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The impact of the third person effect on health plan advertisements  [PDF]
Renata Chagas
Estudos em Comunica??o , 2011,
Abstract: This article intends to investigate the impact among the youth of advertisings on the importance of having a healthy lifestyle, using the hypothesis of the Third Person Effect, which states that the individual tends to think that certain media messages have more effect on others than on himself. We’ll try to inquire whether this type of message in uences people’s behavior, increasing the practice of healthy eating habits and physical exercises.
Illness perception in pediatric somatization and asthma: complaints and health locus of control beliefs  [cached]
Goldbeck Lutz,Bundschuh Silke
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1753-2000-1-5
Abstract: Background Health- and illness-related cognitions of pediatric patients with asthma or somatization and of their caregivers are considered relevant for patient education and for cognitive-behavioral interventions. This study investigates the relationship between diagnosis and illness perception by child and parent in two different chronic conditions such as somatization disorder and asthma. Methods 25 patients with somatoform disorders and 25 patients with asthma bronchiale completed the Giessen Complaint List and the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale. Primary caregivers independently answered parallel proxy-report instruments. Analyses of variance were performed to determine the impact of diagnosis and perspective. Correlations were calculated to determine the concordance between patient and caregiver reports. Results No statistically significant differences in illness locus of control beliefs were found between asthma and somatoform disorder children or parents. Parents reported more internal and fatalistic locus of control beliefs compared with their children. Correlations between patient and caregiver reports of symptoms and health locus of control beliefs were low to moderate. Conclusion Clinicians should take into account a sense of insufficient symptom control in both diagnostic groups and different viewpoints of patients and their parents.
Knowledge, Beliefs and Perception of Leprosy  [cached]
Sukhbir Singh,Anil K Sinha,BG Banerjee,Nidhi Jaswal
Disability, CBR & Inclusive Development , 2013, DOI: 10.5463/dcid.v23i4.179
Abstract: Purpose: For intervention to be effective, it is essential that the knowledge, beliefs and perception of a specific social group are taken into account. This is particularly true of leprosy where the problems of social stigma and ostracism are more prominent than the disease itself. There are many misconceptions about the cause, methods of transmission, and treatment. The main objectives of the study were to examine the socio-demographic profile of persons with leprosy and to explore their knowledge, beliefs and perception about the disease and its initial symptoms, within a specific socio-cultural milieu. Method: Semi-structured interviews were held with a persons with leprosy at various clinics and care-homes for affected persons in and around Chandigarh, India. Those who had completed their treatment and those who were still undergoing treatment were included in the study. Data collection was done through case studies and in-depth interviews. Results: The name of the disease varied across different geo-cultural zones. Many respondents who were afflicted with only red patches and had no ulcers, believed that they suffered from a skin disease which would turn into leprosy if proper medication was not received. The perception of 64.9 % of the respondents was that leprosy resulted from supernatural causes like God’s punishment, karma, and sin. Conclusion: There is a need to educate persons with leprosy and their families about the etiology of the disease.
Making sense of perceptions of risk of diseases and vaccinations: a qualitative study combining models of health beliefs, decision-making and risk perception
Lyndal Bond, Terry Nolan
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-943
Abstract: In a qualitative study we conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with 45 Australian parents exploring their experiences and perceptions of disease severity and susceptibility. Using scenarios about 'a new strain of flu' we explored how risk information was interpreted.We found that concepts of dread, unfamiliarity, and uncontrollability from the subjective perception of risk and ambiguity, optimistic control and omission bias from explanatory theories of decision-making under uncertainty were useful in understanding why immunisers, incomplete immunisers and non-immunisers interpreted severity and susceptibility to diseases and vaccine risk differently. Immunisers dreaded unfamiliar diseases whilst non-immunisers dreaded unknown, long term side effects of vaccines. Participants believed that the risks of diseases and complications from diseases are not equally spread throughout the community, therefore, when listening to reports of epidemics, it is not the number of people who are affected but the familiarity or unfamiliarity of the disease and the characteristics of those who have had the disease that prompts them to take preventive action. Almost all believed they themselves would not be at serious risk of the 'new strain of flu' but were less willing to take risks with their children's health.This study has found that health messages about the risks of disease which are communicated as though there is equality of risk in the population may be unproductive as these messages are perceived as unbelievable or irrelevant. The findings from this study have implications beyond the issue of childhood vaccinations as we grapple with communicating risks of new epidemics, and indeed may usefully contribute to the current debate especially in the UK of how these theories of risk and decision-making can be used to 'nudge' other health behaviours.Few would argue against the success of mass vaccination programmes in reducing and, in the case of smallpox, eliminating infec
First- and Third-Person Perspectives in Psychotic Disorders and Mood Disorders with Psychotic Features  [PDF]
Lucrezia Islam,Silvio Scarone,Orsola Gambini
Schizophrenia Research and Treatment , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/769136
Abstract: Lack of insight, very frequent in schizophrenia, can be considered a deficit in Theory of Mind (ToM) performances, and is also found in other psychiatric disorders. In this study, we used the first- to third-person shift to examine subjects with psychotic and psychotic mood disorders. 92 patients were evaluated with SANS and SAPS scales and asked to talk about their delusions. They were asked to state whether they thought what they said was believable for them and for the interviewer. Two weeks later, 79 patients listened to a tape where their delusion was reenacted by two actors and were asked the same two questions. Some patients gained insight when using third-person perspective. These patients had lower SAPS scores, a lower score on SAPS item on delusions, and significant improvement in their SAPS delusion score at the second interview. Better insight was not related to a specific diagnostic group. 1. Introduction Patients suffering from schizophrenia are incapable of recognizing and monitoring the self or nonself induced character of their own thoughts. This monitoring capacity, which separates self-generated and world-generated perception, is very important to distinguish between imagination and normal perceptions. If this monitoring capacity is disturbed, self-induced perception is experienced as world-induced [1]. There is increased evidence that patients with schizophrenia have difficulties in social cognition which requires sophisticated judgements about other people’s mental states. People with schizophrenia have worse performance profiles in tasks that require the interpretation of social inferences underlying indirect speech. Frith and collaborators, first applied the Theory of Mind deficit hypothesis to schizophrenic patients, and since then many studies have attempted to define the concept in a way that could be tested experimentally [2–4]. It has been suggested that some paranoid symptoms and behavioural signs could be a consequence of difficulties in making inferences about the intentions and beliefs of others [5]. Many clinical schizophrenic symptoms can be reinterpreted as a disturbance of the “self-monitoring capacity.” Impaired monitoring ability in schizophrenic patients can lead to serious problems in understanding subtle, context-dependent changes in the content and significance of communication [6]. Lack of insight is a common symptom in schizophrenia and can be considered a critical manifestation of impaired ToM abilities. Insight in schizophrenia is operationally defined according to five dimensions which include the patient’s
Dynamic Modeling of Vaccinating Behavior as a Function of Individual Beliefs  [PDF]
Flávio Code?o Coelho ,Claudia T. Code?o
PLOS Computational Biology , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000425
Abstract: Individual perception of vaccine safety is an important factor in determining a person's adherence to a vaccination program and its consequences for disease control. This perception, or belief, about the safety of a given vaccine is not a static parameter but a variable subject to environmental influence. To complicate matters, perception of risk (or safety) does not correspond to actual risk. In this paper we propose a way to include the dynamics of such beliefs into a realistic epidemiological model, yielding a more complete depiction of the mechanisms underlying the unraveling of vaccination campaigns. The methodology proposed is based on Bayesian inference and can be extended to model more complex belief systems associated with decision models. We found the method is able to produce behaviors which approximate what has been observed in real vaccine and disease scare situations. The framework presented comprises a set of useful tools for an adequate quantitative representation of a common yet complex public-health issue. These tools include representation of beliefs as Bayesian probabilities, usage of logarithmic pooling to combine probability distributions representing opinions, and usage of natural conjugate priors to efficiently compute the Bayesian posterior. This approach allowed a comprehensive treatment of the uncertainty regarding vaccination behavior in a realistic epidemiological model.
Beliefs, Knowledge and Perception of Parents to Peadeatric Vaccination in Lagos State, Nigeria  [cached]
Rasheed Kola Ojikutu
Journal of Management and Sustainability , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/jms.v2n2p227
Abstract: This study examined the belief, knowledge and perception on parents to immunization of children in Lagos State. Questionnaires were distributed to a sample of 1000 parents seeking for their opinion on various issues pertaining to their perception about child immunization. In addition, the study did a general literature review on immunization coverage in Nigeria taking into cognizance the beliefs of the Yoruba of South-West Nigeria to which the study area (Lagos State) is an integral part. The result shows that although, many parents have knowledge about the efficacy of vaccination for their children, yet culture overrides such knowledge in some cases. The result shows that gender of parents does not significantly affect their belief about immunization and their willingness to present children for routine immunization. However, marital status, education and religion significantly influence such belief. It is concluded that the culture and beliefs of the Yoruba in Lagos State is too complex to be ignored in any public health plan, if such plan is to be effectively and efficiently implemented.
First- and Third-person Approaches: the Problem of Integration  [PDF]
Olga Marki?
Interdisciplinary Description of Complex Systems , 2012,
Abstract: The author discusses the problem of integration of first- and third-person approaches in studying the human mind. She critically evaluates and compares various methodologies for studying and explaining conscious experience. Common strategies that apply reductive explanation seem to be unsatisfied for explaining experience and its subjective character. There were attempts to explain experience from the first-person point of view (introspectionism, philosophical phenomenology) but the results were not intersubjectively verifiable. Dennett proposed heterophenomenology as a scientifically viable alternative which supposed to bridge the gap between first- and third-person perspectives. The author critically evaluates his proposal and compares it to contemporary attempts to provide first-person methods.
On Henry James’ the Third Person Narration in the Prelude of Ambassador  [cached]
Yu-di LI
Cross-Cultural Communication , 2006, DOI: 10.3968/616
Abstract: The third person narration is common used in varied modern fictions and stories. It was illustrated by the forerunner Henry James in the prelude of Ambassador, in which he proposed the method of using the third person narration to develop the plot of the story. According to his theory, this paper further on analyzed his third person narration and find out the advantages and disadvantages of the third person narration so as to give an object and comprehensive understanding of this point of view. Keywords: Henry James, the third person narration, advantage and disadvantage RésuméLe point de vue narratif à la troisième personne est utilisé abondamment dans les romans et histoires modernes. Dans la préface des Ambassadeurs le précurseur de cette fa on de narration Henry James a mis en lumière le théorie de pousser le développement de l’intrigue avec la narration à la troisième personne. Par conséquent, l’article présent analyse les avantages et désavantages de cette narration et tente de lui donner une compréhension objective et globale. Mots-clés: Henry James, point de vue narratif à la troisième personne, avantages et désavantages 摘 要 第三人稱敍述視點廣泛的用於現代小說和故事中。在《使節》序言中,第三人稱敍述視點的先驅亨利 詹姆斯闡述了如何用這種視點推動情節發展的理論。據此,本文進一步分析了這種視點的利和弊,試圖給它一個客觀而全面的理解。 關鍵詞:亨利 詹姆斯;第三人稱敍述視點;利與弊
Health workers' attitude and perception toward routine pre-marital HIV screening
OI Musa
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology , 2005,
Abstract: More than half of all new HIV infections occur among young adults, however, the rate of new infections among women surpasses men's especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. This rising infection rates, particularly among women, exposes children to increased HIV risk even before they are born. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the attitude and perception of health workers to routine pre-marital HIV screening that is currently practice by some religious institutions as part of initiative directed towards controlling the spread of the infection. Three hundred (300) self-administered questionnaires distributed to the health workers in their respective units were analyzed. Majority of the respondents 270 (90%) agreed that pre-marital HIV screening is necessary and advantageous to couples intending to get married. Although more than half of the respondents (56.7%) believed that the screening exercise is associated with some disadvantages, as many as 205 (68.3%) were in support of its enforcement for all couple. Majority 260 (86.7%) agreed that religious leaders/institutions have important role to play in HIV control and most of them 265 (88.3%) would prefer that Government health facilities be used as screening centres; and medical doctors should be the person to reveal the test results to the couples 275 (91.7%). About two-third of the respondents felt that the couples should initiates request for HIV screening, and on the issue of whether or not the marriage should be contracted following a positive result in one or both partners, 180(60%) respondents felt that the decision should be made by the couple. Counseling of couples before and after HIV screening, adequate training of health workers on HIV counseling skill and making HIV screening free to couple were suggested by the respondents as incentive that would enhance voluntary pre-marital HIV testing. Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. Vol.6(1) 2005: 46-52
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