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Nonlinear Programming for Solvent Extraction of Jatropha Curcas Seed Oil for Biodesiel Production
International Journal of Energy Engineering , 2012, DOI: 10.5923/j.ijee.20120202.02
Abstract: Nonlinear programming models of solvent extraction of Jatropha curcas oil that forms the thrust of this paper is uncommon in literature. The oil was extracted using two solvents (n-hexane and Isopropanol) at a powder weight to solvent volume of 1:5 and particle size of between 0.5mm and 0.75 mm. A randomized 31 set of central composite design comprising three factors (solvent composition[0 - 100% n-haxane], time of extraction[1 - 5hours] and extraction temperatures[40 – 60℃) at five levels were experimented. Oil yield, specific gravity, viscosity, free fatty acid (FFAs) and iodine value of the oil extracts were determined. Response equation of each of oil yield (R1), specific gravity (R2), viscosity (R3), FFA (R4) and iodine value (R5) in terms of solvent composition (X1), time of extraction (X2) and temperature (X3) were developed. These were formulated into a nonlinear programme that maximize oil yield and minimizes other four properties according to ASTM D6751-07b and EN 14214-2008 (E) standards for biodiesel production. The coefficients of determination (R2) for the responses equations were 1.000, 1.000, 0.953, 0.963 and 0.968 respectively. The nonlinear programme yields a maximum oil yield (R1) of 37.3507 %, R2 = 0.88597, R3 =39.771 , R4 = 2.1185 and R5 = 101.51, while the optimum operating conditions were X1 = 2 (100% n haxane), X2 =2 (5 hours ) and X3 = 2 (60℃). This study has clearly demonstrated the applicability of nonlinear mathematical programming in selecting extraction conditions for jatropha oil from its seed.
Comparison of seed oil physicochemical characteristics among three cultivars of Jatropha curcas L

应用生态学报 , 2009,
Abstract: Taking the cultivars Nanyou 1, 2, and 3 of barbadosnut (Jatropha curcas L.) with different genotypes that can grow and seed normally at the inshore land in Hainan as test materials, the characters of their seeds and the physicochemical characteristics of their seed oils were analyzed and compared. No significant differences were observed in the seed length, width, thickness, and surface area among the cultivars, but Nanyou 2 had greater 1000 seed mass and lower unsound kernel percentage than Nanyou 1 and Nanyou 3, suggesting that the seed satiation of Nanyou 2 was good and the fecundity was excellent. The kernel oil content of Nanyou 3 was significantly higher than that of Nanyou 1 and Nanyou 2, and there was no significant difference between Nanyou 1 and Nanyou 2. The seed oil peroxide value, refractive index, and saponification value of the three cultivars had no significant differences, but the acid value for Nanyou 2 was much lower than that for Nanyou 1 and Nanyou 3. The seed oil iodine value of the three cultivars was all below 100, and was significantly lower for Nanyou 2 than for Nanyou 1 and Nanyou 3. The fatty acids in the three cultivars seed oils were mainly oleic acid, palm itic acid, linoleic acid, stearic acid, and margaric acid, and dominated by unsaturated fatty acids. The contents of saturated fatty acids in Nanyou 2 seed oil were relatively higher than those in Nanyou 1 and Nanyou 3 seed oils, indicating that comparing with Nanyou 1, cultivars Nanyou 2 and Nanyou 3 had relatively good potential for application.
Some Phytochemical Properties and Effect of Fermentation on the Seed of Jatropha curcas L.  [PDF]
O.A. Oseni,A.A. Akindahunsi
American Journal of Food Technology , 2011,
Abstract: The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of microbial fermentation of Jatropha curcas L. seed (Barbados nut or Physic nut) or (Lapalapa) in Yoruba Language which are nutritionally underutilized. The study also sought to screen for some phytochemicals, determine the proximate, anti nutrient and some antioxidant properties of the fermented and non-fermented seed powder of Jatropha curcas L. to establish the multi-purpose usefulness of the seed, as well as determine the physicochemical properties of the extracted oil. The results showed that fermentation caused slight decrease in the carbohydrate, fat and crude fiber contents but enhanced the protein and ash contents of the seed while the antinutrient contents (tannins, phytate, oxalate and trypsin inhibitor) was observed to decrease as a result of fermentation. The antioxidant properties also witnessed a decrease in percentage 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical inhibition, amount of total phenolic compounds and super oxide anion radical inhibition as a result of fermentation. The phytochemical screening of methanolic and ethyl acetate extracts showed positive results for some secondary metabolites like tannins, glycosides, steroids, saponins and alkaloids in the unfermented seeds but slightly positive for the fermented seeds. The physicochemical analyses of the oil such as acid value, iodine value, saponification value, peroxide value and free fatty acid of unfermented seed appear to be higher than the fermented seed. The results of the analyses showed that the seed of Jatropha curcas possessed good antioxidant potentials and if fermented could enhance its nutritional qualities and reduce its anti-nutrients properties.
Variation in oil contents, and seed and seedling characteristics of Jatropha curcas of West Nusa Tenggara selected genotypes and their first improved population
Nusantara Bioscience , 2011,
Abstract: Santoso BS. 2011. Variation in oil contents, and seed and seedling characteristics of Jatropha curcas of West Nusa Tenggara selected genotypes and their first improved population. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 130-135. This study describes variation in seed and seedling characters of Jatropha curcas Linn. of West Nusa Tenggara selected genotypes. Exploration was conducted in several areas where large population of this species grown as fences was found. Five selected genotypes were then grown in experimental fields to let mass selection to obtain the first improved population for each genotype. Seeds of wild population (P0) and those of selected trees as the first improved population (IP-1) were subjected to this study. Seed and seedling characteristics were measured. The result indicated that considerable genetic variability existed among the five J. curcas of West Nusa Tenggara selected genotypes and within each genotype population for seed and seedling characteristics. Genotypes of West Lombok, Sumbawa, and Bima performed exceedingly better than those of Central Lombok and East Lombok. Therefore, this study has suggestions for identifying potential seed sources of J. curcas and these existing genetic variability provides breeders with materials in crop improvement program.
Application of Jatropha curcas L. seed oil (Euphorbiaceae) and microcurrent on the healing of experimental wounds in Wistar rats
Passarini Junior, José Roberto;Gaspi, Fernanda Oliveira de Gaspari de;Neves, Lia Mara Grosso;Esquisatto, Marcelo Augusto Marreto;Santos, Gláucia Maria Tech dos;Mendon?a, Fernanda Aparecida Sampaio;
Acta Cirurgica Brasileira , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-86502012000700002
Abstract: purpose: to investigate the effects of jatropha curcas l. seed oil and microcurrent stimulation on the healing of wounds experimentally induced in wistar rats. methods: forty-eight animals were divided into four groups: (a) control; (b) treated with microcurrent (10 μa/2 min); (c) treated with j. curcas seed oil, and (d) treated with j. curcas seed oil plus microcurrent. tissues samples were obtained two, six, ten and 14 days after injury and submitted to structural and morphometric analyses. results: the animals of groups a and c showed similar responses in terms of repair area, total number of cells, number of newly formed blood vessels, epithelial thickness, and percentage of area occupied by mature collagen fibers. significant differences in all parameters analyzed were observed between animals of groups b and d and the control 10 and 14 days after experimentally induced injury. the morphometric data confirmed the structural findings conclusions: the application of j. curcas seed oil alone was not effective on experimental wound healing when compared to control, but microcurrent application alone or combined with the oil exerted significant differences in the parameters studied. these findings suggest that the positive results were due to microcurrent stimulation.
Transcriptome analysis of the oil-rich seed of the bioenergy crop Jatropha curcas L
Gustavo GL Costa, Kiara C Cardoso, Luiz EV Del Bem, Aline C Lima, Muciana AS Cunha, Luciana de Campos-Leite, Renato Vicentini, Fábio Papes, Raquel C Moreira, José A Yunes, Francisco AP Campos, Márcio J Da Silva
BMC Genomics , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-11-462
Abstract: We have generated 13,249 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from developing and germinating Jatropha seeds. This strategy allowed us to detect most known genes related to lipid synthesis and degradation. We have also identified ESTs coding for proteins that may be involved in the toxicity of Jatropha seeds. Another unexpected finding is the high number of ESTs containing transposable element-related sequences in the developing seed library (800) when contrasted with those found in the germinating seed library (80).The sequences generated in this work represent a considerable increase in the number of sequences deposited in public databases. These results can be used to produce genetically improved varieties of Jatropha with increased oil yields, different oil compositions and better agronomic characteristics.The need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and provide fuel security has increased the demand for oil-rich plants as raw materials for biodiesel production. Although vegetable oils have long been used for food, the ideal crop source for biodiesel products should consider other ecological, environmental and ethical concerns. Ideally, the entire process, from cultivation to fuel burning in engines, should favour carbon sequestration, reduce water needs and promote energy efficiency. Moreover, the impact of oil crops for biodiesel production on the prices of food commodities is a matter of concern. Ideally, such crops should be non-edible and grown on non-agricultural lands so that they do not compete for soil with food crops and do not affect the price of food commodities.Jatropha curcas L. (family Euphorbiaceae) is a perennial, drought-resistant and non-food oilseed crop that has high oil content and fulfils many of the requirements for biodiesel production. Jatropha is currently one the most promoted oilseed crops and its seeds have an oil content of up to 50% [1]. Its major fatty acids are oleic acid (34.3-45.8%; 18:1), linoleic acid (29.0-44.2%; 18:2), palmitic a
Hydrolysis optimization and characterization study of preparing fatty acids from Jatropha curcas seed oil
Jumat Salimon, Bashar Abdullah, Nadia Salih
Chemistry Central Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1752-153x-5-67
Abstract: The parameters effect of ethanolic KOH concentration, reaction temperature, and reaction time to free fatty acid (FFA%) were investigated using D-Optimal Design. Characterization of the product has been studied using Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), gas chromatography (GC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The optimum conditions for maximum FFA% were achieved at 1.75M of ethanolic KOH concentration, 65°C of reaction temperature and 2.0 h of reaction time.This study showed that ethanolic KOH concentration was significant variable for J. curcas seed oil hydrolysis. In a 18-point experimental design, FFA% of hydrolyzed J. curcas seed oil can be raised from 1.89% to 102.2%, which proved by FTIR and HPLC.Hydrolysis of oils and fats is the applied term to the operation in which ethanolic KOH reacts with oil to form glycerol and fatty acids (FAs). Production of FAs and glycerol from oils are important especially in oleochemical industries. FAs and glycerol are widely used as raw materials in food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical industries [1,2], soap production, synthetic detergents, greases, cosmetics, and several other products [3].The soap production starting from triglycerides and alkalis is accomplished for more than 2000 years by the [4]. Saponification is the alkaline hydrolysis of triacylglycerol Figure 1. These reactions produce the FAs that are the starting point for most oleochemical production. As the primary feedstocks are oils and fats, glycerol is produced as a valuable byproduct. Reaction routes and conditions with efficient glycerol recovery are required to maximize the economics of large-scale production [5].Lipid hydrolysis is usually carried out in the laboratory by refluxing oils and fats with different catalysts [6]. The reaction can be catalyzed by acid, base, or lipase, but it also occurs as an un-catalyzed reaction between fats and water dissolved in the fat phase at suitable temperatures and pressures [7].Researchers ha
Synthesis of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas L. seed oil using artificial zeolites loaded with CH3COOK as a heterogeneous catalyst  [PDF]
Wei Xue, You-Chun Zhou, Bao-An Song, Xia Shi, Jun Wang, Shi-Tao Yin, De-Yu Hu, Lin-Hong Jin, Song Yang
Natural Science (NS) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2009.11010
Abstract: An environmentally benign process was devel-oped for the transesterification of Jatropha curcas L. seed oil with methanol using artificial zeolites loaded with potassium acetate as a heterogeneous catalyst. After calcination for 5 h at 823 K, the catalyst loaded with 47 wt.% CH3COOK exhibited the highest efficiency and best catalytic activity. The easily prepared cata-lysts were characterized by means of X-ray dif-fraction and IR spectroscopy, as well as Hammett indicator titration. The results revealed a strong dependence of catalytic activity on ba-sicity. The optimum reaction conditions for transesterification of J. curcas oil were also in-vestigated. The methyl ester content in the bio-diesel product exceeded 91% after 4h reaction at reflux temperature in the presence of 2% solid catalyst and no water washing process is needed during workup.
Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Oil-Seed Crop Jatropha curcas Produces Oil and Exhibit Antifungal Activity  [PDF]
Susheel Kumar, Nutan Kaushik
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056202
Abstract: Jatropha curcas L., a perennial plant grown in tropics and subtropics is popularly known for its potential as biofuel. The plant is reported to survive under varying environmental conditions having tolerance to stress and an ability to manage pest and diseases. The plant was explored for its endophytic fungi for use in crop protection. Endophytic fungi were isolated from leaf of Jatropha curcas, collected from New Delhi, India. Four isolates were identified as Colletotrichum truncatum, and other isolates were identified as Nigrospora oryzae, Fusarium proliferatum, Guignardia cammillae, Alternaria destruens, and Chaetomium sp. Dual plate culture bioassays and bioactivity assays of solvent extracts of fungal mycelia showed that isolates of Colletotrichum truncatum were effective against plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Isolate EF13 had highest activity against S. sclerotiorum. Extracts of active endophytic fungi were prepared and tested against S. sclerotiorum. Ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. truncatum EF10 showed 71.7% and 70% growth inhibition, respectively. Hexane extracts of C. truncatum isolates EF9, EF10, and EF13 yielded oil and the oil from EF10 was similar to oil of the host plant, i.e., J. curcas.
The Phorbol Ester Fraction from Jatropha curcas Seed Oil: Potential and Limits for Crop Protection against Insect Pests  [PDF]
Alain Ratnadass,Michael Wink
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ijms131216157
Abstract: The physic nut shrub, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), has been considered as a “miracle tree”, particularly as a source of alternate fuel. Various extracts of the plant have been reported to have insecticidal/acaricidal or molluscicidal/anthelminthic activities on vectors of medical or veterinary interest or on agricultural or non-agricultural pests. Among those extracts, the phorbol ester fraction from seed oil has been reported as a promising candidate for use as a plant-derived protectant of a variety of crops, from a range of pre-harvest and post-harvest insect pests. However, such extracts have not been widely used, despite the “boom” in the development of the crop in the tropics during recent years, and societal concerns about overuse of systemic chemical pesticides. There are many potential explanations to such a lack of use of Jatropha insecticidal extracts. On the one hand, the application of extracts potentially harmful to human health on stored food grain, might not be relevant. The problem of decomposition of phorbol esters and other compounds toxic to crop pests in the field needing further evaluation before such extracts can be widely used, may also be a partial explanation. High variability of phorbol ester content and hence of insecticidal activity among physic nut cultivars/ecotypes may be another. Phytotoxicity to crops may be further limitation. Apparent obstacles to a wider application of such extracts are the costs and problems involved with registration and legal approval. On the other hand, more studies should be conducted on molluscicidal activity on slugs and land snails which are major pests of crops, particularly in conservation agriculture systems. Further evaluation of toxicity to natural enemies of insect pests and studies on other beneficial insects such as pollinators are also needed.
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