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Explaining gender differences in non-fatal suicidal behaviour among adolescents: a population-based study
Michael Kaess, Peter Parzer, Johann Haffner, Rainer Steen, Jeanette Roos, Martin Klett, Romuald Brunner, Franz Resch
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-597
Abstract: A cross-sectional design was used to assess suicidal behaviour and various areas of emotional and behavioural problems by using a self-report booklet including the Youth Self-Report. One hundred sixteen schools in a region of Southern Germany agreed to participate. A representative sample of 5,512 ninth-grade students was studied. Mean age was 14.8 years (SD 0.73); 49.8% were female.Serious suicidal thoughts were reported by 19.8% of the female students and 10.8% of the females had ever attempted suicide. In the male group, 9.3% had a history of suicidal thoughts and 4.9% had previously attempted suicide. Internalizing emotional and behavioural problems were shown to be higher in the female group (difference of the group means 4.41) while externalizing emotional and behavioural problems slightly predominated in male students (difference of the group means -0.65). However, the total rate of emotional and behavioural problems was significantly higher in the adolescent female group (difference of the group means 4.98). Using logistic regression models with suicidal thoughts or attempted suicide as dependent variables, the pseudo-R2 of gender alone was only 2.7% or 2.3%, while it was 30% or 23.2% for emotional and behavioural problems measured by the YSR syndrome scales. By adding gender to the emotional and behavioural problems only an additional 0.3% of information could be explained.The findings suggest that gender differences in non-fatal suicidal behaviour among adolescents can to a large extent be explained by the gender differences in emotional and behavioural problems during this age.Suicide and non-fatal suicidal behaviour are both well-recognized public health problems in young people [1,2]. Whereas the prevalence of suicide and suicidal behaviour remains relatively low before puberty [3], adolescent suicide is one of the leading causes of death in the teenaged group [4]. In Europe, suicide is the second leading cause of death in male and female adolescents [5
Discussion on Gender Differences and Costume  [cached]
Wei Yin
Asian Social Science , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v4n8p137
Abstract: Society has assigned different expectation and obligation to male and female. And this difference is shown in many ways, especially in clothing. Society prescribes standard costume for both sexes. Human clothing represents great otherness because of the gender differences. This dissertation is to discuss the relationship between gender differences and costume.
Gender Differences in Technology Usage—A Literature Review  [PDF]
Ananya Goswami, Sraboni Dutta
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2016.41006
Abstract: The usage of Information Technology has expanded dramatically in today’s homes, business organizations and Government departments Technology has become an inevitable part of human life. Researchers have come up with various models and theories to investigate factors that influence the extent to which humans use computers and its applications. Unified Theory of Adoption and Use of Technology (UTAUT) is the latest model which has been conceived to understand the nature of technology usage and has been applied in various domains like education, banking, health care etc. Gender has been attributed as a significant variable in explaining the technology acceptance behaviour of humans. The objective of this study is to review the existing literature on the technology usage and intention to use technology from the gender perspective. It has been observed from the review that in few contexts, gender plays a significant role in determining the intention of accepting new technology and there are cases where gender differences cannot be discerned.
GENDER DIFFERENCES IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP
SILVIA POPESCU
Challenges of the Knowledge Society , 2012,
Abstract: This study of female entrepreneurship traditionally has been inspired by gender equality issues. Female entrepreneurs were assumed to experience gender-related discrimination and to experience more difficulties when starting up and running a business than their male counterparts. Today research and policy have been more and more fuelled by the idea that female entrepreneurs are important for economic progress. Even when issues such as barriers and obstacles to female entrepreneurs are raised in the gender and entrepreneurship debate, this is usually done from the perspective that female entrepreneurs are an untapped resource and have potential to contribute to a country’s economic performance. Indeed, although gender equality is one of the arguments underlying the support for female entrepreneurs within the European Union, the argument that female entrepreneurs (have the potential to)contribute to economic performance continues to play a role here. The global growth of female entrepreneurship in the last decades has been accompanied by an increase in the number of studies on female entrepreneurship. Unlike most existing studies, which focus primarily upon female entrepreneurship in Western European countries, the present thesis investigates gender differences in entrepreneurship in the Eastern European countries. Different aspects of entrepreneurship are studied including the individual, the organization and the environment. A systematic distinction is made between direct and indirect gender effects on entrepreneurship to be able to disentangle ‘pure’ gender effects from effects of factors that are correlated with gender.
Gender differences in incipient psychosis
Barajas,Ana; Ba?os,Iris; Ochoa,Susana; Usall,Judith; Huerta,Elena; Dolz,Montserrat; Sánchez,Bernardo; Villalta,Victoria; Foix,Alexandrina; Obiols,Jordi; Haro,Josep María; ,;
The European Journal of Psychiatry , 2010, DOI: 10.4321/S0213-61632010000300006
Abstract: background and objectives: to describe gender differences in a group of patients with first-episode psychotic in different aspects: socio-demographic features, characteristics of the phases prior to disease onset (premorbid and prodromic periods), clinical manifestation of psychotic symptoms and possible corresponding cognitive alterations after disease onset, using the age at onset of first psychotic episode as a control variable. methods: longitudinal study of 53 consecutive cases with a first psychotic episode. inclusion criteria: two or more psychotic symptoms; age between 7 to 65 years old; first consultation to the medical center of study; less than 6 months since the first contact to the medical service; and less than a year of symptoms′ evolution. the methodologic assessment includes: a socio-demographic questionnaire and an extensive battery of tests to assess premorbid/prodromic, clinical and cognitive characteristics. we perform mean differences tests to analyze continuous variables (non-parametric u-mann-whitney and t-student test) and chi-square test for categorical variables (spss 16.0). results: in the group of patients under 18 years, men showed higher scores in adjustment premorbid (u = 54.0, p = 0.050), more neurological soft signs (u = 31.0 p = 0.003), more negative psychotic symptoms (u = 48.5, p = 0.051) and worse insight (u = 30.0, p = 0.003) than women (after 8 weeks of psychotic episode onset). conclusions: we found gender differences in most of the variables analyzed when age at onset was controlled. these differences should be taken into account to learn more about the different types of onset of the disease, its prevention and possible improvements in therapeutic approach. our findings suggest that younger men with an earlier onset of psychotic episode have more alterations in the stages prior to the onset of the disease supporting the neurodevelopmental hypothesis for gender differences.
Gender differences in economic experiments  [cached]
Ju?rgen Ergun, Selim,García-Mu?oz, Teresa,Fernanda Rivas, María
Revista Internacional de Sociologia , 2012,
Abstract: This paper reviews the experimental economics literature on gender differences concerning four salient subjects: risk aversion, trust, deception and leadership. We review both experiments conducted in a laboratory and field experiments. We summarize very briefly the main characteristics of the experiments we review and point out the main results related to gender differences. The vast majority of the articles we have revised document gender differences in behavior; differences which could be explained by sex-role stereotypes which could be formed even in early stages of life and/or hormonal differences such as the female hormone oxytocin or estrogen. Este artículo revisa la literatura en el área de economía experimental sobre las diferencias de género en cuatro temas destacados: aversión al riesgo, confianza, enga o y liderazgo. Se revisan tanto experimentos realizados en laboratorios como experimentos de campo. Resumimos brevemente las principales características de los experimentos que consideramos y se alamos los principales resultados relacionados con las diferencias de género. La gran mayoría de los artículos que hemos revisado documentan diferencias de género en el comportamiento. Estas diferencias podrían explicarse por los estereotipos de roles sexuales que podrían formarse incluso en edades tempranas y / o diferencias hormonales como la hormona femenina oxitocina, o el estrógeno.
Gender differences in incipient psychosis  [cached]
Ana Barajas,Iris Ba?os,Susana Ochoa,Judith Usall
The European Journal of Psychiatry , 2010,
Abstract: Background and Objectives: To describe gender differences in a group of patients with first-episode psychotic in different aspects: socio-demographic features, characteristics of the phases prior to disease onset (premorbid and prodromic periods), clinical manifestation of psychotic symptoms and possible corresponding cognitive alterations after disease onset, using the age at onset of first psychotic episode as a control variable. Methods: Longitudinal study of 53 consecutive cases with a first psychotic episode. Inclusion criteria: two or more psychotic symptoms; age between 7 to 65 years old; first consultation to the medical center of study; less than 6 months since the first contact to the medical service; and less than a year of symptoms′ evolution. The methodologic assessment includes: a socio-demographic questionnaire and an extensive battery of tests to assess premorbid/prodromic, clinical and cognitive characteristics. We perform mean differences tests to analyze continuous variables (non-parametric U-Mann-Whitney and t-Student test) and chi-square test for categorical variables (SPSS 16.0). Results: In the group of patients under 18 years, men showed higher scores in adjustment premorbid (U = 54.0, p = 0.050), more neurological soft signs (U = 31.0 p = 0.003), more negative psychotic symptoms (U = 48.5, p = 0.051) and worse insight (U = 30.0, p = 0.003) than women (after 8 weeks of psychotic episode onset). Conclusions: We found gender differences in most of the variables analyzed when age at onset was controlled. These differences should be taken into account to learn more about the different types of onset of the disease, its prevention and possible improvements in therapeutic approach. Our findings suggest that younger men with an earlier onset of psychotic episode have more alterations in the stages prior to the onset of the disease supporting the neurodevelopmental hypothesis for gender differences.
Explaining new trends in the gender gap of mortality: Insights from a regional trend- analysis of the Netherlands  [PDF]
Jeroen Spijker,Frans van Poppel,Leo van Wissen
Vienna Yearbook of Population Research , 2007,
Abstract: The recent decrease of the male-female mortality gap in Western Europe has been accompanied by changes in the life style, educational level, family roles and employment of women. In this paper we try to find out whether a relationship indeed exists between the increase in gender equality and the decrease in the male/female mortality difference. We used regional-level data for the Netherlands for the periods 1980-83 and 1996-99 on gender differences in life expectancy, by age group and cause of death, and various measures of gender inequality on the same regional level. In doing this we followed as far as possible a framework recently developed by Ingrid Waldron to analyse changes in gender differences in mortality in the US. The cross-sectional analyses showed that in 1980-83 it was rather socioeconomic than gender role variables that were important in explaining gender difference in mortality, while in the period 1996-99, it was the other way around.
Gender Differences in Impression Formation  [PDF]
Bogdana Hum?
Journal of Comparative Research in Anthropology and Sociology , 2010,
Abstract: This paper aims to highlight the differences between men and women regarding impressionformation. It is based on secondary analysis of the data gathered in two previous experiments withsimilar conditions. However, the hypotheses formulated within this study have not been testedbefore. The current analysis was conducted on 86 participants, 47 males and 39 females. Their agesranged between 15 and 32, as they were either high school or university students engaged in amaster’s program. Their task consisted of watching a 14 seconds long video of a female confederatereading a neutral text and then evaluating her using a semantic differential with four dimensions:sociability, ethics, power and activity. Based on previous studies, it was hypothesized that men andwomen will form different first impressions of the actor employed in the movie. More precisely, themajority of the studies undertaken in this area compare men and women’s accuracy scores of facialexpressions decoding, yielding mostly significant differences, with women achieving higheraccuracy. A small percentage has addressed other aspects of social perception like: personality traitsor socio-demographic characteristics, yielding similar results. However, the current experimentfailed to reveal any differences between men’s and women’s evaluations. Accuracy assessmentswere disregarded in this study, since establishing unequivocal criteria for personality traitsevaluation is yet to be achieved. The results are consistent with a small percentage of the studiesconducted on gender differences in social perception and allow multiple interpretations.
Are Gender Differences in Empathy Due to Differences in Emotional Reactivity?  [PDF]
Linda Rueckert, Brandon Branch, Tiffany Doan
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.26088
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine whether gender differences in empathy reflect differences in self- rated emotion, and whether they are influenced by the nature of the target of the empathy (friend or enemy). 24 men and 36 women were asked to rate how much happiness, sadness, and anger they would feel if each of ten scenarios happened to themselves, and how they would feel if it happened to a friend or enemy. Overall, women rated themselves as feeling more happiness and sadness than men, whether the event happened to themselves, or to a friend or enemy. This suggests gender differences in self-reported empathy may be due to differences in general emotional responsiveness. An empathy score was computed by subtracting, for each scenario, the rating for the other person from the rating for self. Women showed a greater difference between friend and enemy than men.
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