Abstract:
We introduce a self-adjoint operator that indicates the direction of time within the framework of standard quantum mechanics. That is, as a function of time its expectation value decreases monotonically for any initial state. This operator can be defined for any system governed by a Hamiltonian with a uniformly finitely degenerate, absolutely continuous and semibounded spectrum. We study some of the operator's properties and illustrate them for a large equivalence class of scattering problems. We also discuss some previous attempts to construct such an operator, and show that the no-go theorems developed in this context are not applicable to our construction.

Abstract:
We examine the longstanding problem of introducing a time observable in Quantum Mechanics; using the formalism of positive-operator-valued measures we show how to define such an observable in a natural way and we discuss some consequences.

Abstract:
The nonrelativistic Schroedinger equation for motion of a structureless particle in four-dimensional space-time entails a well-known expression for the conserved four-vector field of local probability density and current that are associated with a quantum state solution to the equation. Under the physical assumption that each spatial, as well as the temporal, component of this current is observable, the position in time becomes an operator and an observable in that the weighted average value of the time of the particle's crossing of a complete hyperplane can be simply defined: ... When the space-time coordinates are (t,x,y,z), the paper analyzes in detail the case that the hyperplane is of the type z=constant. Particles can cross such a hyperplane in either direction, so it proves convenient to introduce an indefinite metric, and correspondingly a sesquilinear inner product with non-Hilbert space structure, for the space of quantum states on such a surface. >... A detailed formalism for computing average crossing times on a z=constant hyperplane, and average dwell times and delay times for a zone of interaction between a pair of z=constant hyperplanes, is presented.

Abstract:
A self-adjoint dynamical time operator is introduced in Dirac's relativistic formulation of quantum mechanics and shown to satisfy a commutation relation with the Hamiltonian analogous to that of the position and momentum operators. The ensuing time-energy uncertainty relation involves the uncertainty in the instant of time when the wave packet passes a particular spatial position and the energy uncertainty associated with the wave packet at the same time, as envisaged originally by Bohr. The instantaneous rate of change of the position expectation value with respect to the simultaneous expectation value of the dynamical time operator is shown to be the phase velocity, in agreement with de Broglie's hypothesis of a particle associated wave whose phase velocity is larger than c. Thus, these two elements of the original basis and interpretation of quantum mechanics are integrated into its formal mathematical structure. Pauli's objection is shown to be resolved or circumvented. Possible relevance to current developments in interference in time, in Zitterbewegung like effects in spintronics, grapheme and superconducting systems and in cosmology is noted.

Abstract:
We attract attention to an interesting family of quantum systems where the generator $H_{(gen)}$ of time-evolution of wave functions is not equal to the Hamiltonian $H$. We describe the origin of the difference $H_{(gen)}-H$ and interpret it as a carrier of a compressed information about the other relevant observables.

Abstract:
It is shown that the `arrow of time' operator, M_F, recently suggested by Strauss et al., in arXiv:0802.2448v1 [quant-ph], is simply related to the sign of the canonical `time' observable, T (apparently first introduced by Holevo). In particular, the monotonic decrease of < M_F > corresponds to the fact that < sgn T > increases monotonically with time. This relationship also provides a physical interpretation of the property M_F < 1. Some further properties and possible generalisations are pointed out, including to almost-periodic systems.

Abstract:
In [J. Math. Phys. 51 (2010) 022104] a self-adjoint operator was introduced that has the property that it indicates the direction of time within the framework of standard quantum mechanics, in the sense that as a function of time its expectation value decreases monotonically for any initial state. In this paper we study some of this operator's properties. In particular, we derive its spectrum and generalized eigenstates, and treat the example of the free particle.

Abstract:
We describe the "Feynman diagram" approach to nonrelativistic quantum mechanics on R^n, with magnetic and potential terms. In particular, for each classical path \gamma connecting points q_0 and q_1 in time t, we define a formal power series V_\gamma(t,q_0,q_1) in \hbar, given combinatorially by a sum of diagrams that each represent finite-dimensional convergent integrals. We prove that exp(V_\gamma) satisfies Schr\"odinger's equation, and explain in what sense the t\to 0 limit approaches the \delta distribution. As such, our construction gives explicitly the full \hbar\to 0 asymptotics of the fundamental solution to Schr\"odinger's equation in terms of solutions to the corresponding classical system. These results justify the heuristic expansion of Feynman's path integral in diagrams.

Abstract:
The language of operator algebras is of great help for the formulation of questions and answers in quantum statistical mechanics. In Chapter 1 we present a minimal mathematical introduction to operator algebras, with physical applications in mind. In Chapter 2 we study some questions related to the quantum statistical mechanics of spin systems, with particular attention to the time evolution of infinite systems. The basic reference for these two chapters is Bratteli-Robinson: Operator algebras and quantum statistical mechanics I, II. In Chapter 3 we discuss the nonequilibrium statistical mechanics of quantum spin systems, as it is currently being developped.

Abstract:
The self adjoint operator of time in non-relativistic quantum mechanics is found within the approach where the ordinary Hamiltonian is not taken to be conjugate to time. The operator version of the reexpressed Liouville equation with the total Hamiltonian, consisting of the part that is a conventional function of coordinate and momentum and the part that is conjugate to time, is considered. The von Neumann equation with quantized time is found and discussed from the point of view of exact time measurement.