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Genome-Wide Association Study in Thai Tsunami Survivors Identified Risk Alleles for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  [PDF]
Nuntika Thavichachart, Taisei Mushiroda, Thongchai Thavichachart, Ongart Charoensook, Anchalee Prasansuklab, Prathan Rutchatajumroon, Sookjaroen Tangwongchai, Puangsoi Worakul, Buranee Kanchanatawan, Siriluck Suppapitiporn, Atapol Sughondhabirom, Chutima Roomruangwong, Wasun Chantratita, Atsushi Takahashi, Michiaki Kubo, Naoyuki Kamatani, Yusuke Nakamura
Open Journal of Genetics (OJGen) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojgen.2015.52004
Abstract: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder found in individuals afflicted by a traumatic event. Multiple environmental and genetic factors can contribute to PTSD susceptibility. Since it is rare to find members of the same family afflicted by the same catastrophic event, it is not practical to determine PTSD susceptibility genes by a gene linkage analysis. A natural disaster, such as the 2004 Tsunami, provided us with a rare chance for a genetic analysis of PTSD. To identify SNPs associated with PTSD susceptibility, we conducted a genome-association study (GWAS) in Thai-Tsunami survivors. Initial phase of the study with 396 chronic PTSD patients and 457 controls, we identified top ninety SNPs (P < 1 × 10-4), which were further assessed in the second phase with 395 chronic PTSD patients and 798 controls. Two SNPs (rs267950 and rs954406), were identified in the second phase, and subjected to fine mapping using a data set from both phases. SNP rs267943 showed the strongest association with PTSD susceptibility and was in complete linkage disequilibrium with SNP rs267950 with P = 6.15 × 10-8, OR = 1.46 and 95% CI = 1.19 - 1.79, reaching genome-wide significance. SNP rs267943 is located on chromosome 5 in the intron of the death-associated protein 1 (DAP1) gene and, when linked to a synthetic promoter, could regulate transcription. To our knowledge, this is the first GWAS for PTSD susceptibility in an Asian population which could provide an important insight into the genetic contribution of PTSD and may lead to new treatment strategies for PTSD.
Posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress disorder and resilience of motor vehicle accident survivors
Daisuke Nishi, Yutaka Matsuoka, Yoshiharu Kim
BioPsychoSocial Medicine , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1751-0759-4-7
Abstract: This cross-sectional study was performed with 118 MVA survivors at 18 months post MVA. Data analyzed included self-reporting questionnaire scores on the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI), the Impact of Event Scale- Revised (IES-R), and the Sense of Coherence (SOC) scale, which is one of the most widely used scales for measuring resilience. Correlations between scores on the PTGI and IES-R, the PTGI and SOC scale, and the IES-R and SOC scale were established by calculating Spearman's correlation coefficients.PTGI was positively correlated with both SOC and PTSD symptoms, in spite of an inverse relationship between SOC and PTSD symptoms. Relating to others, new possibilities, and personal strength on the PTGI were correlated positively with SOC, and spiritual change and appreciation of life on the PTGI were positively correlated with PTSD symptoms.Some factors of PTG were positively correlated with resilience, which can be regarded as an outcome of coping success, whereas other factors of PTG were positively correlated with PTSD symptoms, which can be regarded as signifying coping effort in the face of enduring distress. These findings contribute to our understanding of the psychological change experienced by MVA survivors, and to raising clinicians' awareness of the possibility that PTG represents both coping effort coexisting with distress and outcome of coping success.Posttraumatic growth (PTG) has attracted considerable attention over the past decade and is expected to add a new perspective to psychotherapy [1]. PTG is defined as the positive psychological change experienced as a result of the struggle with highly challenging life circumstances [2]. It is natural to assume that PTG, by definition, would show a negative correlation with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but Tedeschi and Calhoun hold that PTG is distinct from PTSD and does not show the same decrease in distress [2]. In fact, many previous studies have shown a positive correlation between PTG
Posttraumatic mental health establishment of the Tsunami survivors in Thailand  [cached]
Thavichachart Nuntika,Tangwongchai Sookjaroen,Worakul Puangsoy,Kanchanatawan Buranee
Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1745-0179-5-11
Abstract: The natural disaster known as "the Tsunami" occurred in Andaman coast of Thailand in December 2004, and there had been questions whether it could cause PTSD amongst the population who lives in the affected area and how to avoid PTSD condition to occur. The purpose of this study is to establish statistical results of psychosocial factors, and their correlation to PTSD and other mental disorders in order to generate the PTSD database. Cross sectional community surveys had been conducted in two phases from the same sampling group, the first phase is concerned with prevalence of PTSD, depression and related factors. Results were collected from 3,133 samples and shows that 33.6% suffered from PTSD, 14.27% with depression and 11.27% suffered from both. The second phase is focused on chronic PTSD and other mental disorders 2,573 samples were collected and only 21.6% were diagnosed with chronic PTSD. The statistical analysis has identified risks factors that could cause PTSD, and protective actions which could help to prevent PTSD.
Risk of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression in survivors of the floods in Bihar, India  [cached]
Telles Shirley,Singh Nilkamal,Joshi Meesha
Indian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: Background: Following a natural disaster, survivors are vulnerable to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/ or depression. Objectives: (i) To screen survivors of the Bihar floods a month after the event to determine their scores in a screening questionnaire for PTSD and/ or depression and (ii) to correlate these scores with age and gender. Materials and Methods: One thousand two hundred eighty-nine persons (645 females) who had been directly exposed to the floods in Bihar, India, in August 2008 were assessed. The Screening Questionnaire for Disaster Mental Health (SQD) was used to screen for PTSD and depression. Statistical Analysis: Separate two-factor ANOVAs were used to compare persons of both sexes and 5 different age groups for PTSD and depression scores. This was followed by post-hoc analysis for multiple comparisons. Results: People over the age of 60 years had significantly higher scores for PTSD and depression compared to all groups (P< 0.05 for all comparisons). Conclusion: Following a natural disaster, older people appear more vulnerable to develop PTSD and depression. This should be taken into account in devising strategies for disaster relief.
Effects of the Higashi-Nihon Earthquake: Posttraumatic Stress, Psychological Changes, and Cortisol Levels of Survivors  [PDF]
Yuka Kotozaki, Ryuta Kawashima
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0034612
Abstract: On March 11, 2011, the Pacific side of Japan’s northeast was devastated by an earthquake and tsunami. For years, many researchers have been working on ways of examining the psychological effects of earthquakes on survivors in disaster areas who have experienced aftershocks, catastrophic fires, and other damage caused by the earthquake. The goal of this study is to examine scores on psychological measures and salivary cortisol level in these individuals both before and three months after the earthquake. The participants had been measured for these variables before the earthquake. After the earthquake, we carried out PTSD screening using CAPS for participants for another experiment, and then again conducted the aforementioned tests. We collected?saliva samples from all survivors. Our results show that social relationship scores on the WHO-QOL26, negative mood scores of the WHO-SUBI, total GHQ score, POMS confusion scores, and CMI emotional status score after the earthquake showed scores indicating significantly decreased compared to before the earthquake. On the other hand, salivary cortisol levels after the earthquake was significantly increased compared to before the earthquake. Moreover, the result of a multiple regression analysis found that negative mood score on the WHO-SUBI and social relationship score on the WHO-QOL26 were significantly related to salivary cortisol levels. Our results thus demonstrate that several psychological stress induced by the earthquake was associated with an increase in salivary cortisol levels. These results show similar findings to previous study. We anticipate that this study will provide a better understanding of posttraumatic responses in the early stages of adaptation to the trauma and expand effective prevention strategies and countermeasures for PTSD.
An Efficient Gatekeeper Algorithm for Detecting GxE
Jimmy T. Efird
Cancer Informatics , 2010,
Abstract: The risk for many complex diseases is believed to be a result of the interactive effects of genetic and environmental factors. Developing efficient techniques to identify gene-environment interactions (GxE) is important for unraveling the etiologic basis of many modern day diseases including cancer. The problem of false positives and false negatives continues to pose significant roadblocks to detecting GxE and informing targeted public health screening and intervention. A heuristic gatekeeper method is presented to guide the selection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the design phase of a GxE study.
Coping Strategies as a Mediator of Posttraumatic Growth among Adult Survivors of the Wenchuan Earthquake  [PDF]
Lili He, Jiuping Xu, Zhibin Wu
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084164
Abstract: Objective By testing the mediating effect of coping strategies on the relationship between social support (SS) and posttraumatic growth (PTG), the aim of this research was to develop a new approach for the study of post-disaster psychological intervention. Methods A mediating effect model analysis was conducted on 2080 adult survivors selected from 19 of the counties hardest-hit by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. The Social Support Rating Scale and the Coping Scale were used to predict the PTG. Results A bivariate correlation analysis showed that there was a correlation between posttraumatic growth, social support and coping strategies. The mediation analysis revealed that coping strategies played a mediating role between social support and posttraumatic growth in survivors after the earthquake. Conclusion The results demonstrated that mental health programs for survivors need to focus on the establishment of a good social support network, which was found to be conductive to maintaining and increasing mental health levels. At the same time, adequate social support is able to assist survivors in adopting mature coping strategies, such as problem solving and asking for help. Hence, social support was found to play a vital role in balancing and protecting mental health.
Rates of trauma spectrum disorders and risks of posttraumatic stress disorder in a sample of orphaned and widowed genocide survivors
Susanne Schaal,Jean-Pierre Dusingizemungu,Nadja Jacob,Thomas Elbert
European Journal of Psychotraumatology , 2011, DOI: 10.3402/ejpt.v2i0.6343
Abstract: During the Rwandan genocide of 1994, nearly one million people were killed within a period of 3 months.The objectives of this study were to investigate the levels of trauma exposure and the rates of mental health disorders and to describe risk factors of posttraumatic stress reactions in Rwandan widows and orphans who had been exposed to the genocide.Trained local psychologists interviewed orphans (n=206) and widows (n=194). We used the PSS-I to assess posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the Hopkins Symptom Checklist to assess depression and anxiety symptoms, and the M.I.N.I. to assess risk of suicidality.Subjects reported having been exposed to a high number of different types of traumatic events with a mean of 11 for both groups. Widows displayed more severe mental health problems than orphans: 41% of the widows (compared to 29% of the orphans) met symptom criteria for PTSD and a substantial proportion of widows suffered from clinically significant depression (48% versus 34%) and anxiety symptoms (59% versus 42%) even 13 years after the genocide. Over one-third of respondents of both groups were classified as suicidal (38% versus 39%). Regression analysis indicated that PTSD severity was predicted mainly by cumulative exposure to traumatic stressors and by poor physical health status. In contrast, the importance given to religious/spiritual beliefs and economic variables did not correlate with symptoms of PTSD.While a significant portion of widows and orphans continues to display severe posttraumatic stress reactions, widows seem to constitute a particularly vulnerable survivor group. Our results point to the chronicity of mental health problems in this population and show that PTSD may endure over time if not addressed by clinical intervention. Possible implications of poor mental health and the need for psychological intervention are discussed.
Recovery from Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms: A Qualitative Study of Attributions in Survivors of War  [PDF]
Dean Ajdukovic, Dea Ajdukovic, Marija Bogic, Tanja Franciskovic, Gian Maria Galeazzi, Abdulah Kucukalic, Dusica Lecic-Tosevski, Matthias Schützwohl, Stefan Priebe
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070579
Abstract: Objective The study explored factors to which people traumatized by war attribute their recovery from posttraumatic symptoms and from war experiences. Methods : In-depth interviews were conducted with two groups of participants with mental sequelae of the war in the former Yugoslavia: 26 people who had recovered from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 17 people with ongoing symptoms of PTSD. Participants could attribute their recovery to any event, person or process in their life. The material was subjected to thematic analysis. Results Eight themes covered all factors to which participants attributed their recovery. Six themes described healing factors relevant for both groups of participants: social attachment and support, various strategies of coping with symptoms, personality hardiness, mental health treatment, received material support, and normalization of everyday life. In addition to the common factors, recovered participants reported community involvement as healing, and recovered refugees identified also feeling safe after resolving their civil status as helpful. Unique to the recovered group was that they maintained reciprocal relations in social attachment and support, employed future-oriented coping and emphasised their resilient personality style. Conclusions The reported factors of recovery are largely consistent with models of mental health protection, models of resilience and recommended interventions in the aftermath of massive trauma. Yet, they add the importance of a strong orientation towards the future, a reciprocity in receiving and giving social support and involvement in meaningful activities that ensure social recognition as a productive and valued individual. The findings can inform psychosocial interventions to facilitate recovery from posttraumatic symptoms of people affected by war and upheaval.
Traumatic Severity and Trait Resilience as Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depressive Symptoms among Adolescent Survivors of the Wenchuan Earthquake  [PDF]
Liuhua Ying, Xinchun Wu, Chongde Lin, Lina Jiang
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089401
Abstract: Purpose To examine the associations between trauma severity, trait resilience, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms among adolescent survivors of the Wenchuan earthquake, China. Methods 788 participants were randomly selected from secondary schools in the counties of Wenchuan and Maoxian, the two areas most severely affected by the earthquake. Participants completed four main questionnaires including the Child PTSD Symptom Scale, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children, the Connor and Davidson’s Resilience Scale, and the Severity of Exposure to Earthquake Scale. Results After adjusting for the effect of age and gender, four aspects of trauma severity (i.e., direct exposure, indirect exposure, worry about others, and house damage) were positively associated with the severity of PTSD and depressive symptoms, whereas trait resilience was negatively associated with PTSD and depressive symptoms and moderated the relationship between subjective experience (i.e., worry about others) and PTSD and depressive symptoms. Conclusions Several aspects (i.e., direct exposure, indirect exposure, worry about others, and house damage) of earthquake experiences may be important risk factors for the development and maintenance of PTSD and depression. Additionally, trait resilience exhibits the beneficial impact on PTSD and depressive symptoms and buffers the effect of subjective experience (i.e., worry about others) on PTSD and depressive symptoms.
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