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History and Perspectives of the Study of Ethnic Musical Instruments in Karelia
Natalia S. Мikhailova
European Researcher , 2011,
Abstract: The article deals with the history of studying traditional musical instruments in Karelia, analyzes how theoretical research relates to playing ethnic musical instruments and predicts the perspectives of the ethnic musical instrument study development in Karelia.
The Karelia of Memories - Utopias of a Place  [PDF]
Outi Fingerroos
Folklore : Electronic Journal of Folklore , 2006,
Abstract: Karelia has always been a place of utopias and dreams in Finland. The images that we have of this area tend to originate in national projects and Karelianism. Karelia has been divided between two states – Finland and Soviet Union – since Finland gained independence in 1917. The Isthmus belonged to Finland until 1939. After World War II a total of 430,000 evacuees, 407,000 of who were Karelians, were resettled in different parts of Finland.The article concentrates on the memories of Karelian evacuees. The aim of the article is to find, construct and analyse the different ways in which the past is remembered, the experiences of different generations of Karelia, and the phenomenon of “new Karelianism”. Karelia is not just an abstraction but a place of memories and utopias for Karelian evacuees. Their utopias are different than those of supporters of Karelianism because of their misery and dreams about going back there. Karelia is also a meaningful place for different generations. It is a place which Karelian refugees and their children and children’s children as well as researchers and cohabitants in the new hometowns of the evacuees visit again and again.
The reconstruction of hydrobiological data for lakes of Karelia Реконструкция гидробиологических данных для озер Карелии  [cached]
Kalinkina Nataliya Michailovna
Principy èkologii , 2012, DOI: 1234567
Abstract: The factors which determined the variability of hydrochemical and hydrobiological pa-rameters of lakes of Karelia (in total 225 lakes) are analyzed. It is shown that oligo-mesotrophic lakes dominate among studied water bodies whereas the share of eutrophic lakes is low (about 10%). The biomass of phytoplankton and zooplankton was not exactly reconstructed by using the total phosphorous concentration as the argument in regression analysis due to high variability of these parameters. The hydrochemical and hydrobiological indexes were worked to classify the lakes of Karelia. The methods of prognoses of zooplankton biomass (with accuracy of 55–86%) and benthos biomass (with accuracy of 71–78%) on the base of the total phosphorous concentration were worked by using the contingency tables. Рассматриваются факторы изменчивости гидрохимических и гидробиологических по-казателей водоемов Карелии (выборка включала 225 озер). Показано, что среди них преобла-дают олиго-мезотрофные водоемы, в то время как доля эвтрофных озер весьма мала (около 10%). С использованием регрессионного анализа не удалось выполнить точный прогноз биомассы фитопланктона и зоопланктона по концентрации общего фосфора в воде, что свя-зано с высокой изменчивостью показателей. Разработаны гидрохимический и гидробиоло-гический индексы, по величине которых выполнена классификация озер Карелии. На основе анализа таблиц сопряженности между индексами разработан метод прогноза биомассы зоо-планктона (с точностью 55–86%) и биомассы зообентоса (с точностью 71–78%) по концен-трации общего фосфора в воде озер.
K-Ar dating of basic intrusions at Bellsund, Spitsbergen, Svalbard
Krzysztof Birkenmajer , Krzysztof P. Krajewski , Zoltán Pécskay , Marek W. Lorenc
Polish Polar Research , 2010, DOI: 10.4202/ppres.2010.01
Abstract: Nine samples of basic (dolerite, gabbro) intrusions collected at Bellsund, South Spitsbergen, have been K-Ar dated. Three dates, between 87.8 and 102.9 Ma, obtained from dolerite sills which intrude Carboniferous and Permian deposits in Van Keulenfjorden point to a Cretaceous age of intrusive activity (Diabasodden Suite). The K-Ar dates obtained from dolerite and gabbro which intrude Upper Proterozoic metasedimentary terrane of Chamber-lindalen form two groups: the dates between 97.1 and 178.6 Ma point to a Mesozoic age of the intrusions (Diabasodden Suite); the dates from a tectonized gabbroid (280.9-402.0 Ma) might point to a Late Palaeozoic age of the intrusion. No K-Ar dates which would indicate a Proterozoic age of the basic intrusions were obtained.
Forecasted deep stratospheric intrusions over Central Europe: case studies and climatologies
T. Trickl, H. Feldmann, H.-J. Kanter, H.-E. Scheel, M. Sprenger, A. Stohl,H. Wernli
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2010,
Abstract: Based on daily predictions of stratospheric air intrusions, obtained from trajectory calculations by ETH Zürich with wind fields from ECMWF forecasts, a high number of measurements with the ozone lidar at IMK-IFU (Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany) were carried out in 2001. The lidar measurements show a large variety of rather different cases reflecting the full complexity of intrusion episodes that is not visible in classical case studies. In part, tropopause folds could be fully captured. The frequency of intrusion cases forecasted and verified by vertical sounding or in the in-situ data recorded at the nearby Zugspitze summit (2962 m a.s.l.) exceed that in previous work by more than a factor of two. Three cases mapped with the lidar were selected to validate the results for the corresponding time periods extracted from a one-year run with the new hemispheric version of the chemistry-transport model EURAD. Due to the high spatial resolution chosen for these simulations the agreement with the lidar measurements is satisfactory. The Zugspitze ozone data from 1978 to 2004 were recently filtered by applying different criteria for stratospheric air, based on the 7Be and humidity measurements. Here, by using the daily model forecasts during the time period 2001–2005, we examine three criteria and determine how well they represent the stratospheric air intrusions reaching the mountain site. Seasonal cycles for the period 2001–2005 were derived for the forecasts as well as the intrusion frequency per month for the forecasted intrusions and each of the criteria, distinguishing eight different characteristic transport pathways. In most cases a winter maximum and a summer minimum was obtained, but in the case of cyclonic arrival of intrusions starting over Greenland a late-spring maximum is seen. Two of the filtering criteria examined, based on combining a relative-humidity (RH) threshold of 60% with either a 7Be threshold of 5.5 mBq m 3 or the requirement for RH≤30% within ±6 h, rather reliably predict periods of deep intrusions reaching the Zugspitze station. An "or" combination of both these criteria yields slightly more cases and covers 77.9% of the intrusions identified. The lack of observations in the complementary 22.1% are mostly explained by overpasses. In this way the long-term trend of stratospheric ozone observed at this site as well as the corresponding ozone budget may be derived on the basis of measurements only. This effort will be the subject of a subsequent publication.
Regional Energy Balance and Its Implementation to South Karelia  [PDF]
Mika Laihanen, Antti Karhunen, Tapio Ranta
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems (JSBS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jsbs.2011.11001
Abstract: All EU countries have targets for increasing the use of renewable energy at a national level. However this effort should become concrete at regional and local levels where investments on bioenergy are made. This study introduces a systematical and universally applicable method for constructing regional energy balance. This study focuses on the method how to combine specific regional primary energy sources with their end uses. The primary energy sources include different fuels and the net import of electricity. The energy end uses are heat, electricity and losses. The concept of the regional energy balance was illustrated through a case of South Karelia. The total use of primary energy in South Karelia was 25.2 TWh (or 91 PJ) in 2010 and the share of renewable energy sources was 65%. The regional energy balance analysis can be utilized as a guideline for strategically planning and allocating regional energy sources for example, increasing the use of renewable energy sources. It can provide local decision makers and shareholders about the current status of energy supply, convincing them to take proper actions and consider producing energy at a local and regional level.
The North Karelia lessons for prevention of cardiovascular disease  [cached]
Tiina Laatikainen,Erkki Vartiainen,Pekka Puska
Italian Journal of Public Health , 2007, DOI: 10.2427/5884
Abstract: Background: As a result of the high cardiovascular disease (CVD) rates in Finland in late 1960’s, which became a source of national concern, a major community based programme for CVD prevention called the North Karelia project was established. Aim: The aim of the project was to carry out a programme of comprehensive community based interventions to reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality and morbidity. Methods: Using lifestyle modification methods and strategies for environmental change the programme aimed to reduce three main risk factors: smoking, elevated blood cholesterol and blood pressure. Several intervention settings and strategies in the community were used. Results: Since the 1970’s the CHD mortality in North Karelia has declined by more than 80%. Major reductions have been seen across the main three cardiovascular risk factors. Among both men and women, total serum cholesterol levels within the population declined by almost 20% and systolic blood pressure by about 10%. Smoking among men decreased from 52% to 33%, while among women a slight increase in smoking prevalence was recorded. Conclusions: The North Karelia project has shown that a comprehensive, determined, theory-based community program can have a meaningful and positive effect on risk factors and lifestyles. Furthermore, these changes are associated with favorable changes in chronic disease rates and the health of the population.
Nordic Forest Energy Solutions in the Republic of Karelia  [PDF]
Yuri Gerasimov,Sergei Senko,Timo Karjalainen
Forests , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/f4040945
Abstract: The situation in Karelia, a region in Northwest Russia, is analyzed in the context of forest energy. The annual potential energy available from wood harvesting is about 7 tera watt hours (TWh) (3.6 million m 3), which is equal to the total need of Karelia in energy for municipal heating. We point out that the contribution to the municipal economy, the moderate heating cost, the enhanced energy security in the cold Russian climate, the environmental friendliness, the better access to the forests and the utilization of the proven Nordic forest energy solutions (NFES) might have important consequences for strategy-making processes in forest energy development. For this purpose, connecting Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) with SWOT (internal strengths (S) or weaknesses (W) and external opportunities (O) or threats (T)) analysis is proposed to identify local operational strategies and assign priorities. Major threats include lack of government support, an insufficient road network, the dominance of extensive forest management, gasification and financial indiscipline. Analysis indicates that NFES are viewed positively for the Russian conditions. The forest biomass market has virtually unlimited opportunities for growth. Together, with the transition to intensive forest management, favorable policy in terms of forestry development programs can support bioenergy development. The advantageous location of existing power plants next to forests, increasing fossil fuel prices, the improvement of the road network and the availability of new technology are seen as potential opportunities for NFES. However, the results also indicate that there is substantial uncertainty and skepticism concerning how such markets benefit forest leaseholders who would like to adopt forest energy. The lack of bioenergy technology development, high transportation cost, low awareness of NFES, high demands for roads, the requirement for skilled specialists and wood fuel quality are the main weaknesses regarding the transfer of NFES to Karelia.
Forecasted deep stratospheric intrusions over Central Europe: case studies and climatologies  [PDF]
T. Trickl,H. Feldmann,H.-J. Kanter,H.-E. Scheel
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2009,
Abstract: Based on daily predictions of stratospheric air intrusions, obtained from trajectory calculations by ETH Zürich with wind fields from ECMWF forecasts, a high number of measurements with the ozone lidar at IMK-IFU (Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany) were carried out in 2001. The lidar measurements show a large variety of rather different cases. In part, tropopause folds could be fully captured. The frequency of intrusion cases forecasted and verified by vertical sounding or in the in-situ data recorded at the nearby Zugspitze summit (2962 m a.s.l.) exceed that in previous work by more than a factor of two. Three cases mapped with the lidar were selected to validate the results for the corresponding time periods extracted from a one-year run with the new hemispheric version of the chemistry-transport model EURAD. Due to the high spatial resolution chosen for these simulations the agreement with the lidar measurements is satisfactory. The Zugspitze ozone data from 1978 to 2004 were recently filtered by applying different criteria for stratospheric air, based on the 7Be and humidity measurements. Here, by using the daily model forecasts during the time period 2001–2005, we examine three criteria and determine how well they represent the stratospheric air intrusions reaching the mountain site. Seasonal cycles for the period 2001–2005 were derived for the forecasts as well as the intrusion frequency per month for the forecasted intrusions and each of the criteria, distinguishing eight different characteristic transport pathways. In most cases a winter maximum and a summer minimum was obtained, but in the case of cyclonic arrival of intrusions starting over Greenland a late-spring maximum is seen. Two of the filtering criteria examined, based on combining a relative-humidity (RH) threshold of 60% with either a 7Be threshold of 5.5 mBq m 3 or the requirement for RH ≤30% within ±6 h, rather reliably predict periods of deep intrusions reaching the Zugspitze station. An "or" combination of both these criteria yields slightly more cases and covers 77.9% of the intrusions identified. The lack of observations in the complementary 22.1% are mostly explained by overpasses. In this way the long-term trend of stratospheric ozone observed at this site as well as the corresponding ozone budget may be derived on the basis of measurements only. This effort will be the subject of a subsequent publication.
Efficiency of Forest Chip Supply Systems in Karelia
Sukhanov Y. V.,Sokolov A. P.,Gerasimov Y. Y.
Resources and Technology , 2013, DOI: 1941
Abstract: Russia has significant volumes of woody biomass of different origins that are available for energy, but wood is not widely used as fuel. Four alternatives of forest chip supply systems were compared in the Republic of Karelia with the support system and the most favorable methods of wood chip production were determined by the local market conditions. The collection of logging residues for chipping is cost-effective if the distance to the customer is less than 50 km. The use of round energy wood for the production of forest chips compared with the use of logging residues is more economically feasible. In this case, forest chips can be transported up to 150 km. The availability of logging residues largely depends on the load-bearing capacity of the soil at harvesting sites. When considering the local market, a production method based on chipping energy wood at the end user facility has the best economic efficiency.
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