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Non-Toxic Effect of Monascus purpureus Extract on Lactic Acid Bacteria Suggested Their Application in Fermented Foods  [PDF]
Mohan-Kumari Honganoor Puttananjaiah, Mohan Appasaheb Dhale, Vijayalakshmi Govindaswamy
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.28115
Abstract: The effect of Monascus purpureus extract (MPE) on probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was investigated to ascertain its application in fermented foods. Viable count of LAB was not affected after 24 hours of incubation in Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) broth containing MPE. The agar well-diffusion assay did not show any inhibition zone. The biotransformation of isoflavone glycosides by LAB in culture medium supplemented with MPE increased antioxidant activities. These data suggest that, nutritive and biological functionality of fermented foods can be improved by the use of MPE.
Assessment of Monacolin in the Fermented Products Using Monascus purpureus FTC5391
Zahra Ajdari,Afshin Ebrahimpour,Musaalbakri Abdul Manan,Muhajir Hamid,Rosfarizan Mohamad,Arbakariya B. Ariff
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/426168
Abstract: Monacolins, as natural statins, form a class of fungal secondary metabolites and act as the specific inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase. The interest in using the fermented products as the natural source of monacolins, instead of statin drugs, is increasing enormously with its increasing demand. In this study, the fermented products were produced by Monascus purpureus FTC5391 using submerged and solid state fermentations. Two commercial Monascus-fermented products were also evaluated for comparison. Improved methods of monacolins extraction and identification were developed for the assessment of monacolins in the fermented products. Methanol and ethanol were found to be the most favorable solvents for monacolins extraction due to their ability to extract higher amount of monacolin K and higher numbers of monacolin derivatives. Problem related to false-positive results during monacolins identification was solved by adding monacolin lactonization step in the assessment method. Using this improved method, monacolin derivatives were not detected in all Monascus-fermented products tested in this study, suggesting that their hypocholesterolemic effects may be due to other compounds other than monacolins.
The analysis of the quality of red fermented rice (RFR) product with Monascus purpureus 3090
Biodiversitas , 2004,
Abstract: Analysis of red fermented rice product with Monascus purpureus 3090 was conducted on monascus floor product (MFP-264), MFP-244 and rice monascus product (RMP). Evaluation of microbiological, pigment intensity and lovastatine content analysis result was aimed to see quality differences on each production of 5 kg rice raw material. Of both product types (MFP-264, RMP) which only oven dried compare to MFP-244 which is sterilized in autoclave showed a significantly difference of population level on total microorganism colonies, that is mould 26x106 propagule/ml, bacteria 13x106 cell/ml (MFP-264), mould 85x106 propagule/ml, bacteria 265x106 cell/ml (RMP). The MFP-244 produced highest absorption spectra 0.3513-0.4050 compare to MFP-264 0.3110-0.3324, rice monascus product (RMP) 0.3343-0.3663. Pigment biosynthesis seems occurred at sexual developmental stage or conidia formation of M. purpureus 3090, which is produced color changes of yellow pigment, orange pigment, and red pigment. Lovastatine content of MFP-264 has Rf value 0.84 MFP-244 Rf 0.83 and RMP Rf 0.82 showed higher value compare to Rf 0.81 of the lovastatine standard solution.
Anti-Diabetic Activity of Aqueous Extract of Monascus purpureus Fermented Rice in High Cholesterol Diet Fed-Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats  [PDF]
A. Rajasekaran,M. Kalaivani,R. Sabitha
Asian Journal of Scientific Research , 2009,
Abstract: The present study was designed to investigate the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of aqueous extract of Monascus fermented Indian variety rice in high cholesterol fed-streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Wister rats were fed with high cholesterol diet for 2 weeks prior to intra-peritoneal injection with streptozotocin (50 mg kg-1). The Indian variety rice IR-532-E-576 was fermented with Monascus purpureus for 10 days and sterilized. Aqueous extract of the fermented rice at two dose levels showed a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose level. The total cholesterol and triglycerides were also significantly reduced where as the HDL cholesterol levels were significantly increased, which confirmed the potent anti-diabetic property of the Monascus purpureus fermented rice in diabetic rats, which may be due to presence of statins.
New Cytotoxic Azaphilones from Monascus purpureus-Fermented Rice (Red Yeast Rice)  [PDF]
Jin-Jie Li,Xiao-Ya Shang,Ling-Ling Li,Ming-Tao Liu,Jian-Quan Zheng,Zong-Lian Jin
Molecules , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/molecules15031958
Abstract: Using a cell-based cytotoxicity assay three new cytotoxic azaphilones, including two stereoisomers and designated monapurones A-C (1-3), were isolated from the extract of Monascus purpureus-fermented rice (red yeast rice). Their structures were elucidated by detailed interpretation of spectroscopic and chemical data. The relative configurations were assigned on the basis of analysis of NOE data, and the absolute configurations were determined by direct comparison of their CD spectra with those of known azaphilones and chemical correlations. In the in vitro assays, monapurones A-C (1-3) showed selective cytotoxicity against human cancer cell line A549 with IC50 values of 3.8, 2.8 and 2.4mM respectively, while exhibiting no significant toxicity to normal MRC-5 and WI-38 cells at the same concentration.
Pigment and Lovastatin content on the Red Rice cultivar Bah Butong and BP 1804 IF 9 which Fermented by Monascus purpureus Jmba  [PDF]
Biodiversitas , 2006,
Abstract: Research on the red rice fermented by Monascus purpureus had been done. The rice consisted of 2 cultivars such as Bah Butong and BP 1804 IF 9. The aim of the research was to know the content of the pigment and lovastatin of the fermentation result/ angkak. Angkak was powdered by using blender. To measure the content of pigment, the powder was extracted by methanol. By using spectrophotometer the content of the pigment could be measured with 390 nm wave lengths for yellow pigment and 500 nm for the red pigment. For lovastatin the powder was extracted by acetonitrile and H2SO4. By using HPLC the content of lovastatin could be measured. The results showed that the highest pigment content for yellow pigment was on the PB 1804 IF 9 cultivar, and red pigment was on the Bah Butong cultivar. The highest lovastatin content was on the BP 1804 IF 9.
The Effect of Oral Administration of Fermented Rice by Monascus purpureus JmbA on Blood of Hypercholesterolemia White Mouse (Rattus sp.)  [PDF]
Biodiversitas , 2006,
Abstract: Fermented rice by Monascus purpureus, namely angkak, produces lovastatin. Lovastatin is believed and studied as anti-hypercholesterolemic agent. Somehow, its effects on blood parameters were less known. Therefore, a study on the effect of angkak on erythrocyte, leukocyte, thrombocyte, and haemoglobin level was conducted, involving 15 male Sprague Dawley strain white mice that were divided into 5 treatment groups. The result showed that oral administration of angkak beared lovastatin to the hipercholesterolemic mice could increase the number of trombocyte during the study. Increasing the number of thrombocyte was different depended on dosage of angkak. The optimum dosage was 0.1 g/day. Angkak could also increase haemoglobin concentration and the number of leucocyte, although that raise did not depend on dosage of angkak. Meanwhile, the number of erythrocyte was not affected by angkak.
New Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Constituents from Fermented Red Mold Rice Monascus purpureus NTU 568  [PDF]
Ya-Wen Hsu,Li-Chuan Hsu,Chao-Lin Chang,Yu-Han Liang,Yao-Haur Kuo,Tzu-Ming Pan
Molecules , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/molecules15117815
Abstract: Six azaphilonoid derivatives, including two new blue fluorescent monapurfluores A (1) and B (2), two known pyridine-containing molecules, monascopyridines C (3) and D (4), and two known monasfluores A (5) and B (6), were isolated and characterized from red mold rice fermented by Monascus purpureus NTU 568. Structural elucidation of new isolates was based on nuclear magnetic resonance (1H- NMR, 13C-NMR, COSY, HMQC, and HMBC) and other spectroscopic analyses. Bioactivity evaluation indicated that 1-6 possessed anti-inflammatory activities with dose-dependent relationships for lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide production. Furthermore, 1-4 also showed moderate antiproliferative effects against human laryngeal carcinoma (HEp-2) (IC50 = 14.81~20.06 μg/mL) and human colon adenocarcinoma (WiDr) (IC50 = 12.89~21.14 μg/mL).
HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors from Monascus-Fermented Rice  [PDF]
Xuemei Li,Chunli Liu,Zhenwen Duan,Shuren Guo
Journal of Chemistry , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/872056
Abstract: Seven compounds were isolated from Monascus-fermented rice by column chromatography with silica gel and semiprep HPLC. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods. All compounds displayed HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory potential, among them compound 7 exhibited strong inhibition with IC50 value comparable with lovastatin. In this study, two compounds (1 and 2) were obtained from natural source for the first time. 1. Introduction Monascus-fermented rice, also called red yeast rice, red Koji or “Hongqu”, is commonly used in Asian food and medicine for centuries. Its pharmaceutical function was stated that “Hongqu” promotes “digestion and blood circulation, can strengthen the spleen and dry the stomach.” by Li Shizhen, the great pharmacologist of the Ming Dynasty [1]. Since monacolin K was first isolated from Monascus ruber by Endo in 1979, a series of monacolins, such as monacolin J, monacolin L, monacolin X and monacolin M, have been found and disclosed to be potent 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) inhibitors [2–5]. After that dihydromonacolin-MV and dehydromonacolin-MV2 isolated from Monascus sp. have been characterized for their antioxidant action [6, 7]. Non-monacolin secondary metabolites have also been identified so far [8], but it is still unclear whether the cholesterol-lowering effect of Monascus-fermented rice is due solely to the monacolin K content or if other monacolins, sterols, and isoflavones contribute to its cholesterol-lowering effect. In our search for HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory compounds from Monascus-fermented rice, we carried out the chemical investigation on Monascus purpureus (M. purpureus, CGMCC No. 0272)-fermented rice, resulting in the isolation of seven HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory compounds including (4R, 6R)-6-(2-((1S,?2S)-2,6-dimethyl-1,2-dihydro?naphthalene-1-yl)-ethyl)-4-hydroxy-tetrahydropyran-2-one (1), (4R,?6R)-6-(2-(2,6-dimethylnaphthalene-1-yl)ehtyl-4-hydroxy-tetrahydropyran-2-one (2), 1-monolinolein (3), (9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid (4), Monascinol (5), Pulchellalactam (6), and Lunatinin (7). Their structures were determined based on spectroscopic data. In our study compounds 1 and 2 were obtained from natural source for the first time, and compounds 3 and 4 were isolated from the genus for the first time. Details of the isolation, structure elucidation, and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activities of these compounds are reported here. 2. Materials and Methods 2.1. General NMR spectra were run on a Bruker Avance III 600?MHz spectrometer. EI-MS and

WANG Ke-Ming,

菌物学报 , 2000,
Abstract: The cell of Monascus purpureus was immobilized with sodium alginateand fermented for pigment formation in airiift bioreactor. The experiment showedthat the ophmal conditions of fermentahon are: pH 5~ 6, temperatLlre 3OC, 2O% ofinoculating quantity of immobilized cell particles, O.35vvm of aeration rate and 5Oh offermenting period.
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