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Oxidative Stress/Angiotensinogen/Renin-Angiotensin System Axis in Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy  [PDF]
Masumi Kamiyama,Maki Urushihara,Takashi Morikawa,Yoshio Konishi,Masahito Imanishi,Akira Nishiyama,Hiroyuki Kobori
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijms141123045
Abstract: Although recent studies have proven that renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockades retard the progression of diabetic nephropathy, the detailed mechanisms of their reno-protective effects on the development of diabetic nephropathy remain uncertain. In rodent models, it has been reported that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important for intrarenal angiotensinogen (AGT) augmentation in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. However, no direct evidence is available to demonstrate that AGT expression is enhanced in the kidneys of patients with diabetes. To examine whether the expression levels of ROS- and RAS-related factors in kidneys are increased with the progression of diabetic nephropathy, biopsied samples from 8 controls and 27 patients with type 2 diabetes were used. After the biopsy, these patients were diagnosed with minor glomerular abnormality or diabetes mellitus by clinical and pathological findings. The intensities of AGT, angiotensin II (Ang II), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were examined by fluorescence in situ hybridization and/or immunohistochemistry. Expression levels were greater in patients with diabetes than in control subjects. Moreover, the augmented intrarenal AGT mRNA expression paralleled renal dysfunction in patients with diabetes. These data suggest the importance of the activated oxidative stress/AGT/RAS axis in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy.
Interleukin-6 Mediates Angiotensinogen Gene Expression during Liver Regeneration  [PDF]
Hong-Shiee Lai, Wen-Hsi Lin, Shuo-Lun Lai, Hao-Yu Lin, Wen-Ming Hsu, Chia-Hung Chou, Po-Huang Lee
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067868
Abstract: Background Angiotensinogen is the precursor of angiotensin II, which is associated with ischemia-reperfusion injury. Angiotensin II reduces liver regeneration after hepatectomy and causes dysfunction and failure of reduced-size liver transplants. However, the regulation of angiotensinogen during liver regeneration is still unclear. Aims To investigate the regulation of angiotensinogen during liver regeneration for preventing angiotensin II-related ischemia-reperfusion injury during liver regeneration. Methods A mouse in vitro partial hepatectomy animal model was used to evaluate the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and angiotensinogen during liver regeneration. Serum IL-6 and angiotensinogen were detected by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Angiotensinogen mRNA was detected by RT-PCR. Tissue levels of angiotensinogen protein were detected by Western blot analysis. Primary cultures of mouse hepatocytes were used to investigate IL-6-induced angiotensinogen. Chemical inhibitors were used to perturb signal transduction pathways. Synthetic double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) were used as ‘decoy’ cis-elements to investigate transcription. Ki 67 staining and quantification were used to verify liver regeneration. Results In the in vivo model, the levels of serum IL-6 and angiotensinogen correlated. In the in vitro model, IL-6 transcriptionally regulated angiotensinogen expression. Additionally, IL-6 mediated angiotensinogen expression through the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and JAK/p38 signaling. Decoy ODN analyses revealed that STAT3 and nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) also played critical roles in the transcriptional regulation of angiotensinogen by IL-6. IL-6-mediated signaling, JAK2, STAT3 and p38 inhibitors reduced angiotensinogen expression in the partially hepatectomized mice. Conclusion During liver regeneration, IL-6-enhanced angiotensinogen expression is dependent on the JAK/STAT3 and JAK/p38/NF-kB signaling pathways. Interruption of the molecular mechanisms of angiotensinogen regulation may be applied as the basis of therapeutic strategies for preventing angiotensin II-related ischemia-reperfusion injury during liver regeneration.
Intrarenal Oxidative Stress and Augmented Angiotensinogen are Precedent to Renal Injury in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats
Yuki Suzaki, Yuri Ozawa, Hiroyuki Kobori
International Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: The Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat is a model of type II diabetes and metabolic syndrome based on impaired glucose tolerance caused by the inherited insulin-resistance gene. The ZDF rat exhibits progressive nephropathy; however, the detailed mechanisms have remained unclear. This study was performed to examine the possible involvement of enhanced intrarenal angiotensinogen in the development of renal injury in ZDF rats. Genetic pairs of male ZDF rats and control lean rats (N=6 each) were maintained from 12 to 17 weeks of age. At 17 weeks of age, fasting blood glucose and urinary 8-isoprostane levels were significantly higher in ZDF rats compared with the controls. Systolic blood pressure progressively increased in ZDF rats from 120+/-1 to 137+/-1 mmHg during this period. In contrast, systolic blood pressure did not increase in the controls. Kidney angiotensinogen protein levels were significantly increased in ZDF rats compared with the controls (1.83+/-0.34 vs. 1.00+/-0.17, relative ratio). Expression of angiotensin II type 1a receptor mRNA was similar between these groups. The measured indices of renal damage in the present study (glomerular sclerosis, interstitial expansion, glomerular macrophage infiltration, and renal arterial proliferation) were not significantly increased at this stage in ZDF rats. However, we previously showed that the increased reactive oxygen species-related angiotensinogen enhancement plays an important role in the development of renal injury in a genetic salt-sensitive hypertension. Thus, the present data suggest that elevated reactive oxygen species and reactive oxygen species-associated augmentation of intrarenal angiotensinogen may initiate the development of renal injury in ZDF rats.
Nitrosonifedipine Ameliorates the Progression of Type 2 Diabetic Nephropathy by Exerting Antioxidative Effects  [PDF]
Keisuke Ishizawa, Yuki Izawa-Ishizawa, Noriko Yamano, Maki Urushihara, Takumi Sakurada, Masaki Imanishi, Shoko Fujii, Asami Nuno, Licht Miyamoto, Yoshitaka Kihira, Yasumasa Ikeda, Shoji Kagami, Hiroyuki Kobori, Koichiro Tsuchiya, Toshiaki Tamaki
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086335
Abstract: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the major cause of end-stage renal failure. Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of DN. Nitrosonifedipine (NO-NIF) is a weak calcium channel blocker that is converted from nifedipine under light exposure. Recently, we reported that NO-NIF has potential as a novel antioxidant with radical scavenging abilities and has the capacity to treat vascular dysfunction by exerting an endothelial protective effect. In the present study, we extended these findings by evaluating the efficacy of NO-NIF against DN and by clarifying the mechanisms of its antioxidative effect. In a model of type 2 DN (established in KKAy mice), NO-NIF administration reduced albuminuria and proteinuria as well as glomerular expansion without affecting glucose metabolism or systolic blood pressure. NO-NIF also suppressed renal and systemic oxidative stress and decreased the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, a marker of endothelial cell injury, in the glomeruli of the KKAy mice. Similarly, NO-NIF reduced albuminuria, oxidative stress, and ICAM-1 expression in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) knockout mice. Moreover, NO-NIF suppressed urinary angiotensinogen (AGT) excretion and intrarenal AGT protein expression in proximal tubular cells in the KKAy mice. On the other hand, hyperglycemia-induced mitochondrial superoxide production was not attenuated by NO-NIF in cultured endothelial cells. These findings suggest that NO-NIF prevents the progression of type 2 DN associated with endothelial dysfunction through selective antioxidative effects.
Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker Attenuates Intrarenal Renin-Angiotensin-System and Podocyte Injury in Rats with Myocardial Infarction  [PDF]
Zhu-zhi Wen, Mu-yan Cai, Zun Mai, Dong-mei Jin, Yang-xin Chen, Hui Huang, Deng-feng Geng, Jing-feng Wang
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067242
Abstract: The mechanisms and mediators underlying common renal impairment after myocardial infarction (MI) are still poorly understood. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) provides renoprotective effects after MI by preventing augmented intrarenal renin-angiotensin-system (RAS)-induced podocyte injury. Sprague–Dawley rats that underwent ligation of their coronary arteries were treated with losartan (20 mg/kg/d) or vehicle for 3 or 9 weeks. Renal function, histology and molecular changes were assessed. The current study revealed that MI-induced glomerular podocyte injury was identified by increased immunostaining for desmin and p16ink4a, decreased immunostaining for Wilms’ tumor-1 and podocin mRNA expression, and an induced increase of blood cystatin C at both 3 and 9 weeks. These changes were associated with increased intrarenal angiotensin II levels and enhanced expressions of angiotensinogen mRNA and angiotensin II receptor mRNA and protein. These changes were also associated with decreased levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and decreased expressions of IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) protein and mRNA and phosphorylated(p)-Akt protein at 9 weeks, as well as increased expressions of 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine at both time points. Treatment with losartan significantly attenuated desmin- and p16ink4a-positive podocytes, restored podocin mRNA expression, and decreased blood cystatin C levels. Losartan also prevented RAS activation and oxidative stress and restored the IGF-1/IGF-1R/Akt pathway. In conclusion, ARBs prevent the progression of renal impairment after MI via podocyte protection, partially by inhibiting the activation of the local RAS with subsequent enhanced oxidative stress and an inhibited IGF-1/IGF-1R/Akt pathway.
Angiotensin II Type II Receptor Deficiency Accelerates the Development of Nephropathy in Type I Diabetes via Oxidative Stress and ACE2  [PDF]
Shiao-Ying Chang,Yun-Wen Chen,Isabelle Chenier,Stella Le Minh Tran,Shao-Ling Zhang
Journal of Diabetes Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/521076
Abstract: Since the functional role(s) of angiotensin II (Ang II) type II receptor (AT2R) in type I diabetes is unknown, we hypothesized that AT2R is involved in decreasing the effects of type I diabetes on the kidneys. We induced diabetes with low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) in both AT2R knockout (AT2RKO) and wild-type (WT) male mice aged 12 weeks and followed them for 4 weeks. Three subgroups nondiabetic, diabetic, and insulin-treated diabetic (Rx insulin implant) were studied. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), physiological parameters, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal morphology, gene expression, and apoptosis were assessed. After 4 weeks of diabetes, compared to WT controls, AT2RKO mice clearly developed features of early diabetic nephropathy (DN), such as renal hypertrophy, tubular apoptosis, and progressive extracellular matrix (ECM) protein accumulation as well as increased GFR. AT2RKO mice presented hypertension unaffected by diabetes. Renal oxidative stress (measured as heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) gene expression and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation) and intrarenal renin angiotensin system components, such as angiotensinogen (Agt), AT1R, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene expression, were augmented whereas angiotensin-converting enzyme2 (ACE2) gene expression was decreased in renal proximal tubules (RPTs) of AT2RKO mice. The renal changes noted above were significantly enhanced in diabetic AT2RKO mice but partially attenuated in insulin-treated diabetic WT and AT2RKO mice. In conclusion, AT2R deficiency accelerates the development of DN, which appears to be mediated, at least in part, via heightened oxidative stress and ACE/ACE2 ratio in RPTs. 1. Introduction Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the single major cause of end-stage renal failure in North America [1, 2]. Among the multiple risk factors contributing to diabetic renal disease, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), a coordinated hormonal cascade that has major physiological and pathological effects on the cardiovascular and renal functions, is one of the most important systems affecting DN development and progression [3–5]. Although chronic treatment with RAS blockers is effective in controlling hypertension and retarding DN progression, it is not a cure, indicating that the mechanisms of renal protection by RAS blockers in diabetes are far from being completely understood, and the discovery of additional therapeutic pathways as potential drug targets is of paramount importance [2, 6]. Intrarenal angiotensin II (Ang II), a principal effector of the RAS that is increased in DN, acts
Binge ethanol intake in chronically exposed rat liver decreases LDL-receptor and increases angiotensinogen gene expression  [cached]
Annayya R Aroor,Shivendra D Shukla
World Journal of Hepatology , 2011, DOI: 10.4254/wjh.v3.i9.250
Abstract: AIM: To investigated the status of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-receptor and angiotensionogen gene expression in rats treated chronically with ethanol followed by binge administration, a model that mimics the human scenario. METHODS: Rats were chronically treated with ethanol in liquid diet for 4 wk followed by a single binge mode of ethanol administration (5 mg/kg body weight). Samples were processed 4 h after binge ethanol administration (chronic ethanol binge). Control rats were fed isocaloric diet. In the control for binge, ethanol was replaced by water. Expression of mRNA for angiotensinogen, c-fos and LDL-receptor, and nuclear accumulation of phospho-extracellular regulated kinases (ERK)1/2 and ERK1/2 protein were examined. RESULTS: Binge ethanol administration in chronically treated rats caused increase in steatosis and necrosis. Chronic ethanol alone had negligible effect on mRNA levels of LDL-receptor, or on the levels of nuclear ERK1/2 and phospho-ERK1/2. But, chronic ethanol followed by binge caused a decrease in LDL-receptor mRNA, and also decreased the levels of ERK1/2 and phospho-ERK1/2 in the nuclear compartment. On the other hand, chronic ethanol-binge increased mRNA expression of angiotensinogen and c-fos. CONCLUSION: Binge ethanol after chronic exposure, causes transcriptional dysregulation of LDL-receptor and angiotensinogen genes, both cardiovascular risk factors.
Uncoupling of Glomerular IgA Deposition and Disease Progression in Alymphoplasia Mice with IgA Nephropathy  [PDF]
Masashi Aizawa, Yusuke Suzuki, Hitoshi Suzuki, Huihua Pang, Masao Kihara, Junichiro Nakata, Kenji Yamaji, Satoshi Horikoshi, Yasuhiko Tomino
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095365
Abstract: Previous clinical and experimental studies have indicated that cells responsible for IgA nephropathy (IgAN), at least in part, are localized in bone marrow (BM). Indeed, we have demonstrated that murine IgAN can be experimentally reconstituted by bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from IgAN prone mice in not only normal mice, but also in alymphoplasia mice (aly/aly) independent of IgA+ cells homing to mucosa or secondary lymphoid tissues. The objective of the present study was to further assess whether secondary lymph nodes (LN) contribute to the progression of this disease. BM cells from the several lines of IgAN prone mice were transplanted into aly/aly and wild-type mice (B6). Although the transplanted aly/aly showed the same degree of mesangial IgA and IgG deposition and the same serum elevation levels of IgA and IgA-IgG immune-complexes (IC) as B6, even in extent, the progression of glomerular injury was observed only in B6. This uncoupling in aly/aly was associated with a lack of CD4+ T cells and macrophage infiltration, although phlogogenic capacity to nephritogenic IC of renal resident cells was identical between both recipients. It is suggested that secondary LN may be required for the full progression of IgAN after nephritogenic IgA and IgA/IgG IC deposition.
Pyk2 controls filamentous actin formation in human glomerular mesangial cells via modulation of profilin expression  [cached]
Victoriya A Rufanova,Anna Alexanian,Tetsuro Wakatsuki,Andrey Sorokin
Cell Health and Cytoskeleton , 2009,
Abstract: Victoriya A Rufanova1, Anna Alexanian1, Tetsuro Wakatsuki2,3, Andrey Sorokin11Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Kidney Disease Center Milwaukee, WI, USA; 2Department of Physiology, 3Bioengineering and Biotechnology Center, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USAAbstract: In glomerular mesangial cell (GMC), important regulators of glomerular filtration, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of calcium regulated nonkinase (CRNK), a dominant interfering calcium-regulated nonreceptor proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) construct, inhibited Pyk2 activity and caused enhanced RhoA activity, enriched cortical actin formation at time of cell replating, and reduction of spreading. We aimed to further explore Pyk2 regulation of the actin dynamic during cell spreading as a vital characteristic of GMC function. GMC were infected with adenovirus encoding CRNK or green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a control and 48 hours after infection cells were harvested and either re-plated or left in suspension for one hour. De novo adhesion to substrate was significantly decreased after Pyk2 activity inhibition and was further diminished after treatment with Rho-associated kinase inhibitor. Inhibition of Pyk2 was associated with increased filamentous actin formation and a corresponding decrease in globular to filamentous actin ratio during cell spreading. Phosphorylation and expression of cofilin, a RhoA-regulated filamentous actin destabilizing factor, were similar in CRNK-expressing and control GMC. Expression of profilin, an activator of actin polymerization, was enhanced, whereas phosphorylation of Pyk2 and p130Cas was decreased. Our data suggest that Pyk2 signaling controls the filamentous actin formation during cell spreading via upregulation of profilin expression.Keywords: Pyk2, profilin, cell spreading, adhesion, glomerular mesangial cells, p130Cas, actin dynamic, ROCK inhibition
Axl Tyrosine Kinase Protects against Tubulo-Interstitial Apoptosis and Progression of Renal Failure in a Murine Model of Chronic Kidney Disease and Hyperphosphataemia  [PDF]
Gareth D. Hyde, Rebecca F. Taylor, Nick Ashton, Samantha J. Borland, Hon Sing Geoffrey Wu, Andrew P. Gilmore, Ann E. Canfield
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102096
Abstract: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as the progressive loss of renal function often involving glomerular, tubulo-interstitial and vascular pathology. CKD is associated with vascular calcification; the extent of which predicts morbidity and mortality. However, the molecular regulation of these events and the progression of chronic kidney disease are not fully elucidated. To investigate the function of Axl receptor tyrosine kinase in CKD we performed a sub-total nephrectomy and fed high phosphate (1%) diet to Axl+/+ and Axl?/? mice. Plasma Gas6 (Axl' ligand), renal Axl expression and downstream Akt signalling were all significantly up-regulated in Axl+/+ mice following renal mass reduction and high phosphate diet, compared to age-matched controls. Axl?/? mice had significantly enhanced uraemia, reduced bodyweight and significantly reduced survival following sub-total nephrectomy and high phosphate diet compared to Axl+/+ mice; only 45% of Axl?/? mice survived to 14 weeks post-surgery compared to 87% of Axl+/+ mice. Histological analysis of kidney remnants revealed no effect of loss of Axl on glomerular hypertrophy, calcification or renal sclerosis but identified significantly increased tubulo-interstitial apoptosis in Axl?/? mice. Vascular calcification was not induced in Axl+/+ or Axl?/? mice in the time frame we were able to examine. In conclusion, we identify the up-regulation of Gas6/Axl signalling as a protective mechanism which reduces tubulo-interstitial apoptosis and slows progression to end-stage renal failure in the murine nephrectomy and high phosphate diet model of CKD.
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