implementation of the current language policy of the country focuses mainly on four regional states, namely Amhara, Oromiya and SNNP regional states and the Addis Ababa City Administration. Interviews were conducted with various bodies that are concerned with developing, implementing and monitoring language use policies, such as the Ethiopian Language Research Center, the Ministry of Tourism and Culture, the information and education bureaus of three regional states, namely the Amhara, Oromiya and SNNP regional states to get the necessary data. The analysis of the data shows that though there had been a change from having no written policy to a policy that encourages the development and use of all the languages in the country, the implementation showed a little change in the time from the reign of Tewodros II up to the end of the Derg. The language policies of Tewodros II, Minilek II, Hailesellasie I and the Derg regime had been similar on the ground level: they all implemented a one-language language use policy .The language use policy of the current government, however, is quite different in its approach and implementation. The implementation of a multilingual language use policy has served the country both its blessings and consequences. Ethiopian Journal of Education and Science Vol. 2 (1) 2006: pp. 37-62
Ethiopia before the United Nations treaty monitoring bodies  [PDF]
E. Brems
Afrika Focus , 2007,
Abstract: Among the many human rights conventions adopted by the UN, seven are known – together with their additional protocols – as the coreinternational human rights instruments:- The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination;- The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights;- The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights;- The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women;- The Convention against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment;- The Convention on the Rights of the Child;- The International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of all Migrant Workers and Members of their Families.The main international control mechanism under these conventions is what may be considered the standard mechanism in internationalhuman rights protection: state reporting before an international committee. An initial report is due usually one year after joining thetreaty and afterwards, reports are due periodically (every four or five years). The international committees examine the reports submitted bythe state parties. In the course of this examination they include information from other sources, such as the press, other United Nationsmaterials or NGO information. They also hold a meeting with representatives of the state submitting the report. At the end of thisprocess the committee issues 'concluding observations' or 'concluding comments'. This paper focuses on the experience of one state –Ethiopia - with the seven core human rights treaties. This should allow the reader to gain insights both into the human rights situation in Ethiopia and in the functioning of the United Nations human rights protection system.
EFFECTIVENESS OF DIRECT INSTRUCTIONAL MODEL ON ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNING  [PDF]
SHALINI.J,S.S. PATIL
Indian Streams Research Journal , 2013,
Abstract: The past 6 decades have shown a steady increase in interest of English language learning (ELL) in India. The major purpose of present study was to find the effectiveness of DIM on ELL. The sample selected consisted of 100 secondary school students from 9th standard Kannada medium government school students of Shimoga District, The experimental group were exposed to Direct Instruction Model developed by the researcher for about one week. Pre and post tests were conducted and results were collected from both the experimental and control group. The results of the study showed that the students of experimental and control group. The results of the study showed that the students of experimental group showed a significant improvement in ELL when compared to control group. Thus the present study analyses that DIM can be a very effective model for ELL of kannada medium students whose mother tongue is not English.
The Reflection of Instructional Leadership Concept on Educational Administration Master’s Programs: A Comparison of Turkey and the United State of America  [PDF]
?ükrü Ada,Sedat Gümü?
International Online Journal of Educational Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Instructional leadership has been one of the most dominant concepts in the contemporary literature while defining school principals’ main responsibilities. Principals, as instructional leaders, are expected to focus more on instructional practices in schools, rather than on conventional managerial work. However, in practice, there are many principals who cannot effectively perform their role as instructional leaders (Fink & Resnick, 2001). Graduate programs, specifically Master’s programs, in educational administration play an important role in preparing school administrators in most countries. In this context, the purpose of this study is to analyze and compare educational administration Master’s programs in Turkey and in the United States of America (USA) in terms of their relevance to instructional leadership concept. We chose these two countries because they have very different educational systems and principal selection processes. The results of the study indicate that educational administration Master’s programs in two countries show significant differences in both their structure and content. Master’s programs in the USA are found to be more relevant to the concept of instructional leadership. Thus, these programs appear to be more appropriate for preparing principals for today’s schools. 2012 IOJES. All rights reserved
Relative Effects of Demonstration and Videotape Mediated Instructional Strategies on Nigerian Secondary School Students Achievement and Retention in Yoruba Language
O.V. Adeosun,C.A. Ayodele
Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: This study investigated the relative effects of demonstration and videotape mediated instructional strategies on Nigerian Secondary School Students achievement and retention in Yoruba Language. The purpose was to find which of demonstration and demonstration with videotape mediated instructional strategies will influence better performance of students in Yoruba Language. The study employed the quasi-experimental pretest, posttest, control group design whereby three groups were assigned into treatment and control groups and they responded to pretest, posttest and retention test administered on them. The sample consisted of 135 junior secondary class two students selected from three secondary schools used for the study. The stratified random and cluster sampling techniques were used to select the sample. The research instrument used for the study was the Yoruba Language Achievement Test (YLAT) developed and validated by the researcher and administered on the subjects. The instrument was administered as pretest, rearranged and administered as posttest and was administered two weeks after that as retention test. The data collected were analysed using ANOVA, ANCOVA and the t-test. Three hypotheses were generated and tested at 0.05 level of significance and the results showed that both instructional strategies were significantly effective in the learning of Yoruba Language. The findings also show that the demonstration with videotape mediated instructional strategy was more significantly effective than the demonstration method alone. The findings also showed this same pattern of effectiveness on retention.
INSTRUCTIONAL THEORY FOR LANGUAGE LESSONS. A Design Study to Validate the Communities of Learners Concept in the Language Curriculum
ANNE TOORENAAR,GERT RIJLAARSDAM
L1 Educational Studies in Language and Literature , 2011,
Abstract: Since the Lisbon Summit in 2000, reducing school dropout rates has a high priority in Europe, especially in pre-vocational tracks in secondary education. One policy issue is improving the match be-tween pre-vocational secondary and senior secondary vocational education and allows a stronger focus on practical work in vocational education. Therefore, more and more schools for secondary pre-vocational education in the Netherlands set out a specific language education policy relating the language arts cur-riculum to the vocational curriculum. One assumes that students will be more motivated for language lessons when they are engaged in rich contexts, in meaningful language activities which they experience as relevant, since it serves a clear communicative purpose.To guide this process of curriculum integration we set out an instructional theory for language education in the setting of pre-vocational education. In this paper we present four course design parameters that constitute our interpretation of a community of learners for secondary pre- vocational L1-learning: 1) language learning as a meaningful activity; 2) language learning as a reflective activity; 3) language learning as a shared activity and 4) language learning as a focus on transferable learning outcomes. To check explore the practicality and theoretical value, we set up a design experiment as a collaborative enterprise of teachers and researchers, in which these parameters guided the joint enterprise. We con-fronted the theoretical framework with the analysis of a single case study, the design experiment, to elab-orate and validate this set of four design parameters. Therefore, we operated at three curriculum represen-tations: the (1) intended; (2) implemented; and (3) perceived curriculum. Discriminating these three rep-resentations served as data to review and revise the designed lessons as we ran them in two classes, as well as to adjust and refine the conceptual framework. The results show that the designers incorporated all four parameters and that all four contributed to the design somehow. Furthermore, we are better informed58 ANNE TOORENAAR & GERT RIJLAARSDAMwhat kind of learning activities the four parameters can and can not generate, and how the four parame-ters interact in means-end relations.
Instructional Conversations in Early Childhood Classrooms: Policy Suggestions for Curriculum Standards and Professional Development  [PDF]
Stephanie M. Curenton, Tricia Zucker
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.47A1009
Abstract:

The purpose of this article is to provide suggestions for two early education policy levers proposed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) that can be specifically applied to oral language instructional in the classroom: Policy Lever 2—Designing and implementing curriculum and standards; and Policy Lever 3—Improving qualifications, training and working conditions. First, I describe the efforts the United States has made in terms of oral language instruction, and second I describe a professional development model (the Conversation Compassa?) that trains teachers to use instructional conversations with children age 2-6.

Legal Pluralism, Sharia Courts and Constitutional Issues in Ethiopia
M Abdo
Mizan Law Review , 2011,
Abstract: State laws employ different approaches in addressing the effect of pluralistic normative ordering in a multicultural setting. A legal regime may resort to the uniform application of state laws and reject religious and customary norms, or may recognize and allow the application of the norms and practices of identity groups as long as they are in conformity with constitutional and human rights standards. Another option is to adopt a hands-off approach whereby the norms and practices of cultural and/or religious groups are permitted to operate and are not necessarily required to meet constitutional and human rights standards. Against the backdrop of the notion of legal pluralism adopted by the FDRE Constitution, this article examines whether final decisions rendered by sharia courts in Ethiopia are required to meet constitutional standards (such as the supremacy clause, gender equality and non-discrimination). Based on the analysis of the relevant provisions of the law and literature, it is argued that decisions of sharia courts (whose jurisdiction is not compulsory, but based on the consent of litigating parties) seem to be exempted from constitutional standards even where they may be in conflict with state laws.
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