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Scenarios of disaster, visions of liberation  [cached]
Steven Best
Revista Theomai , 2004,
Abstract: As the planet spirals ever deeper into social and natural disaster, with all things becoming ever more tightly knit into the tentacles of global capitalism, there is an urgent need for new maps and compasses to help steer us into a viable mode of existence. Karl Marx′s 1843 call for a ruthless criticism of everything existing has never been more urgent and appropriate, but all too often today critique is merely academic, stratospheres away from concrete action and progressive social policies. Yet, social critique and change in the slaughterhouse of capitalism needs to be guided and informed by powerful descriptions of what is -- the degraded forfeiture of human potential in a world where over a billion people struggle for mere existence -- but also by bold new visions of what can be, imaginative projections of how human beings might harmoniously relate to one another and the living/dying earth
Review of Speculative "Disaster Scenarios" at RHIC  [PDF]
R. L. Jaffe,W. Busza,J. Sandweiss,F. Wilczek
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1103/RevModPhys.72.1125
Abstract: We discuss speculative disaster scenarios inspired by hypothetical new fundamental processes that might occur in high energy relativistic heavy ion collisions. We estimate the parameters relevant to black hole production; we find that they are absurdly small. We show that other accelerator and (especially) cosmic ray environments have already provided far more auspicious opportunities for transition to a new vacuum state, so that existing observations provide stringent bounds. We discuss in most detail the possibility of producing a dangerous strangelet. We argue that four separate requirements are necessary for this to occur: existence of large stable strangelets, metastability of intermediate size strangelets, negative charge for strangelets along the stability line, and production of intermediate size strangelets in the heavy ion environment. We discuss both theoretical and experimental reasons why each of these appears unlikely; in particular, we know of no plausible suggestion for why the third or especially the fourth might be true. Given minimal physical assumptions the continued existence of the Moon, in the form we know it, despite billions of years of cosmic ray exposure, provides powerful empirical evidence against the possibility of dangerous strangelet production.
Cognitive Scout Node for Communication in Disaster Scenarios  [PDF]
Rajesh K. Sharma,Anastasia Lavrenko,Dirk Kolb,Reiner S. Thom?
Journal of Computer Networks and Communications , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/160327
Abstract: The cognitive radio (CR) concept has appeared as a promising technology to cope with the spectrum scarcity caused by increased spectrum demand due to the emergence of new applications. CR can be an appropriate mean to establish self-organization and situation awareness at the radio interface, which is highly desired to manage unexpected situations that may happen in a disaster scenario. The scout node proposed in this paper is an extended concept based on a powerful CR node in a heterogeneous nodes environment which takes a leading role for highly flexible, fast, and robust establishment of cooperative wireless links in a disaster situation. This node should have two components: one is a passive sensor unit that collects and stores the technical knowledge about the electromagnetic environment in a data processing unit so-called “radio environment map” in the form of a dynamically updated database, and other is an active transceiver unit which can automatically be configured either as a secondary node for opportunistic communication or as a cooperative base station or access point for primary network in emergency communications. Scout solution can be viable by taking advantage of the technologies used by existing radio surveillance systems in the context of CR. 1. Introduction Communication has been an indispensable part of everyday life in the present days. Apart from making the general life better, modern communications should also be applicable for relief and support to the victims of exceptional adverse situations which include disaster scenarios like earthquakes, floods, cyclones, forest fires and terrorist attacks. Such scenarios impose new requirements on the communication systems. Some of the tasks of a cognitive radio network for emergency situations may be (1) to support specific service requests (higher traffic, coverage, localization, emergency messages, etc.), (2) to re-establish communications in a short time, and (3) to assist rescue forces communications and provide interoperability among them and also among rescue forces and public network. One of the first tasks in disaster is to organize rescue operations in a quick and efficient manner which as well requires rescue forces to be provided with reliable and stable communication facilities. One of the common problems here is providing interoperability among rescue responders originally using different communication standards [1, 2]. In terms of public communication systems, obvious problems in such scenarios are capacity overload with the resulting service denial and absence of coverage
Accelerator Disaster Scenarios, the Unabomber, and Scientific Risks  [PDF]
Joseph I. Kapusta
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1007/s00016-007-0366-y
Abstract: The possibility that experiments at high-energy accelerators could create new forms of matter that would ultimately destroy the Earth has been considered several times in the past quarter century. One consequence of the earliest of these disaster scenarios was that the authors of a 1993 article in "Physics Today" who reviewed the experiments that had been carried out at the Bevalac at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory were placed on the FBI's Unabomber watch list. Later, concerns that experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory might create mini black holes or nuggets of stable strange quark matter resulted in a flurry of articles in the popular press. I discuss this history, as well as Richard A. Posner's provocative analysis and recommendations on how to deal with such scientific risks. I conclude that better communication between scientists and nonscientists would serve to assuage unreasonable fears and focus attention on truly serious potential threats to humankind.
A Framework for Multiple and Heterogeneous Earthquake Disaster Information Fusion
Jinghai Xu,Gaozong Nie
International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing , 2011,
Abstract: To realize the fusion of multiple and heterogeneous earthquake disaster information and get effective disaster information, situation and characteristics are addressed on different earthquake disaster information acquiring methods, in which some new earthquake disaster information acquiring methods are described. A fusion architecture of multiple and heterogeneous disaster information is put forward, including data level, fusion level and application level. And function principle of each level is described. Finally key technologies and realization methods in the fusion architecture are expounded, which are transformation and match of multiple disaster information and coding of the information.
Managing Risk in Disaster Scenarios with Autonomous Robots
Daniel P. Stormont,Vicki H. Allan
Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics , 2009,
Abstract: Disaster areas are one of the most challenging environments faced by mankind. Uncertainty, hazards, and limited availability of rescuers all impact the ability to save lives. Prepositioned autonomous rescue robots offer promise in assisting the rst responders to a disaster site, but there is a challenge to using robots in hazardous environments: numerous studies have shown that human rescuers lack trust in fully autonomous systems. This paper introduces the aspects of disaster areas that make them so challenging. The use of robots as a risk management tool for human rescuers is introduced. Then some of the factors that limit human trust in robots are addressed – including one of the key factors: reliability. The design of a computer model used to investigate issues of trust and the impact of reliability in a re ghting scenario is discussed and the results are analyzed. Finally, some preliminary conclusions and plans for further work in this area are presented.
Linear Decision Fusion under the Control of Constrained PSO for WSNs
Sisi Jiang,Zhiwen Zhao,Sheng Mou,Zushun Wu,Yi Luo
International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/871596
Abstract: A major application of a distributed WSN (wireless sensor network) is to monitor a specific area for detecting some events such as disasters and enemies. In order to achieve this objective, each sensor in the network is required to collect local observations which are probably corrupted by noise, make a local decision regarding the presence or absence of an event, and then send its local decision to a fusion center. After that, the fusion center makes the final decision depending on these local decisions and a decision fusion rule, so an efficient decision fusion rule is extremely critical. It is obvious that the decision-making capability of each node is different owing to the dissimilar signal noise ratios and some other factors, so it is easy to understand that a specific sensor contribution to the global decision should be constrained by this sensor decision-making capability, and, based on this idea, we establish a novel linear decision fusion model for WSNs. Moreover, the constrained particle swarm optimization (constrained PSO) algorithm is creatively employed to control the parameters of this model in this paper and we also apply the typical penalty function to solve the constrained PSO problem. The emulation results indicate that our design is capable of achieving very high accuracy.
Exclusion of black hole disaster scenarios at the LHC
Koch, Benjamin;Bleicher, Marcus;Stoecker, Horst
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2008, DOI: 10.1016/j.physletb.2009.01.003
Abstract: The upcoming high energy experiments at the LHC are one of the most outstanding efforts for a better understanding of nature. It is associated with great hopes in the physics community. But there is also some fear in the public, that the conjectured production of mini black holes might lead to a dangerous chain reaction. In this paper we summarize the most straight forward arguments that are necessary to rule out such doomsday scenarios.
Ontology-based collaborative framework for disaster recovery scenarios  [PDF]
Sakkaravarthi Ramanathan,Aymen Kamoun,Khalil Drira,Christophe Chassot
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: This paper aims at designing of adaptive framework for supporting collaborative work of different actors in public safety and disaster recovery missions. In such scenarios, firemen and robots interact to each other to reach a common goal; firemen team is equipped with smart devices and robots team is supplied with communication technologies, and should carry on specific tasks. Here, reliable connection is mandatory to ensure the interaction between actors. But wireless access network and communication resources are vulnerable in the event of a sudden unexpected change in the environment. Also, the continuous change in the mission requirements such as inclusion/exclusion of new actor, changing the actor's priority and the limitations of smart devices need to be monitored. To perform dynamically in such case, the presented framework is based on a generic multi-level modeling approach that ensures adaptation handled by semantic modeling. Automated self-configuration is driven by rule-based reconfiguration policies through ontology.
MPD-Model: A Distributed Multipreference-Driven Data Fusion Model and Its Application in a WSNs-Based Healthcare Monitoring System  [PDF]
Jibing Gong,Li Cui,Kejiang Xiao,Rui Wang
International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/602358
Abstract: We first propose an MPD-Model, a novel distributed multipreference-driven data fusion model for WSNs. Here, preferences are looked as the core elements of collaboration mechanism in a data fusion procedure. We then present MFA, a distributed multi-preference feature-level fusion algorithm based on weighted average method. Next, to implement feature extraction of wrist-pulse data, we propose FEA, a light-weight adaptive feature extraction algorithm for time series sensed data. Simultaneously, we design TFD-Pattern that is a unique human pulse pattern. Based on historical data, we propose an SVM-based algorithm for health status detection tasks. Finally, we implement the proposed methods in a real wearable healthcare monitoring system which had been previously developed in-house. We validate the proposed methods using real-world data sets with 2046 pulse samples. Experimental results show that the proposed methods outperform the baseline methods, and the proposed MPD-Model is reasonable and effective. 1. Introduction The rapid development of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) brings some new situations. On the one hand, WSNs applications rapidly expand from traditional fields, for example, Military and National Defense and Environmental Monitoring, to emerging civil fields such as intelligent transportation, healthcare monitoring, and smart home. On the other hand, more mobile devices (e.g., smartphones) or local network systems (e.g., Body Sensor Networks) are frequently treated as one single node of WSNs. Undoubtedly, the situations will lead to form a large-scale and complex sensor network. We think the network is a typical Internet of Things (IoT) [1] and it have some characteristics such as interactivity and sociality. Simultaneously, It emphasizes intelligence and sensing-actuating ability of WSNs applications. Consequently, sensed data generated under the situations have the following features [1–4]. The data has polymorphism and heterogeneity. The data is massive. The data is real time. Storage locations of the data have much diversity. The data has high complexity and strong relationships. In the new situations, users play more and more importance to intelligence of sensor network systems because of the growing actual demands. But it is very difficult to implement the intelligence due to seriously limited resources on nodes and the lack of historical sensed data. This is particularly true in the healthcare monitoring applications based on WSNs. Fortunately, system detection/identification accuracies and intelligence can be greatly improved if
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