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Procedural Audio in Computer Games Using Motion Controllers: An Evaluation on the Effect and Perception  [PDF]
Niels B?ttcher,Héctor P. Martínez,Stefania Serafin
International Journal of Computer Games Technology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/371374
Abstract: A study has been conducted into whether the use of procedural audio affects players in computer games using motion controllers. It was investigated whether or not (1) players perceive a difference between detailed and interactive procedural audio and prerecorded audio, (2) the use of procedural audio affects their motor-behavior, and (3) procedural audio affects their perception of control. Three experimental surveys were devised, two consisting of game sessions and the third consisting of watching videos of gameplay. A skiing game controlled by a Nintendo Wii balance board and a sword-fighting game controlled by a Wii remote were implemented with two versions of sound, one sample based and the other procedural based. The procedural models were designed using a perceptual approach and by alternative combinations of well-known synthesis techniques. The experimental results showed that, when being actively involved in playing or purely observing a video recording of a game, the majority of participants did not notice any difference in sound. Additionally, it was not possible to show that the use of procedural audio caused any consistent change in the motor behavior. In the skiing experiment, a portion of players perceived the control of the procedural version as being more sensitive. 1. Introduction Sound design in computer games has been going through a major developmental phase since the introduction of the early game consoles in the 1980s. Especially for the larger game productions, the quality of sound design is in many ways now at the same level as in a large Hollywood film production. (One good example of this could be the game Battlefield 3 (EA Games).) There are many reasons for this improvement in quality, including larger budgets and the evolution of consoles and computer hardware. The introduction of the digital sound sampling technique ([1], page 9) in game consoles was also another important reason for the improved sound quality. By utilizing the sound sampling technique, the sound designers were now able to digitally play back prerecorded audio and thereby employ the same kind of well-processed sound effects as one could hear in a film production. Before this point, the implementation of sound in computer games was based on complex coding and direct control of audio chips [2]. Today most contemporary computer games solely utilize prerecorded audio (if one excludes the use of voice communication typically used in the larger massive multiplayer online role-playing games). The possibilities of controlling and manipulating sample-based audio in
Oral Computer-Mediated Interaction Between L2 Learners: It’s About Time!  [PDF]
Yanguas, í?igo
Language Learning and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: This study explores task-based, synchronous oral computer-mediated communication (CMC) among intermediate-level learners of Spanish. In particular, this paper examines (a) how learners in video and audio CMC groups negotiate for meaning during task-based interaction, (b) possible differences between both oral CMC modes and traditional face-to-face (FTF) communication, and (c) how this oral computer mediated negotiation compares to that found in the text-based CMC literature. Fifteen learner-to-learner dyads were randomly assigned to an audio group, a video group, and a FTF control group to complete a jigsaw task that was seeded with 16 unknown lexical items. Experimental groups used Skype, free online communication software, to carry out the task. The transcripts of the conversations reveal that oral CMC groups do indeed negotiate for meaning in this multimedia context when non-understanding occurs between speakers. In addition, results showed differences in the way audio and video groups carry out these negotiations, which were mainly due to the lack of visual contact in the audio group. No differences were found between video and FTF groups. Furthermore, oral CMC turn-taking patterns were shown to be very similar to FTF patterns but opposite to those found in written synchronous CMC. Oral CMC interaction patterns are shown to be more versatile.
The Effects of Informal Use of Computer-Mediated Communication on EFL Learner Interaction  [cached]
Hassan Saleh Mahdi,Muhi Eddin Mohammed El-Naim
Studies in Literature and Language , 2012, DOI: 10.3968/j.sll.1923156320120503.801
Abstract: The study adopted an experimental approach to investigate the impact of informal use of computer-mediated communication (CMC) on English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learner’s interaction. CMC is an umbrella term which refers to human communication via computer either synchronously or asynchronously. It can be implemented in two ways either formally or informally. Informal use of CMC in this study means unevaluated and unplanned activities which can occur outside the classroom, and can be initiated by the students. This study sought to examine: (a) if the learners participate actively in informal CMC; (b) the factors that help informal CMC to be a successful experience; and (c) the impact of CMC on comprehensible written output. The participants were fifty adult EFL Saudi learners at Najran University, Saudi Arabia. The study utilized a homepage on Facebook as a research tool. Data collection was done through a questionnaire and an interview. The participants’ exchanges in the Facebook group and their replies to the questionnaire were analyzed. The results of the study revealed that informal use of CMC can be affected by many factors. The voluntary nature of learner participation, busy schedules, and the teacher interference were some of these factors. The results showed that the participants had positive attitudes towards using CMC to improve their language. Key words: English as a Foreign Language (EFL); Informal; (CMC) Computer mediated communication; Interaction; Facebook; Output
Child-to-Child Interaction and Corrective Feedback in a Computer Mediated L2 Class  [cached]
Frank Morris
Language Learning and Technology , 2005,
Abstract: The current study examined the provision of corrective feedback and learner repair following feedback in the interactional context of child-to-child conversations, particularly computer mediated, in an elementary Spanish immersion class. The relationship among error types, feedback types, and immediate learner repair were also examined. A total of 46, fifth-grade children participated in the study. Using Blackboard, the instructor randomly paired students and created a "virtual group" for each pair. Each pair was asked to interact and complete a jigsaw task in the "virtual classroom." Blackboard recorded the pairs' interactions, which were later printed and coded for types of error (syntactic/lexical), types of negative feedback (explicit/recasts/negotiation) and immediate learner repairs. Findings indicate that learners did not provide explicit negative feedback. Learners provided implicit negative feedback (recasts and negotiation) while completing the jigsaw task in the virtual classroom. The majority of lexical errors and syntactic errors were corrected using negotiation. Over half of feedback moves led to immediate repair. Negotiation moves proved more effective at leading to immediate repair of errors than did recasts.
Relaciones mediadas por el sonido entre jugadores en el entorno de juegos multijugador Player Relationships as Mediated Through Sound in Immersive Multi-player Computer Games
Mark Grimshaw
Comunicar , 2010, DOI: 10.3916/c34-2010-02-07
Abstract: Este ensayo examina la relación entre el jugador y los efectos de sonido diegéticos en entornos de juego inmersivos para ordenadores, y a su vez, la manera en la que esta relación, en gran parte, pone en contexto al jugador dentro del mundo virtual del juego. Esta contextualización presupone una percepción basada principalmente en los sonidos de los objetos y los acontecimientos del mundo, lo que en el entorno del juego multijugador conduce finalmente a la comunicación entre los jugadores por medio del sonido diegético. El compromiso de los jugadores con –y la inmersión en– el ambiente acústico del juego es el resultado de una relación con el sonido mediada tecnológicamente. El motor del juego, por ejemplo, produce una gama de sonidos del entorno o del medio ambiente y casi todas las acciones del jugador tienen un sonido correspondiente. Una variedad de relevantes teorías y disciplinas, como la teoría del cine sonoro y la sonificación, se usan para construir nuestra base metodológica, y nos servimos de ejemplos como el del subgénero del First-Person Shooter . Este tipo de juegos incluye las series Doom y Quake , la serie Half-Life y sus derivados y juegos posteriores como Left 4 Dead . La combinación del ambiente acústico, la posición interactiva del jugador –con la encarnación virtual de sus brazos protésicos– en el medio ambiente y las relaciones sonoras entre los jugadores produce la ecología acústica. Una exposición de esta comunicación multijugador, la ecología acústica resultante y la inmersión del jugador, es el objetivo principal del ensayo. This essay examines the relationship between player and diegetic sound FX in immersive computer game environments and how this relationship leads, in large part, to the contextualization of the player within the virtual world of the game. This contextualization presupposes a primarily sonically-based perception of objects and events in the world and, in a multi-player game, this ultimately leads to communication between players through the medium of diegetic sound. The players’ engagement with, and immersion in, the game’s acoustic environment is the result of a relationship with sound that is technologically mediated. The game engine, for example, produces a range of environmental or ambient sounds and almost every player action has a corresponding sound. A variety of relevant theories and disciplines are assessed for the methodological basis of the points raised, such as film sound theory and sonification, and, throughout, the First-Person Shooter sub-genre is used as an exemplar. Such games include
Computer Games and Prosocial Behaviour  [PDF]
Friederike Mengel
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094099
Abstract: We relate different self-reported measures of computer use to individuals' propensity to cooperate in the Prisoner's dilemma. The average cooperation rate is positively related to the self-reported amount participants spend playing computer games. None of the other computer time use variables (including time spent on social media, browsing internet, working etc.) are significantly related to cooperation rates.
Immersion in Computer Games: The Role of Spatial Presence and Flow  [PDF]
David Weibel,Bartholom?us Wissmath
International Journal of Computer Games Technology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/282345
Abstract: A main reason to play computer games is the pleasure of being immersed in a mediated world. Spatial presence and flow are considered key concepts to explain such immersive experiences. However, little attention has been paid to the connection between the two concepts. Thus, we empirically examined the relationship between presence and flow in the context of a computer role-playing game ( ), a racing game ( ), and a jump and run game ( ). In all three studies, factor analysis revealed that presence and flow are distinct constructs, which do hardly share common variance. We conclude that presence refers to the sensation of being there in the mediated world, whereas flow rather refers to the sensation of being involved in the gaming action. Further analyses showed that flow and presence depend on motivation and immersive tendency. In addition, flow and presence enhanced performance as well as enjoyment. 1. Introduction In a broad survey, Yee [1] assessed motivations and experiences of 30,000 game users. He found that many users play computer games because they like to be immersed in a fantasy world. Immersion into mediated environments in general and computer games in particular has previously been explained through (spatial) presence (e.g., [2, 3]) and flow (e.g., [4–6]). Flow and presence share conceptual similarities such as an immersive component and intense feelings of involvement (cf. [7, 8]), but there are clear differences (cf. [6, 9]) whereas flow can be defined as immersion or involvement in an activity (i.e., the gaming action), presence rather refers to a sense of spatial immersion in a mediated environment. In the last decades, a plethora of studies have been conducted to investigate presence and flow in various media contexts. Surprisingly, however, there is not one single comprehensive empirical study that investigates the relationship between the two concepts. Within the study in hand, we therefore aim to empirically analyse the relationship between flow and (spatial) presence. In order to validate differences and similarities, we accomplished three large-scale experiments using three different computer games. Since presence as well as flow can be described as immersive experiences, Draper et al. [7] suggest that presence is a particular type of flow experience that occurs during teleoperations. This is in line with Bystrom et al. [10] who assume that presence—just like flow—occurs due to a feedback loop between task characteristics and attention allocation. Alike, Hoffman and Novak [8] propose that attention and involvement are essential
Are Boys More Aggressive than Girls after Playing Violent Computer Games Online? An Insight into an Emotional Stroop Task  [PDF]
Jingjin Tian, Zhang Qian
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.51006

The study was to examine the gender differences in aggression among Chinese children after playing violent computer games by using emotional STROOP task. 98 children participated in this study, with 49 assigned to violent computer game group and the other 49 assigned to nonviolent computer game group. The results demonstrated that there were significant differences in main affect of game type, and significant Game Type × Gender interaction as well. In particular, boys’ aggression was significantly impacted by violent games, whereas girls’ aggression was not significantly impacted by violent games. The implication of this research is that, the significant difference in aggression to gender is activated, and that boys were more aggressive and sensitive to violent games than girls.

Kaya O?UZ
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology. A : Applied Sciences and Engineering , 2010,
Abstract: Computer games, with the speed advancements of graphical processors, are coming closer to the quality of cinema industry. Contrary to offline rendering of the scenes in a motion picture, computer games should be able to render at 30 frames per second. Therefore, CPU and memory performance are sought by using various techniques. This paper is about using instancing feature of contemporary graphical processors along with level of detail techniques which has been in use for a very long time. Using instancing, 15,000 instances were successfully rendered at 30 frames per second using a very low %10 CPU usage. The application can render 40,000 instances at 13 frames per second.
Eye Space: An Analytical Framework for the Screen-Mediated Relationship in Video Games  [PDF]
Yu-Ching Chang, Chi-Min Hsieh
Art and Design Review (ADR) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/adr.2017.51007
Abstract: This article explores the connections between players and game worlds through the screen-mediated space in games—i.e., eye space. Eye space is the crucial link between players and the game world; it’s the decisive area where the gameplay takes place. However, the concept of eye space is not attention to and is frequently confused with game space because the two are closely connected and sometimes they can even interchange with each other. Thus, the study focuses on the basic building blocks and the structure of eye space in games. An analytical framework based on the existing literature and practice is proposed with special attention on the interactive nature of video games in order to examine the interplay between players and game spaces. The framework encompasses three aspects: the visual elements within the eye space, the relation of eye space to the players, and the interaction of eye space with the game space. This study aims to establish a common language to describe the screen-mediated space in games and provide further insight into game design.
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