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Consciousness of Water Resources Crisis and the Innovation of the Water Resources Management System in Beijing
北京市水危机意识与水资源管理机制创新

GAO Yuan-yuan,WANG Hong-rui,HAN Lu-jie,WANG Yan,WANG Zhe,
高媛媛
,王红瑞,韩鲁杰,王岩,王喆

资源科学 , 2010,
Abstract: The scarcity of water resources and the rapid development of economy and society have made Beijing one of the cities facing severe water shortage in China, especially under the condition that the Project of Water Transfer from the South to the North in China was postponed for 5 years. Water resources shortage crises with its characteristics are presented in this paper on the basis of investigating residents' consciousness on water resources crisis. The severe deficiency and contamination of water resources were found to be major water challenges in Beijing, causing great pressures on sustainable development of water resources, economy and society. In the context, more attention should be paid to improve residents' consciousness of water resources crisis, which would also be an efficient approach to getting more public to participate in water resources management. In fact, some substantial measures have been taken by relevant administrative departments, including 1) raising water price. Beijing has elevated water prices for 4 times during the period 1999-2004; 2) adjusting and optimizing industrial structures. Agriculture was strictly controlled and adjusted for using water efficiently; and 3) establishment of the Beijing water authority, which greatly facilitated the integrated water resources management. A grim situation of water resources crises has therefore been significantly changed due to implementation of these measures. In addition to enormous effort that has been made, there are still some other critical measures and strategies that can ensure the water resources management to work more effectively and efficiently. Relevant studies showed that per capital water consumption for domestic use in Beijing was the highest in 31 provinces (municipalities) in China. Therefore, if residents are willing to use less water in a more efficient manner, large amount of water can be saved. These measures include enforcement of the consciousness about water resources crisis and water security, improvement of water use efficiency in the processes of water utilization, and paying more attention to the use of rainfall and virtual water resources. Agricultural techniques with regard to water saving should also be taken. On the other hand, the groundwater of Beijing should be reserved, especially after the Project of Water Transfer from the South to the North is conducted. It was suggested that the water resources management in Beijing should be shifted from increasing water supplies to water demand control. The enforcement of the consciousness about water resources crisis is a basic driving force for constructing water-saving society.
Integrated water resources management: evolution, prospects and future challenges
Muhammad Mizanur Rahaman,Olli Varis
Sustainability : Science, Practice and Policy , 2005,
Abstract: This paper analyzes the evolution of the concept of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) at international conferences over the past three decades and addresses the prospects of IWRM in resolving the current water crisis. It also identifies seven crucial challenges to implementing IWRM. Our rivers and aquifers are the life-blood of the planet. To achieve sustainable development, we must manage our most vital natural resource, water, in an integrated manner, or precisely through Integrated Water Resources Management. Since water is fundamental to many aspects of life, and to the surrounding natural environment, there is a need not only to review IWRM’s evolution in the last three decades, but also to identify future challenges to its implementation.
Planning and Decision Support Tools for the Integrated Water Resources Management in Vietnam  [PDF]
Christian Jolk,Sandra Greassidis,Sylvia Jaschinski,Harro Stolpe,Bj?rn Zindler
Water , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/w2040711
Abstract: Within the German-Vietnamese joint research project “Integrated Water Resources Management Vietnam”, Planning and Decision Support Tools on a regional scale are being developed. A Water Balance Tool is utilized to calculate and assess water demands and compares these with the quantity of water resources to identify surpluses or deficits. The sensitivity of water resources and the contamination potential are combined to display water quality aspects within a Contamination Risk Tool. A resulting evaluation is carried out with a Ranking Tool. It identifies areas with high priority need for action. The Planning and Decision Support Tools are being discussed with Vietnamese institutions and authorities.
Evaluation on Water Resources and Determining the Values of Exported and Imported Virtual Water in Hashtgerd Region  [PDF]
Seyed Jalal Yadollahi Nooshabadi, Mohammad Reza Jahansuz, Nasser Majnoun Hosseini, Gholam Reza Peykani
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2016.66035
Abstract: The concept of virtual water in recent years has been proposed with the world’s water resource consumption management approach. Hashtgerd study area is one of 609 study areas of the country that is located entirely in Alborz Province. Average annual rainfall in this region was about 200 to 340 mm and the average agricultural production per year was more than one million tons and had more than 16 million cubic meters surplus recovery from underground water resources. The aim of this study is to evaluate resources and amounts of virtual water in the agricultural sector of the study area and its impact on the area water resources balance and ultimately provide solutions to reduce water consumption by the agricultural sector. The most important exported water products in Hashtgerd area in order of importance are peaches and nectarines (33% of water exports), plums (15% of water exports), vegetables (5.14 percent of water exports), cherry (4.7% of water exports) and wheat (6.5 percent of water exports). Virtual water trade balance of agricultural and horticultural products in the digital range is equal to 260+ million cubic meters. Density of agricultural lands can be mentioned as the main reasons for positive balance of virtual water trade in this area.
Finding practical approaches to Integrated Water Resources Management
John Butterworth,Jeroen Warner,Patrick Moriarty,Stef Smits
Water Alternatives , 2010,
Abstract: Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) has often been interpreted and implemented in a way that is only really suited to countries with the most developed water infrastructures and management capacities. While sympathetic to many of the criticisms levelled at the IWRM concept and recognising the often disappointing levels of adoption, this paper and the series of papers it introduces identify some alternative ways forward in a developmental context that place more emphasis on the practical in-finding solutions to water scarcity. A range of lighter, more pragmatic and context-adapted approaches, strategies and entry points are illustrated with examples from projects and initiatives in mainly 'developing' countries. The authors argue that a more service-orientated (WASH, irrigation and ecosystem services), locally rooted and balanced approach to IWRM that better matches contexts and capacities should build on such strategies, in addition to the necessary but long-term policy reforms and river basin institution-building at higher levels. Examples in this set of papers not only show that the 'lighter', more opportunistic and incremental approach has potential as well as limitations but also await wider piloting and adoption.
Assessment of Food Products and Virtual Water Trade as Related to Available Water Resources in Iran
N Rouhani,H Yang,S Amin Sichani,M Afyuni
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2009,
Abstract: Iran, with an average annual precipitation of about 252 mm (413 BCM) and renewable freshwater resources of 130 BCM, has irregular distribution of water resources. With a high population growth rate, agriculture remains the greatest water user in Iran but its production still does not meet the total food demand of the country. Due to unreliable water availability, the competition for water from other sectors and the increasing demand for food and better diets, Iran will experience water stress. In this study, virtual water trade in relation to water resources availability has been assessed as a way of relaxing water stress in Iran. The results showed that from the 21 food products, cereals, pulses, nuts and oilseeds are water-intensive crops according to their estimated virtual water content, while fruits, vegetables and industrial crops are not water-intensive. Considering the volume of virtual water entering the country through food imports, more water will be available for other essential uses. However, the virtual water trade has been developed rather unconsciously regarding water use and crop water productivity during the past two decades. For instance, wheat with a share of 58.5% in the virtual water import to Iran, was the dominant imported crop during 1983-2003. By importing 10.4 Mt of wheat, 11.6 BCM of water has been saved within the country during 1999-2003. However, Iran became self-sufficient in wheat production in early 2005. Consequently, this latest drive for self-sufficiency in the production of wheat, as a water-intensive crop, put tremendous pressure on domestic water resources. The trend in crop trade in terms of quantity and virtual water for other groups of crops has also been shown in the study. Seemingly, crop production and import have been greatly influenced by the weather conditions. With the increasing water scarcity, the role of virtual water in food security is expected to rise continuously in Iran. Thus, conscious virtual water trade as a policy measure in water management and judicious adjustment in agricultural structure will ensure sustainable food security and water availability in Iran.
Does Integrated Water Resources Management Support Institutional Change? The Case of Water Policy Reform in Israel  [cached]
Itay Fischhendler,Tanya Heikkila
Ecology and Society , 2010,
Abstract: Many international efforts have been made to encourage integrated water resources management through recommendations from both the academic and the aid and development sectors. Recently, it has been argued that integrated water resources management can help foster better adaptation of management and policy responses to emerging water crises. Nevertheless, few empirical studies have assessed how this type of management works in practice and what an integrated water management system implies for institutional adaptation and change. Our assessment of the Israeli water sector provides one view of how they can be shaped by an integrated structure in the water sector. Our analysis of recent efforts to adapt Israel's water management system to new conditions and uncertainties reveals that the interconnectedness of the system and the consensus decision-making process, led by a dominant actor who coordinates and sets the policy agenda, tends to increase the complexity of negotiations. In addition, the physical integration of water management leads to sunk costs of large-scale physical infrastructure. Both these factors create a path dependency that empowers players who receive benefits from maintaining the existing system. This impedes institutional reform of the water management system and suggests that integrated water resources management creates policy and management continuity that may only be amenable to incremental changes. In contrast, real adaptation that requires reversibility and the ability to change management strategies in response to new information or monitoring of specific management outcomes.
The Potential Role of Mental Model Methodologies in Multistakeholder Negotiations: Integrated Water Resources Management in South Africa  [cached]
Derick R. Du Toit,Harry Biggs,Sharon Pollard
Ecology and Society , 2011, DOI: 10.5751/es-04237-160321
Abstract: Equitable redistribution of resources is an emergent phenomenon in democratizing countries, and attempts are often characterized by decentralized decision making within a framework of multistakeholder negotiations. South Africa offers a unique opportunity to explore the manifestations of these relationships, particularly through Integrated Water Resources Management and its National Water Act of 1998. The Integrated Water Resources Management framework provides for collaborative strategic planning, shared visioning, consideration to water resource protection, attention to the regulation of use, operational planning, and implementation of management plans. Water users, with different stakes and views of how the resource should be managed, are expected to arrive at a single strategic plan for a specific hydrological region. Clearly this complex planning situation creates a need for tools that assist in producing a measure of convergence in thinking and enough of a shared rationale to allow stakeholder participation to produce an integrated management outcome. Several such tools are available in the overall catchment management strategy, but these would benefit from clearer understanding of the positions from which different stakeholders are operating and a way of knowing whether these positions are aligning. In this paper challenges posed by differences in meaning and understanding amongst stakeholders are examined against the need to engage stakeholders in water resources management. We deliberate on the prospects of employing mental model methodologies within the context of the strategic management framework for water management described.
Can Integrated Water Resources Management Contribute to Sustainable Peace in the Middle East?  [PDF]
Khaldoon A. Mourad, Ronny Berndtsson, Karin Aggestam
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2013.11001
Abstract: Water resources issue in the Middle East is an important question related to the 4th June 1967 line in the Middle Eastpeace process. This paper focuses on possibilities within the Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) approach to contribute to the peace process between what is calledIsraeland Arab countries emphasizing fruitful cooperation to resolve the 4th June 1967 line issue. The paper shows that start of a possible cooperation could be founded on interest-based negotiations and built on IWRM principles by a simple geographical allocation plan for theLake Tiberiaswater together with a joint environmental protection plan to build cooperation instead of confrontation and integration instead of fragmentation. In a better cooperative climate, withdrawing from the 4th June 1967 line could be a possibility because negotiation results would incur safer access to sustainable water resources and a comprehensive peace.
Integrated and Adaptive Management of Water Resources: Tensions, Legacies, and the Next Best Thing
Nathan L. Engle,Owen R. Johns,Maria Carmen Lemos,Donald R. Nelson
Ecology and Society , 2011,
Abstract: Integrated water resources management (IWRM) and adaptive management (AM) are two institutional and management paradigms designed to address shortcomings within water systems governance; the limits of hierarchical water institutional arrangements in the case of IWRM and the challenge of making water management decisions under uncertainty in the case of AM. Recently, there has been a trend to merge these paradigms to address the growing complexity of stressors shaping water management such as globalization and climate change. However, because many of these joint approaches have received little empirical attention, questions remain about how they might work, or not, in practice. Here, we explore a few of these issues using empirical research carried out in Brazil. We focus on highlighting the potentially negative interactions, tensions, and trade-offs between different institutions/mechanisms perceived as desirable as research and practice attempt to make water systems management simultaneously integrated and adaptive. Our examples pertain mainly to the use of techno-scientific knowledge in water management and governance in Brazil's IWRM model and how it relates to participation, democracy, deliberation, diversity, and adaptability. We show that a legacy of technical and hierarchical management has shaped the integration of management, and subsequently, the degree to which management might also be adaptive. Although integrated systems may be more legitimate and accountable than top-down command and control ones, the mechanisms of IWRM may be at odds with the flexible, experimental, and self-organizing nature of AM.
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