Abstract:
Problems about attainability in topological spaces are considered. Some nonsequential version of the Warga approximate solutions is investigated: we use filters and ultrafilters of measurable spaces. Attraction sets are constructed.

Abstract:
The attainability problem with “asymptotic constraints” is considered. Concrete variants of this problem arise in control theory. Namely, we can consider the problem about construction and investigation of attainability domain under perturbation of traditional constraints (boundary and immediate conditions; phase constraints). The natural asymptotic analog of the usual attainability domain is attraction set, for representation of which, the Warga generalized controls can be applied. More exactly, for this, attainability domain in the class of generalized controls is constructed. This approach is similar to methods for optimal control theory (we keep in mind approximate and generalized controls of J. Warga). But, in the case of attainability problem, essential difficulties arise. Namely, here it should be constructed whole set of limits corresponding to different variants of all more precise realization of usual solutions in the sense of constraints validity. Moreover, typically, the above-mentioned control problems are infinite-dimensional. Real possibility for investigation of the arising limit sets is connected with extension of control space. For control problems with geometric constraints on the choice of programmed controls, procedure of this extensions was realized (for extremal problems) by J. Warga. More complicated situation arises in theory of impulse control. It is useful to note that, for investigation of the problem about constraints validity, it is natural to apply asymptotic approach realized in part of perturbation of standard constraints. And what is more, we can essentially generalize self notion of constraints: namely, we can consider arbitrary systems of conditions defined in terms of nonempty families of sets in the space of usual controls. Thus, constraints of asymptotic character arise.

Abstract:
We study free filters and their maximal extensions on the set of natural numbers. We characterize the limit of a sequence of real numbers in terms of the Frechet filter, which involves only one quantifier as opposed to the three non-commuting quantifiers in the usual definition. We construct the field of real non-standard numbers and study their properties. We characterize the limit of a sequence of real numbers in terms of non-standard numbers which only requires a single quantifier as well. We are trying to make the point that the involvement of filters and/or non-standard numbers leads to a reduction in the number of quantifiers and hence, simplification, compared to the more traditional epsilon, delta-definition of limits in real analysis.

Abstract:
We investigate families of partitions of omega which are related to special coideals, so-called happy families, and give a dual form of Ramsey ultrafilters in terms of partitions. The combinatorial properties of these partition-ultrafilters, which we call Ramseyan ultrafilters, are similar to those of Ramsey ultrafilters. For example it will be shown that dual Mathias forcing restricted to a Ramseyan ultrafilter has the same features as Mathias forcing restricted to a Ramsey ultrafilter. Further we introduce an ordering on the set of partition-filters and consider the dual form of some cardinal characteristics of the continuum.

Abstract:
We show the consistency of the set of regular cardinals which are the character of some ultrafilter on omega is not convex. We also deal with the set of pi chi-characters of ultrafilters on omega.

Abstract:
We present some new results on union ultrafilters. We characterize stability for union ultrafilters and, as the main result, we construct a new kind of unordered union ultrafilter.

Abstract:
We continue investigations of reasonable ultrafilters on uncountable cardinals defined in Shelah math.LO/0407498 and studied also in math.LO/0605067. We introduce a general scheme of generating a filter on lambda from filters on smaller sets and we investigate the combinatorics of objects obtained this way.

Abstract:
Let $A$ be a commutative Banach algebra with non-empty character space $\Delta(A)$. In this paper, we give two notions of approximate identities for $A$. Indeed, we change the concepts of convergence and boundedness in the classical notion of bounded approximate identity. More precisely, a net $\{e_{\alpha}\}$ in $A$ is a c-w approximate identity if for each $a\in A$, the Gel'fand transform of $e_{\alpha}a$ tends to the Gel'fand transform of $a$ in the compact-open topology and we say $\{e_{\alpha}\}$ is weakly bounded if the image of $\{e_{\alpha}\}$ under the Gel'fand transform is bounded in $C_{0}(\Delta(A))$.

Abstract:
In this paper, approximate Linear Minimum Variance (LMV) filters for continuous-discrete state space models are introduced. The filters are obtained by means of a recursive approximation to the predictions for the first two moments of the state equation. It is shown that the approximate filters converge to the exact LMV filter when the error between the predictions and their approximations decreases. As particular instance, the order-$\beta$ Local Linearization filters are presented and expounded in detail. Practical algorithms are also provided and their performance in simulation is illustrated with various examples. The proposed filters are intended for the recurrent practical situation where a nonlinear stochastic system should be identified from a reduced number of partial and noisy observations distant in time.

Abstract:
A variety of classes of naturally arising ultrafilters on omega is discussed, and the question is raised whether it is consistent that the classes are empty. Since all the classes contain the P-point ultrafilters, a negative answer would greatly extend the famous theorem of Shelah.