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Awareness of Health Risks of Female Genital Mutilation Among Women of Child Bearing Age in Two Rural Communities in Nigeria  [cached]
O. Okhiai,O.B. Idonije,E.C. Asika
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Female genital mutilation has been found to be associated with myriad of physical, emotional and social health risks and the awareness of the consequences of these risks is paramount to the successful cubing/stoppage of the health danger pose by this harmful cultural practice. Hence this research was carried out to ascertain the awareness of health risks of female genital mutilation among women of child bearing age in two rural communities in South-Eastern Nigeria. Structured interview guide was the main instrument of data collection and was structured to meet the said goal of this research and Validity of the instrument was also ensured. Four stage simple random sampling procedure were used to draw the sample size of three hundred and eighty women of child bearing age in these communities. Descriptive statistics of frequency, percentages, grand mean and inferential statistics of Chi-square were used in data analysis. It was found that majority of the respondents (62.4%) were not aware of the physical, emotional and social health risks of female genital mutilation, but few are aware based on level of education, parity status and age. Recommendations made based on the findings were that the federal, state and local governments should enact and enforce laws that will prohibit female genital mutilation in Nigeria while women leaders organize interactive sessions during their meeting days to educate women on the risks associated with female genital mutilation.
Knowledge, attitude and practice of female genital mutilation among doctors and nurses in Bayelsa state, Niger-Delta of Nigeria  [PDF]
Ibrahim I.A,Oyeyemi A.S,Ekine A.A
International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research , 2013,
Abstract: Background: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a harmful traditional practice that is deeply rooted in Africa. It has been outlawed in Bayelsa state of Nigeria but there is evidence that its performance by traditional circumcisers and health professionals continues. Aim: The study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of FGM among doctors and nurses/midwives practising in public secondary and tertiary hospitals in Bayelsa state. Methods: One hundred and ninety seven (197) structured questionnaires were administered to all available doctors and nurses/midwives in the study hospitals for self-completion. Epi-Info version 3.5.1 was used to analyse data. Results: All the respondents were aware of FGM. A higher proportion of nurses/midwives than doctors had ever been asked and had ever treated patients with complications of FGM. More than 90% of respondents said it was not a good practice. Out of the 70 female respondents, 19 (27.1%) said they were circumcised. Only one nurse/midwife admitted to performing FGM presently. Conclusion: Doctors and nurses/midwives practicing in the study hospitals were well aware of FGM and were favourably disposed towards its elimination. Efforts should be made to reinforce this position.
The Perspectives and Health Implications of Female Genital Mutilation among Amassoma Women in Bayelsa State, Nigeria
Victor O. Adika,Rose E. Ezonbodor-Akwagbe,Joyce E.T. Bokolo,Franko A. Apiyanteide
International Journal of Tropical Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/ijtmed.2012.80.85
Abstract: A study of the perspectives and health implications of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) was carried out in Amassoma, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. The purpose of this study was to describe the perspective of practice, perspective of knowledge and quality of life after FGM. A survey was conducted, using a four-stage probability sampling technique between April 2010 and June 2010. About 98.7% of the respondents were women of Ijaw ethnic nationality. About 99.3% have knowledge of the practice of FGM and 94% have witness this event and 48.6% were not satisfied with the practice of FGM and family members constitute 92% of the main source of consent influencing the practice of FGM. However, 2% was contributed by health professionals. The study reveals that the effect of FGM on intercourse was 2.7%; quality of life assessment on pain, hemorrhage, urinary retentions infections and complications after FGM was 1.3% among study respondents. The campaign and interventions of opponents of FGM should be focused on the family and particularly parents.
Female Genital Mutilation and Early Marriage: A Violent on the Health of the Girl-Child in Boki Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria
M. E. Edim,P. E. Ekuri,E. A. Odok
Studies in Sociology of Science , 2012, DOI: 10.3968/j.sss.1923018420120304.1939
Abstract: This study investigates the effects of female genital mutilation and early marriage as violence on the health of the girl-child in Boki Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria. To achieve the purpose of this study, two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Survey research design was adopted for this study. A sample of two hundred (200) respondents was randomly selected for the study. The selection was done through the simple random sampling technique. The questionnaire was the main instrument used for data collection. It was constructed by the researchers with the help of some measurement experts that gave its face and content validity. To test the hypotheses and ascertain whether to accept or reject them, Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analysis was considered appropriate because of the nature of variables involved. The 0.05 levels of significant were used for the statistical testing of each hypothesis with a critical value and degree of freedom. The result shows that there is significant effect of female genital mutilation and early marriage on the health of the girl-child. Based on these findings some recommendations and suggestions for further studies were made.
Female genital mutilation in Djibouti
M Martinelli, JE Ollé-Goig
African Health Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The practice of female genital mutilation (we will use the latest definition adopted by WHO/UNFP: female genital mutilation/cutting or FGM/C) is still widespread in 28 African countries. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that more than two million females undergo some form of genital mutilation every year. Its negative health impact and its ethical and human rights aspects have been discussed and attempts to eliminate it have been the objectives of several meetings promoted by national and international organisations thanks to an increased awareness related to FGM/C in those countries practicing it and also, maybe due to the number of Africans migrating to industrialized countries. We review the present situation in Djibouti, a small country in the Horn of Africa, where 98 % of the female population has suffered different forms of FGM/C.
Patriarchy: Perpetuating the Practice of Female Genital Mutilation
Sharmon Lynnette Monagan
Journal of Alternative Perspectives in the Social Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: Female genital mutilation is a common practice in certainregions of Africa and Asia. This often times performed by women onother women and young girls. Men are far removed from the actitself. Proponents argue that it decreases the rate ofHIV/AIDS. Therefore it is beneficial to the larger society. However,female genital mutilation, much the same as foot-binding and breastironing and corsetry are part of a continuum of female body andsexuality control. These practices like female genital mutilation arecarried out by women for the benefit of men. This paper attempts to show that these practices are not isolated occurrances or cultural phenomons but rather the invisible hand of patriarchy. The privileging of male that accompanies patriarchial systems make female genital mutilation a requirement for women’s survival not a chose.
Female Genital Mutilation among Edo People: The complications and pattern of presentation at a Pediatric Surgery Unit, Benin City
DO Osifo, I Evbuomwan
African Journal of Reproductive Health , 2009,
Abstract: This prospective study on female genital mutilation among Edo people was based on female children and parents who presented on account of it at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria, between January 2002 and December 2007. During the period, 51 female children aged 10 days and 18 years presented with complications following genital mutilation. Twenty-nine were brought by their parents for mutilation while 67 parents interviewed believed strongly on female genital mutilation with 47 mothers mutilated. Religio-cultural and superstitious beliefs were the main indications and the type of mutilation ranged from excision of clitoridal tip in 10 (19.6%) children to complete excision of the clitoris, labia minora and inner layer of majora in 7 (13.7%). Complications ranged from clitoridal cyst formation in 21 (41.2%) to life threatening infections with one mortality due to tetanus infection (Afr J Reprod Health 2009; 13[1]:17-25).
Large inclusion cyst complicating female genital mutilation  [cached]
Abdel Aziem AbdAllah Ali,Abdalla Ali Mohammed,Awadia Khojali Mohammed Ali
Clinics and Practice , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/cp.2011.e121
Abstract: We report a case of an inclusion cyst, resulting from female genital mutilation (FGM), which enlarged to such a degree that it restricted the patient’s movement. This report aims to raise the awareness of the medical community to the dangers that arise from a common remote complication of FGM.
Female genital mutilation and reproductive health in Africa
F Okonofua
African Journal of Reproductive Health , 2006,
Abstract: Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) or the more value neutral term, Female Genital Cutting (FGC) is widely practised in northern Sudan, where around 90% of women undergo the most extensive form of FGC, infibulation. One new approach to combating FGC in Sudan is to acknowledge the previously hidden form of FGC, reinfibulation (RI) after delivery, when the woman is sewn back so much as to mimic virginity. Based on a qualitative study in Khartoum State, this article explores Sudanese women\'s and men\'s perceptions and experiences of FGC with emphasis on RI after delivery. The results showed that both genders blame each other for the continuation of the practices, and the comprehensive understanding of the perceptions and experiences was that both the women and the men in this study were victims of the consequences of FGC and RI. The female narratives could be understood in the three categories: viewing oneself as being “normal” in having undergone FGC and RI; being caught between different perspectives; and having limited influence on the practices of FGC and RI. The male narratives could be understood in the three categories: suffering from the consequences of FGC and RI, trying to counterbalance the negative sexual effects of FGC and striving in vain to change female traditions. The results indicate that the complexity of the persistence of FGC and RI goes far beyond being explained by subconscious patriarchal and maternalistic actions, related to socially constructed concepts of normality, female identity, tradition and religion in a “silent” culture between men and women. African Journal of Reproductive Health Vol. 10 (2) 2006: pp. 10-12
Genital and Urinary Tract Obstruction as a Late Complication of Female Genital Mutilation at Latifa Hospital, Dubai, UAE—Case Report  [PDF]
Laila Yahya A. Alhubaishi, Faiza Badawi, Hassan Y. Hotait, G. Lakshmiah, Atif Bashir Fazari
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2019.92023
Abstract: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is partial or total excision of female external genitalia or other deliberate injury to the female genital organs for non-therapeutic purpose. It is cultural and traditional practice. Female genital mutilation may result in immediate complications such as severe pain and bleeding and long-term complications such as: psychological, psychosexual, trauma, infertility, urinary and genital complications.
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