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A Comparative Analysis of Social Service Provision and Accessibility in Regularised Settlements in Tanzania
Edmund Zakayo, Emmanuel Patroba Mhache, Wakuru Magigi
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105278
Social service provision and accessibility play a great role in ensuring city de-velopment in both developed and developing countries with emerging econo-mies, Tanzania inclusive. This paper provides a comparative study on the situation, arguments and criticisms of three planned neighborhoods, whereby in those cases, local communities were involved in settlement upgrading through land regularization in Tanzania. The discussion centered on comparing the social infrastructure service provision and the levels of accessibility of neighborhood residents to roads, waste disposal, water and electricity supply. Similarly, the paper highlights the role of neighborhood leaders in ensuring social service provision, accessibility levels, reasons for connections, and the correlation between source of water and electricity supply as well as inferential statistics for the effects of the land regularization on the access to social services. We find that local leadership determines provision and accessibility of infrastructures in an area where informal settlement upgrading project takes place. Location differences of neighborhoods and proximity to the infrastructure service influence business growth, home improvement, service payments, and residents’ mindset change in the neighborhood land development processes. We also found that conditions set for provision of social services include: availability of permanent building structure, land ownership, affordability level, household agreement, offering land for public use and freedom from the road reserve. Local Authority sets guidelines for service provision and helps meet with the local community and thus, shows the recognized role of community involvement in settlement upgrading projects. Furthermore, the role of planning institutions and differences is highlighted. The study concludes that community involvement and local leadership championship in informal settlement upgrading are vital elements for the success of the program and towards ensuring development control, coordination and sustainability once the project ends.
Settlement  [cached]
John Frow
Cultural Studies Review , 2012,
Abstract: The paper explores the idea of settlement in each of its three major senses: as a place of human habitation; as a fixed and stable order of habitation; and as a political consensus reconciling fractious groups. Arguing that traditional accounts of settlement depend, with a kind of pastoral nostalgia, upon a view of abstraction and social complexity as in themselves harmful, it follows through the implications of the concept for ways of dealing with the stranger, and it uses a drawing by the nineteenth-century indigenous Australian artist Tommy McRae, done about 1890 and entitled Corroboree, or William Buckley and dancers from the Wathaurong people, to propose a counterfactual model through which a settlement with the stranger might be imagined.
Shuffle relations for regularised integrals of symbols  [PDF]
Dominique Manchon,Sylvie Paycha
Mathematics , 2005, DOI: 10.1007/s00220-006-0141-y
Abstract: We prove shuffle relations which relate a product of regularised integrals of classical symbols to regularised nested (Chen) iterated integrals, which hold if all the symbols involved have non-vanishing residue. This is true in particular for non-integer order symbols. In general the shuffle relations hold up to finite parts of corrective terms arising from renormalisation on tensor products of classical symbols, a procedure adapted from renormalisation procedures on Feynman diagrams familiar to physicists. We relate the shuffle relations for regularised integrals of symbols with shuffle relations for multizeta functions adapting the above constructions to the case of symbols on the unit circle.
$ζ$-regularised spectral determinants on metric graphs  [PDF]
Christophe Texier
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/1751-8113/43/42/425203
Abstract: Several general results for the spectral determinant of the Schr\"odinger operator on metric graphs are reviewed. Then, a simple derivation for the $\zeta$-regularised spectral determinant is proposed, based on the Roth trace formula. Two types of boundary conditions are studied: functions continuous at the vertices and functions whose derivative is continuous at the vertices. The $\zeta$-regularised spectral determinant of the Schr\"odinger operator acting on functions with the most general boundary conditions is conjectured in conclusion. The relation to the Ihara, Bass and Bartholdi formulae obtained for combinatorial graphs is also discussed.
Regularised PCA to denoise and visualise data  [PDF]
Marie Verbanck,Julie Josse,Fran?ois Husson
Statistics , 2013,
Abstract: Principal component analysis (PCA) is a well-established method commonly used to explore and visualise data. A classical PCA model is the fixed effect model where data are generated as a fixed structure of low rank corrupted by noise. Under this model, PCA does not provide the best recovery of the underlying signal in terms of mean squared error. Following the same principle as in ridge regression, we propose a regularised version of PCA that boils down to threshold the singular values. Each singular value is multiplied by a term which can be seen as the ratio of the signal variance over the total variance of the associated dimension. The regularised term is analytically derived using asymptotic results and can also be justified from a Bayesian treatment of the model. Regularised PCA provides promising results in terms of the recovery of the true signal and the graphical outputs in comparison with classical PCA and with a soft thresholding estimation strategy. The gap between PCA and regularised PCA is all the more important that data are noisy.
An audit of Paediatric Orofacial Lesions at the Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre in Moshi, Tanzania  [PDF]
D. S. Rwakatema, M. L. Chindia
Surgical Science (SS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2011.210104
Abstract: Objective: To audit and categorize pathological lesions and conditions that occurred in the orofacial region among children aged up to 15 yrs. Setting: Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Moshi, Tanzania. Design: Retrospective cross-sectional audit based on archival records and material between 1985 to 2005. Results: Biopsy results were generated into 11 categories whence most common lesions encountered were in the categories of soft tissue benign neoplasms (35.1%) and soft tissue malignant neoplasms (21.8%). Remarkably, Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL) in the category of malignant soft tissue neoplasia constituted 11.8% of all the lesions biopsied while haemangiomas and tuberculous adenitis comprised 8.1% and 3.8% respectively. The age groups revealed the highest burden (37.1%) among the 0 to 5-year-olds followed by the 11 to 15-(34.5%) and 6 to 10-year-olds (28.4%). The orofacial site distribution among the 211 biopsied cases included 62.1% in the mandibular 29.9% in the maxillary region and 8% in the tongue areas. Malignant neoplasms of the bone were rare and all were diagnosed in the mandible. Overall, malignant neoplasms of soft tissue were significantly more in the age group of 6 - 10 years as well as in males than females. On the other hand, significantly more benign soft tissue neoplasms occurred in females than in males. Main Outcome Measure: There is great diversity and preponderance of soft tissue than skeletal orofacial lesions on the present audit. Significantly, clinicians should maintain high index of suspicion regarding the remarkably high frequency of diagnosing BL and tuberculous lymphadenitis in such a population in this era of HIV infection/AIDS.
Understanding Gender-based Violence: Evidence from Kilimanjaro Assessment of Rombo and Moshi Rural
J Saffitz
African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie , 2010,
Abstract: This paper presents findings from an empirical study on the prevalence and beliefs surrounding gender-based violence (GBV) in the Kilimanjaro region. The analysis and ensuing discussion is the result of a representative sample of adults (n=384) surveyed in two districts, Rombo and Moshi Rural, in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. In contrast to previous research of a similar nature, which has focused primarily on the frequency of violence, this study devotes significant attention discerning the level of social acceptability among its victims and perpetrators situated in a legal and cultural framework. I find that alcohol consumption and the number of deceased children within a household have a direct correlation to incidences of GBV while an individual’s level of education and degree of financial independence are inversely related to rates of violence. The influence of bride price and polygamy is inconclusive. Finally, I find that although a portion of the population believes women should have decision-making capabilities, patriarchal institutions and a culture that relegates women as inferior have a significant impact on individual attitudes among men and women to preserve the status quo. These results suggest a greater need to promote a culture of egalitarianism in a sensitive and relevant manner.
Pattern, clincal presentation and management of Wilms' Tumor in Moshi, Tanzania
A D Bezuney, A E Groeneveld, C F Heyns
African Journal of Urology , 2007,
Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study was to audit the treatment outcome of children with Wilms' tumor in East Africa, at a Urology referral center with limited access to imaging modalities and chemotherapeutic drugs, and no radiation facility. Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of the hospital records of children with a diagnosis of Wilms' tumor treated from June 1996 to May 2005 at the Association of Surgeons of East Africa (ASEA) Institute of Urology, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC), Moshi, Tanzania. Results: In total, 50 patients were diagnosed with Wilms' tumor in the 9 years study period, but only 39 files contained sufficient information for analysis. The average age at presentation was 44.7 months (median 36, range 8 to 120 months). 25.6% of the children were >60 months old. The male:female ratio was 1.4:1. All of the children presented with an abdominal mass detected by the parents. The hemoglobin was <100 gm/L in 21 (53.8%) and the platelet count was >450,000/ml in 8 (20.5%) cases. Ultrasound imaging was obtained in all cases, but CT imaging was not taken. Intravenous urography was done in 38 children and showed non-visualization of the involved kidney in 16 (42.1%). Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was performed in 25 cases and was diagnostic in 23 (92%). Preoperative vincristine and dactinomycin was given to 23 patients (59%) with marked tumor shrinkage in 20 (87%), while 3 (13%) showed no response. Radical nephrectomy was performed in all patients, and 3 patients (7.7%) died within 24 hours of surgery. Pathologic analysis showed favorable histology in 35 (89.7%) and unfavorable histology in 4 (10.3%) patients. Based on the pre- and intra-operative findings, NWTS stage 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 was present in 25.6%, 17.9%, 15.4%, 38.5% and 2.6%, respectively. Postoperative dactinomycin and vincristine was given monthly for one year in all patients, while doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide were reserved for those with no response to the first-line drugs, or recurrent tumor. Radiotherapy was not available. At 12 months' follow-up the overall disease-free survival was 35.9%, recurrence had occurred in 38.5%, death in 15.4%, and 10.3% were lost to follow-up. Conclusion: Children with Wilms' tumor in East Africa still have a dismal prognosis, with treatment outcomes at levels where it was before the advent of chemotherapy and radiation therapy in more advanced centers. Objectif : Le but de cette étude était d'évaluer les résultats du traitement des enfants présentant une tumeur de Wilms en Afrique de l'Est, dans un centre de référence d'urologie avec un accès limité à l'imagerie médicale et aux drogues chimiothérapeutiques, et aucun service de radiothérapie. Patients et méthodes : C'est une analyse rétrospective des dossiers médicaux d'enfants présentant une tumeur de Wilms traités de juin 1996 à mai 2005 à l'h pital de l'association des chirurgiens de l'Afrique de l'Est, institut d'urologie ( ASEA), le centre médical
A regularised singularity approach to phoretic problems  [PDF]
Thomas D. Montenegro-Johnson,Sebastien Michelin,Eric Lauga
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: An efficient, accurate, and flexible numerical method is proposed for the solution of the swimming problem of one or more autophoretic particles in the purely-diffusive limit. The method relies on successive boundary element solutions of the Laplacian and the Stokes flow equations using regularised Green's functions for swift, simple implementations, an extension of the well-known method of "regularised stokeslets" for Stokes flow problems. The boundary element method is particularly suitable for phoretic problems, since no quantities in the domain bulk are required to compute the swimming velocity. For time-dependent problems, the method requires no re-meshing and simple boundaries such as a plane wall may be added at no increase to the size of the linear system through the method of images. The method is validated against two classical examples for which an analytical or semi-analytical solution is known, a two-sphere system and a Janus particle, and provides a rigorous computational pipeline to address further problems with complex geometry and multiple bodies.
Antibiotic prescribing practice in management of cough and/or diarrhoea in Moshi Municipality, Northern Tanzania: cross-sectional descriptive study
JJ Gwimile, SA Shekalaghe, GN Kapanda, ER Kisanga
Pan African Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Introduction: The increase in resistance of many pathogens to currently available antibiotics has been recognized as life-threatening problem. The development of drug resistance is promoted by irrational prescribing behavior. Inappropriate use of antibiotics is attributed by overprescription, inadequate dosage and use for non-bacterial infections. The purpose of this study was to assess antibiotic prescribing practices in the management of diarrhoea and cough among children attending hospitals in Moshi municipal, Tanzania. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive hospital based study, from September 2010 to March 2011. All children presenting with diarrhoea and cough, aged between one month and 5years attended at the two hospitals were enrolled. Data were collected by a standard questionnaire. Information on the prescribed drugs was obtained from patient files. Results: A total of 384 children were enrolled. Of these, 326 (84.9%) received antibiotics; common prescribed antibiotics were penicillins, sulphonamides, aminoglycosides and macrolides. Eighty percent of children with acute watery diarrhoea and 68.9% with common cold were given antibiotics inappropriately. Inappropriate antibiotic prescription was significantly associated with prescriber being a clinical officer and assistant medical officer, and child having diarrhoea. Inappropriate antibiotic dosage was significantly occurred when prescriber was clinical officer with reference to medical officer. Conclusion: This study observed a high antibiotic prescription rate by clinicians and treatment guidelines for management of patients who presented with cough and/or diarrhoea are followed. Continuing professional development programmes for clinicians on prescription would help in reducing irrational prescribing practices.
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