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Volatile organic compounds emission inventory of a petrochemical industry: tanks and fugitive emissions  [PDF]
Paulo Rogério Prezotti,Ana Claudia Camargo de Lima Tresmondi
Engenharia Ambiental : Pesquisa e Tecnologia , 2006,
Abstract: Paulínia, located in the state of S o Paulo, has an important industrial center, and its industries represent the biggest source of volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions to the atmosphere. These compounds are emitted by fugitive emissions and some point sources and can present adverse effect in the environment and the health human being, besides exerting an important influence in the formation of photochemical oxidants, as ozone. The present work refers to a VOC emission inventory of a petrochemical industry located in the Paulínia petrochemical complex. The inventory was done based on emission factors and emission model from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.EPA). The emission critical points in manufacture were determined as well as fugitive emissions in equipments and emissions in some VOC storage tanks. The results show that the main emission source is due to fugitive emissions (99%), being flanges the responsible for the major emissions. After the results got from this inventory, the company knowing some of the main emission sources can monitor them to verify if the results are correct, and implement modifications when necessary maintenance, in order to minimize such emissions.
Sources, trends and regional impacts of fine particulate matter in southern Mississippi valley: significance of emissions from sources in the Gulf of Mexico coast  [PDF]
M.-C. Chalbot,B. McElroy,I. G. Kavouras
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2013, DOI: 10.5194/acp-13-3721-2013
Abstract: The sources of fine particles over a 10 yr period at Little Rock, Arkansas, an urban area in the southern Mississippi Valley, were identified by positive matrix factorization. The annual trends of PM2.5 and its sources, and their associations with the pathways of air mass backward trajectories were examined. Seven sources were apportioned, namely, primary traffic particles, secondary nitrate and sulphate, biomass burning, diesel particles, aged/contaminated sea salt and mineral/road dust, accounting for more than 90% of measured PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) mass. The declining trend of PM2.5 mass (0.4 μg m 3 per year) was related to lower levels of SO42 (0.2 μg m 3 per year) due to SO2 reductions from point and mobile sources. The slower decline for NO3 particles (0.1 μg m 3 per year) was attributed to the increasing NH3 emissions in the Midwest. The annual variation of biomass burning particles was associated with fires in the southeast and northwest US. Of the four regions within 500 km from the receptor site, the Gulf Coast and the southeast US accounted cumulatively for more than 65% of PM2.5 mass, nitrate, sulphate and biomass burning aerosol. Overall, more than 50% of PM2.5 and its components originated from sources outside the state. Sources within the Gulf Coast and western Gulf of Mexico include 65% of the busiest ports in the US, intense marine traffic within 400 km of the coast burning rich in S diesel, and a large number of offshore oil and natural gas platforms and many refineries. This approach allowed for the quantitative assessment of the impacts of transport from regions representing diverse mixtures of sources and weather conditions for different types of particles. The findings of this effort demonstrated the influences of emission controls on SO2 and NOx on PM2.5 mass, the potential effect of events (i.e. fires) sensitive to climate change phenomena on air pollution and the potential of offshore activities and shipping emissions to influence air quality in urban areas located more than 1000 km away from the sources.
Sources, trends and regional impacts of fine particulate matter in southern Mississippi Valley: significance of emissions from sources in the Gulf of Mexico coast  [PDF]
M.-C. Chalbot,B. McElroy,I. G. Kavouras
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2013, DOI: 10.5194/acpd-13-827-2013
Abstract: The sources of fine particles over a 10 yr period at Little Rock, Arkansas, an urban area in southern Mississippi Valley, were identified by positive matrix factorization. The annual trends of PM2.5 and its sources and their associations with the pathways of air mass backward trajectories were examined. Seven sources were apportioned, namely, primary traffic particles, secondary nitrate and sulphate, biomass burning, diesel particles, aged/contaminated sea salt and mineral/road dust, accounting for more than 90% of measured PM2.5 mass. The declining trend of PM2.5 mass (0.4 μg m 3 yr 1) was related to lower levels of SO42 (0.2 μg m 3 yr 1) due to SO2 reductions from point and mobile sources. The slower decline for NO3 particles (0.1 μg m 3 yr 1) was attributed to the spatial variability of NH3 in Midwest. The annual variation of biomass burning particles was associated with wildland fires in southeast and northwest US that are sensitive to climate changes. The four regions within 500 km from the receptor site, the Gulf Coast and southeast US accounted cumulatively for more than 65% of PM2.5 mass, nitrate, sulphate and biomass burning aerosol. Overall, more than 50% of PM2.5 and its sources originated from sources outside the state. Sources within the Gulf Coast and western Gulf of Mexico include 65% of the busiest ports in the US, intense marine traffic within 400 km of the coast burning rich in S diesel, and a large number of offshore oil and natural gas platforms and many refineries along the coast. This approach allowed for quantitatively assessing the impacts of transport from regions representing diverse mixtures of sources and weather conditions for different types of particles. The findings of this effort demonstrated the influences of emission controls on SO2 and NOx on PM2.5 mass, the potential effect of events (i.e. fires) sensitive to climate change phenomena on air pollution and the potential of offshore activities and shipping emissions to influence air quality in urban areas located more than 1000 km away from the sources.
An Interagency Collaboration to Facilitate Development of Filovirus Medical Countermeasures  [PDF]
Nicole Kilgore,Edwin O. Nuzum
Viruses , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/v4102312
Abstract: The Filovirus Animal Non-Clinical Group (FANG) is a US interdepartmental and interagency group established to support and facilitate the advanced development of filovirus Medical Countermeasures (MCM), both vaccines and therapeutics. It is co-led by one representative from the Department of Defense (DoD), the first author, and one from the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), the second author. The FANG membership includes operational level program staff and Subject Matter Experts (SME) from performing organizations as well as scientific staff and program managers from DoD and HHS funding and regulatory agencies. Focus areas include animal models, assays, reagents, product manufacture and characterization, and other interagency product development issues that will support Food and Drug Administration (FDA) licensure of safe and effective filovirus MCMs. The FANG continues to develop strategies to address broadly applicable and interagency product development challenges relevant to filovirus MCM development. This paper summarizes FANG structure and accomplishments and is meant to heighten community awareness of this government-led collaborative effort.
Skin Cancer Knowledge, Beliefs, Self-Efficacy, and Preventative Behaviors among North Mississippi Landscapers  [PDF]
Vinayak K. Nahar,M. Allison Ford,Jeffrey S. Hallam,Martha A. Bass,Amanda Hutcheson,Michael A. Vice
Dermatology Research and Practice , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/496913
Abstract: There are slightly over one million workers in the landscape service industry in the US. These workers have potential for high levels of solar ultraviolet radiation exposure, increasing their risk of skin cancer. A cross-sectional sample of 109 landscapers completed a self-administered questionnaire based on Health Belief Model (HBM). The participants correctly answered 67.1% of the knowledge questions, 69.7% believed they were more likely than the average person to get skin cancer, and 87.2% perceived skin cancer as a severe disease. Participants believed that the use of wide-brimmed hats, long sleeved shirts/long pants, and sunscreen was beneficial but reported low usage of these and other sun protective strategies. The primary barriers to using sun protection were “I forget to wear it” and “it is too hot to wear.” Of the HBM variables, perceived benefits outweighing perceived barrier ( , ) and self-efficacy ( , ) were correlated with sun protection behaviors. The reasons for absence of the relationship between perceived skin cancer threat and sun protection behaviors could be lack of skin cancer knowledge and low rate of personal skin cancer history. 1. Introduction In the US, there are millions of workers in the outdoor occupations who have the potential for overexposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR), placing them at higher risk of developing skin cancer [1, 2]. Outdoor workers are generally exposed to UVR during work for two to eight hours which far exceeds recommended guidelines [3, 4]. Additionally, a vast majority of outdoor jobs in the US are held by fair skinned individuals who are increasingly at risk of skin cancer [5]. However, several studies report that some outdoor workers are engaging in sun protection practice but a large population of outdoor workers continues to show inadequate levels of sun protection [6]. This use of inadequate levels of sun protective behaviors amongst outdoor workers could be due to many of the outdoor workers being males, who often engage in lower levels of sun protection behaviors than females [5]. A review article showed that a number of research studies were conducted on outdoor workers to assess quantitative data of sun exposure and sun protection behaviors, with the majority of studies carried out on farmers and recreation workers [6]. Nonetheless, far too little attention was given to members of other occupational groups that work outdoors, such as landscapers. It was estimated in the US that there are slightly over one million workers in the landscape service industry [7]. To best of our knowledge,
APPLYING SYSTEMS ENGINEERING TO INTERAGENCY COORDINATION IN SUPPORT OF COMBATANT COMMANDS  [PDF]
Warren H. BONG,Paul BEERY,Eugene P. PAULO
Journal of Defense Resources Management , 2012,
Abstract: This research addresses interagency coordination from an architectural perspective utilizing a systems engineering process. Interagency coordination is not fully understood and has proven difficult for various U.S. government agencies to replicate. Two examples of successful interagency coordination are used in this analysis: the Joint Interagency Task Force-South (JIATF-South) and Special Operations Forces (SOF) high-value target teams. These organizations are decomposed into their top-level functions and organized by their major physical components. These results are applied in the creation of a notional top-level functional and physical architecture for the U.S. European Command’s new Joint Interagency Counter-Trafficking Center (JICTC).
Analytic prognostic for petrochemical pipelines  [PDF]
Abdo Abou Jaoude,Seifedine Kadry,Khaled El-Tawil,Hassan Noura,Mustapha Ouladsine
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: Pipelines tubes are part of vital mechanical systems largely used in petrochemical industries. They serve to transport natural gases or liquids. They are cylindrical tubes and are submitted to the risks of corrosion due to high PH concentrations of the transported liquids in addition to fatigue cracks due to the alternation of pressure-depression of gas along the time, initiating therefore in the tubes body micro-cracks that can propagate abruptly to lead to failure. The development of the prognostic process for such systems increases largely their performance and their availability, as well decreases the global cost of their missions. Therefore, this paper deals with a new prognostic approach to improve the performance of these pipelines. Only the first mode of crack, that is, the opening mode, is considered.
PETROCHEMICAL PROMOTERS IN CATALYTIC CRACKING
Gómez,Maria-Elizabeth; Vargas,Clemencia; Lizcano,Javier;
CT&F - Ciencia, Tecnología y Futuro , 2009,
Abstract: this study is based on the current scheme followed by a refinery with available catalytic cracking capacity to process new feedstocks such as straight run naphtha and naphthas from fcc. these feedstocks are of petrochemical interest to produce ethane, ethylene, propylene, i-butane, toluene and xylene. to evaluate the potential of these new streams versus the cracking-charged residues, it was performed a detailed chemical analysis on the structural groups in carbons [c1-c12] at the reactor product obtained in pilot plant. a catalyst with and without propylene promoter additive was used. this study analyzes the differences in the chemical composition of the feedstocks, relating them to the yield of each petrochemical product. straight run naphthas with a high content of naphthenes, and paraffines n[c5-c12] and i[c7-c12] are selective to the production of i-butane and propane, while naphthas from fcc with a high content of n[c5-c12]olefins, i-olefins, and aromatics are more selective to propylene, toluene, and xylene. concerning catalytic cracking of naphthas, the additive has similar selectivity for all the petrochemical products, their yields increase by about one point with 4%wt of additive, while in cracking of residues, the additive increases in three points propylene yield, corresponding to a selectivity of 50% (δc3= / δlpg).
Lung Cancer Risk and Past Exposure to Emissions from a Large Steel Plant  [PDF]
Oscar Breugelmans,Caroline Ameling,Marten Marra,Paul Fischer,Jan van de Kassteele,Johannes Lijzen,Arie Oosterlee,Rinske Keuken,Otto Visser,Danny Houthuijs,Carla van Wiechen
Journal of Environmental and Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/684035
Abstract: We studied the spatial distribution of cancer incidence rates around a large steel plant and its association with historical exposure. The study population was close to 600,000. The incidence data was collected for 1995–2006. From historical emission data the air pollution concentrations for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and metals were modelled. Data were analyzed using Bayesian hierarchical Poisson regression models. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for lung cancer was up to 40% higher than average in postcodes located in two municipalities adjacent to the industrial area. Increased incidence rates could partly be explained by differences in socioeconomic status (SES). In the highest exposure category (approximately 45,000 inhabitants) a statistically significant increased relative risk (RR) of 1.21 (1.01–1.43) was found after adjustment for SES. The elevated RRs were similar for men and women. Additional analyses in a subsample of the population with personal smoking data from a recent survey suggested that the observed association between lung cancer and plant emission, after adjustment for SES, could still be caused by residual confounding. Therefore, we cannot indisputably conclude that past emissions from the steel plant have contributed to the increased risk of lung cancer. 1. Background Residents living in the surrounding area of a large steel plant located near the Dutch town of IJmuiden have been concerned about health effects from plant emissions for some time. This led to studies into the acute effects of air pollution in the vicinity of the plant [1, 2]. But concerns were augmented by a television documentary broadcast in May 2008, which presented results from a study of metal concentrations in hair from children living in the area [3]. Earlier, in 2007, the Community Health Service reported an increased lung cancer incidence for the region as a whole and for the nearby municipality of Beverwijk in particular [4]. In a large number of studies the health of the residents in the vicinity of steel plants has been investigated. The health effects of long-term exposure include, among, others lung cancer and mortality [5–21]. We present the results from a study, which aims to investigate the spatial distribution of lung cancer incidence rates in a large area around the industrial site at a lower aggregation level than was previously available for studies into the health effects of the steel plant [4]. The study furthermore addresses the influence of smoking habits on lung cancer incidence and aims to assess the association between
PETROCHEMICAL PROMOTERS IN CATALYTIC CRACKING  [cached]
Maria-Elizabeth Gómez,Clemencia Vargas,Javier Lizcano
CT&F - Ciencia, Tecnología y Futuro , 2009,
Abstract: This study is based on the current scheme followed by a refinery with available Catalytic Cracking capacity to process new feedstocks such as Straight Run Naphtha and Naphthas from FCC. These feedstocks are of petrochemical interest to produce Ethane, Ethylene, Propylene, i-Butane, Toluene and Xylene. To evaluate the potential of these new streams versus the Cracking-charged Residues, it was performed a detailed chemical analysis on the structural groups in carbons [C1-C12] at the reactor product obtained in pilot plant. A catalyst with and without Propylene Promoter Additive was used. This study analyzes the differences in the chemical composition of the feedstocks, relating them to the yield of each petrochemical product. Straight Run Naphthas with a high content of Naphthenes, and Paraffines n[C5-C12] and i[C7-C12] are selective to the production of i-Butane and Propane, while Naphthas from FCC with a high content of n[C5-C12]Olefins, i-Olefins, and Aromatics are more selective to Propylene, Toluene, and Xylene. Concerning Catalytic Cracking of Naphthas, the Additive has similar selectivity for all the petrochemical products, their yields increase by about one point with 4%wt of Additive, while in cracking of Residues, the Additive increases in three points Propylene yield, corresponding to a selectivity of 50% (ΔC3= / ΔLPG). El presente estudio se basa en el esquema actual de una refinería con capacidad disponible en Cracking Catalítico, para procesar nuevas cargas tales como Naftas Vírgenes y Naftas de URC (Unidad de Ruptura Catalítica), las cuales son de interés Petroquímico en productos tales como Etano, Etileno, Propileno, i-Butano, Tolueno y Xilenos. Para evaluar el Potencial Petroquímico de estas corrientes frente al de los Residuos cargados a Cracking, se realizó un análisis químico detallado de los Grupos Estructurales de los Carbonos [C1-C12] en el producto reactor obtenido en planta piloto, utilizando un catalizador con y sin Aditivo promotor de Propileno. El estudio analiza las marcadas diferencias en la composición química de las cargas, y las relaciona con los rendimientos de cada uno de los productos petroquímicos. Las Naftas Vírgenes con mayor contenido de Naftenos y de Parafinas n[C5-C12] e i[C7-C12] son selectivas hacia la producción de i-Butano y Propano, mientras que las Naftas de URC con altos contenidos de n[C5-C12] Olefinas, i-Olefinas, y Aromáticos son más selectivas hacia Propileno, Tolueno y Xilenos. En el craqueo de las Naftas, el Aditivo tiene la misma selectividad para todos los productos petroquímicos, sus rendimientos in
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