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Assessment of Cryptosporidium in wastewater reuse for drinking water purposes: A case study for the city of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
LC Rietveld, L Meijer, PWMH Smeets, JP van der Hoek
Water SA , 2009,
Abstract: Wastewater reuse is becoming increasingly important for supplementing drinking water supply needs and/or to reduce costs in many communities around the world. However, wastewater reuse can result in a potential transmission route for infectious agents. Therefore, the occurrence of Cryptosporidium was assessed in a treatment plant geared for the production of drinking water from wastewater effluent and the results were compared to those on an existing typical drinking water treatment plant operated by Waternet, the water cycle company of Amsterdam, The Netherlands, and its surrounding areas. The assessment was done using Monte-Carlo simulation and probability density functions to determine the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in raw surface water and wastewater effluent and the removal in different treatment steps. From the research conducted, it was concluded that under normal conditions, drinking water that meets Dutch drinking water quality standards could also be produced from treated wastewater effluent. However, additional redundancy should be built in to meet the standards under extreme operating conditions.
Reuse rate of treated wastewater in water reuse system
FAN Yao-bo,YANG Wen-bo,LI Gang,WU Lin-lin,WEI Yuan-song,
FAN Yao-bo
,YANG Wen-bo,LI Gang,WU Lin-lin,WEI Yuan-song

环境科学学报(英文版) , 2005,
Abstract: A water quality model for water reuse was made by mathematics induction. The relationship among the reuse rate of treated wastewater(R), pollutant concentration of reused water(C_s), pollutant concentration of influent(C_0), removal efficiency of pollutant in wastewater(E), and the standard of reuse water were discussed in this study. According to the experiment result of a toilet wastewater treatment and reuse with membrane bioreactors, R would be set at less than 40%, on which all the concerned parameters could meet with the reuse water standards. To raise R of reuse water in the toilet, an important way was to improve color removal of the wastewater.
Automated Improvement for Component Reuse  [PDF]
Muthu Ramachandran
Computer Science , 2005,
Abstract: Software component reuse is the key to significant gains in productivity. However, the major problem is the lack of identifying and developing potentially reusable components. This paper concentrates on our approach to the development of reusable software components. A prototype tool has been developed, known as the Reuse Assessor and Improver System (RAIS) which can interactively identify, analyse, assess, and modify abstractions, attributes and architectures that support reuse. Practical and objective reuse guidelines are used to represent reuse knowledge and to do domain analysis. It takes existing components, provides systematic reuse assessment which is based on reuse advice and analysis, and produces components that are improved for reuse. Our work on guidelines has been extended to a large scale industrial application.
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: A good software reuse process facilitates the increase of productivity, quality, reliability, and the decrease of costs and implementation time. One of major impediments to realizing software reusability in many organizations is the inability to locate and retrieve existing software components. An initial investment is required to start a software reuse process, but that investment pays for itself in a few reuses. In short, the development of a reuse process and repository produces a base of knowledge that improves in quality after every reuse, minimizing the amount of development work required for future projects and ultimately reducing the risk of new projects that are based on repository knowledge. This paper addresses the technical impediments to software component reuse technology.
An overview of reclaimed water reuse in China
Lili Yi,Wentao Jiao,Xiaoning Chen,Weiping Chen,
Lili Yi
,Wentao Jiao,Xiaoning Chen,Weiping Chen

环境科学学报(英文版) , 2011,
Abstract: China is facing severe water problems including scarcity and pollution which are now becoming key factors restricting developments. Creating an alternative water resource and reducing effluent discharges, water reuse has been recognized as an integral part of water and wastewater management scheme in China. The government has launched nationwide efforts to optimize the benefits of utilizing reclaimed water. This article reviewed the water reuse activities in China, including: (1) application history and current status; (2) potentials of reclaimed water reuse; (3) laws, policies and regulations governing reclaimed water reuse; (4) risks associated with reclaimed water reuse; (5) issues in reclaimed water reuse. Reclaimed water in Beijing and Tianjin were given as examples. Suggestions for improving the efficiencies of reusing urban wastewater were advanced. Being the largest user of reclaimed wastewater in the world, China's experience can benefit the development of water reuse in other regions.
Authentication Mechanism for Resistance to Password Stealing and Reuse Attack  [PDF]
Sharayu A. Aghav,RajneeshKaur Bedi
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Considering computer systems, security is the major concern with usability. Security policies need to be developed to protect information from unauthorized access. Passwords and secrete codes used between users and information systems for secure user authentication with the system. Playing a vital role in security, easily guessed passwords are links to vulnerability. They allow invader to put system resources significantly closer to access them, other accounts on nearby machines and possibly even administrative privileges with different threats and vulnerabilities (e.g., phishing, key logging and malwares). The purpose of this system is to introduce the concept and methodology which helps organization and users to implement stronger password policies. This paper studies a password stealing and reuse issues of password based authentication systems. Techniques and concepts of authentication are discussed which gives rise to a novel approach of two-factor authentication. Avoiding password reuse is a crucial issue in information systems which can at some extent contribute to password stealing issue also. In the proposed system, each participating website possesses a user's unique phone number, telecommunication services in registration and recovery phases and a long-term password used to generate one-time password for each login session on all websites.
Water Recycling and Reuse by Using Wetland  [PDF]
Dr. V. V. Diwan,Gajanan N. Munishwar
International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology , 2012,
Abstract: : Scarcity of water is a challenge worldwide because of growing population and Industrialization. Billions of people have insufficient access to safe drinking water. Ground water levels are falling and all type of water bodies like river, lake and oceans are getting polluted. Many issues resulting in water scarcity could be avoided with better water management. A better option is reuse and recycles the wastewater for secondary purposes like toilet flushing, gardening, lawn and irrigation. Wastewater has high Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and contains Total Suspended Solid (TSS), Nitrogen (N), Phosphorous (P), alkaline in nature. Conventional wastewater treatment goes through primary, secondary and tertiary treatment which is expensive to build, operate and maintain. Wastewater should be treated & reused such that treatment should be economical, natural and not affecting the environment. The best option is to provide onsite wastewater treatment by using geology of wetland for clean & hygienic villages. Wetlands are parts of earth’s surface between terrestrial and aquatic system. Wetlands are generally shallow in depth which includes water, soil and vegetation. There are two types of Wetlands like Natural and Constructed wetland. Selection of location of natural wetlands is dependent on various geological properties. In natural wetland, control on process is difficult but in constructed wetland, we can control the process of treatment. Constructed Wetland is an artificial wastewater treatment, consisting of shallow ponds (<1 meter depth). Water Hyacinth (Eichronia crassipes) is available locally It is large, bulbous floating plants with extensive root system, perennial aquatic plant with rounded, upright, shiny green leaves and spikes of lavender flower. It is good in nutrient removal from wastewater through the harvesting, prevents the growth of algae and maintaining pH value . The root zones of plants develop into a diverse ecology which includes bacteria, fungi, predators and filter feeders for creating aerobic conditions. Constructed wetlands provide habitat for wildlife and helps to improve aesthetic value.
Indirect Potable Reuse: A Sustainable Water Supply Alternative  [PDF]
Clemencia Rodriguez,Paul Van Buynder,Richard Lugg,Palenque Blair,Brian Devine,Angus Cook,Philip Weinstein
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph6031174
Abstract: The growing scarcity of potable water supplies is among the most important issues facing many cities, in particular those using single sources of water that are climate dependent. Consequently, urban centers are looking to alternative sources of water supply that can supplement variable rainfall and meet the demands of population growth. A diversified portfolio of water sources is required to ensure public health, as well as social, economical and environmental sustainability. One of the options considered is the augmentation of drinking water supplies with advanced treated recycled water. This paper aims to provide a state of the art review of water recycling for drinking purposes with emphasis on membrane treatment processes. An overview of significant indirect potable reuse projects is presented followed by a description of the epidemiological and toxicological studies evaluating any potential human health impacts. Finally, a summary of key operational measures to protect human health and the areas that require further research are discussed.
Water shortage and wastewater reuse
Wang Jusi,

环境科学学报(英文版) , 1990,
Abstract: China is not abandantly supplied with freshwater. Water shortage is a crucial problem in northern China, and affects the development of economy and causes a host of environmental and ecological problems. Water saving, water resource protection, strengthening of management and exploitation of new water resources are some of the major measures for solving the water shortage problem. Wastewater reuse is also a feasible and practical means of alleviating the problem.
Incinerate, recycle, or wash and reuse  [PDF]
Hubbe, M. A.
BioResources , 2007,
Abstract: What is the best way to minimize the environmental impact of using a product such as paper? Three debating teams were formed within a university class. One team advocated increased recycling of paper. Another team pointed to evidence showing reduced environmental impact and lower net CO2 emissions if the paper is incinerated rather than recycled. A third team advocated the replacement of paper by items such as porcelain plates and video screens, cutting costs and reducing waste by multiple reuse.
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