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Molecular Malaria Epidemiology: Mapping and Burden Estimates for the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2007  [PDF]
Steve M. Taylor,Jane P. Messina,Carla C. Hand,Jonathan J. Juliano,Jeremie Muwonga,Antoinette K. Tshefu,Benjamin Atua,Michael Emch,Steven R. Meshnick
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0016420
Abstract: Epidemiologic data on malaria are scant in many high-burden countries including the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), which suffers the second-highest global burden of malaria. Malaria control efforts in regions with challenging infrastructure require reproducible and efficient surveillance. We employed new high-throughput molecular testing to characterize the state of malaria control in the DRC and estimate childhood mortality attributable to excess malaria transmission.
Retinoblastoma in the Democratic Republic of Congo: 20-Year Review from a Tertiary Hospital in Kinshasa  [PDF]
Aimé Kazadi Lukusa,Michel Ntetani Aloni,Bertin Kadima-Tshimanga,Mo?se Mvitu-Muaka,Jean Lambert Gini Ehungu,René Ngiyulu,Pépé Ekulu Mfutu,Aléine Budiongo Nzazi
Journal of Cancer Epidemiology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/920468
Abstract: Background. To determine clinical profile and management of retinoblastoma among children at Kinshasa in Democratic Republic of Congo. Patients and methods. The medical records of patients with a diagnosis of retinoblastoma seen at the University Hospital of Kinshasa from January 1985 till December 2005 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic profile, clinical data, modes of treatment and outcome were analysed. Results. A total of 49 children, of whom 40 had adequate data on record were identified as retinoblastoma (28 males and 12 females). Nine cases had bilateral disease. The median age at the first symptoms was 9 months (range, 1 month to 6 years) for unilateral retinoblastoma and 18 months (range, 1 month to 3.5 years) for bilateral retinoblastoma. The median age at the first oncology consultation was 2.4 years (range, 6 months to 6 years) for unilateral retinoblastoma and 2.4years (range, 9 months to 4 years) for bilateral disease. Leukokoria was present in 67.5% of subjects. Seventy-five percent abandoned the treatment. The mortality was 92.5%. Conclusion. In Democratic Republic of Congo, retinoblastoma remains a life threatening disease characterized by late referral to a specialized unit and affordability of chemotherapy; all leading to an extension of the disease and high mortality. 1. Introduction Retinoblastoma is the most frequent childhood intraocular tumour with an approximately incidence of one in 15,000–20,000 births in the world [1]. In Africa, it is the most important life-threatening ocular malignancy [2–4]. Management of retinoblastoma has been changing during years with a survival rate of more than 95% in developed countries [5, 6]. However, in developing countries these cures are less than 50%, primarily because of advanced disease at time of diagnosis [7–9]. Previous studies had reported epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the disease [10–12]. In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), retinoblastoma represents 5/188 of malignant tumors in children [13], 8% of exophthalmos [14]. In other previous study, retinoblastoma was the most common histologic form representing 31.7% of all malignant of the eye [15]. However, there is still a paucity of information on clinical findings and on the outcomes of children with retinoblastoma. The last paper on presenting signs of retinoblastoma in Congolese patients gave a five-year ophthalmology view [16]. At the other side, it is necessary for health plan to have the main characteristics of all children with retinoblastoma followed in Democratic Republic of Congo. This
THE STATE AND CONFLICT IN THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO  [cached]
Hussein Solomon,Cornelia Cone
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5787/32-1-127
Abstract: This paper will unpack the nature of the state in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (D.R.C.) and explore the links between conflict and the state. The aim of this paper is to ultimately provide an answer to the question: ‘Is there a link between the nature of the state in the D.R.C. and the conflict in this country?’ and ‘If so, what is the link?’ The theoretical tenets of the argument will be encapsulated in a discussion that will juxtapose ‘strong states’ with African states. The nature of the state in the D.R.C., as an African state, will subsequently be explored. Lastly, links will be established between the nature of the state and conflict with particular reference to the situation in the D.R.C.
Trends in Tuberculosis Epidemiology among Children in the Democratic Republic of Congo  [PDF]
Aketi Loukia, Shiku Diayisu Joseph, Kashongwe Zacharie, Lay Gertrude, Kibadi Kapay, Kayembe Kalambay Patrick
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2016.44026
Abstract: Setting: The epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) among children in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is not well known. Objective: This study aimed to describe the trends in TB epidemiology among children in the DRC and to compare these trends in children and adults. Design: Data from the National TB program, the WHO Global TB Report, and a demographic survey of health in the DRC were retrospectively analyzed. The study period was from 1995 to 2014. The notification rate, absolute incidence and incidence rate of TB per 100,000 population were reported. Results: In 2014, 12,785 (12.6% of adult cases) TB cases were reported in children and 101,303 in adults. Among children, 3438 (26.89%) had PTB+; 2828 (22.11%) had PTB; and 6519 (50.98%) had extrapulmonary TB (EPTB). Children under 5 years had a lower reported prevalence of TB (184 cases). The incidence rate per 100,000 population was 10 in children and 181 in adults. The TB incidence decreased between 2010 (11.47) and 2014 (10.46). The proportion of children in overall cases of PTB+ was 4% to 5% in all districts. Conclusion: Caring for childhood TB remains a challenge in the DRC. Improved diagnostic procedures and effective training of providers who care for childhood TB are needed.
The Instability of Political and Administrative Institutions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo  [PDF]
Chelo Kpats Guyguy, Xiaojun Xu
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2019.72005
Abstract: This article uses a historical approach to identify and analyze the factors leading to the instability of political and administrative institutions of the Democratic Republic of Congo from independence to the year 2017. There are multiple factors related to institutional instability in the DRC. Key among them includes the inadequate constitutional provisions, the difficulties caused by the non-application of democratic principles, the heterogeneity of the populace and frequent conflicts. Other contributors to the institutional instability experienced in the DRC include the politicization of the administration, the prevailing social-economic situation, poor governance, the non-observance of the laws, the poor distribution of the national wealth, foreign pressures and macroeconomic influences. The challenges due to institutional and political instability in the DRC provide opportunities for the Congolese state and its populace to re-invent itself to be a truly democratic space where the ambitions to develop and improve the living conditions of the people can be improved through stabilized and functional institutions.
Ocular Pentastomiasis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo  [PDF]
Mihály Sulyok ,Lajos Rózsa,Imre Bodó,Dennis Tappe equal contributor,Richard Hardi equal contributor
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003041
Abstract: Ocular pentastomiasis is a rare infection caused by the larval stage of pentastomids, an unusual group of crustacean-related parasites. Zoonotic pentastomids have a distinct geographical distribution and utilize reptiles or canids as final hosts. Recently, an increasing number of human abdominal infections have been reported in Africa, where pentastomiasis is an emerging, though severely neglected, tropical disease. Here we describe four ocular infections caused by pentastomids from the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Two cases underwent surgery and an Armillifer grandis infection was detected by morphological and molecular approaches. Thus far, 15 other cases of ocular pentastomiasis have been reported worldwide. Twelve cases were caused by Armillifer sp., recorded almost exclusively in Africa, where such infections occur as a consequence of hunting and consuming snakes, their final hosts. Seven further cases were caused by Linguatula serrata, a cosmopolitan pentastomid whose final hosts are usually canids. Intraocular infections caused permanent visual damage in 69% and a total loss of vision in 31% of reported cases. In contrast, ocular adnexal cases had a benign clinical course. Further research is required to estimate the burden, therapeutic options and pathogenesis of this neglected disease.
Scorpion envenomation in pygmies from Democratic Republic of Congo, the example of Pelenge Center, Lomela, DRC
Biezakala Mudiandambu, E;Odio Wobin, T;Kabele Ngiefu, C;Tati Kinkela, R;Mbanzulu Makola, K;
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-91992012000400015
Abstract: in a survey among the pygmies of central democratic republic of congo, the incidence of scorpion stings seemed very high with a severity greater than expected. species responsible were not identified. specific studies are needed to clarify the risk emerging in the equatorial african forest.
Prevalence of Human African Trypanosomiasis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo  [PDF]
Dieudonne Mumba,Elaine Bohorquez,Jane Messina,Victor Kande,Steven M. Taylor,Antoinette K. Tshefu,Jeremie Muwonga,Melchior M. Kashamuka,Michael Emch,Richard Tidwell,Philippe Büscher,Steven R. Meshnick
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001246
Abstract: Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a major public health problem in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Active and passive surveillance for HAT is conducted but may underestimate the true prevalence of the disease. We used ELISA to screen 7,769 leftover dried blood spots from a nationally representative population-based survey, the 2007 Demographic and Health Survey. 26 samples were positive by ELISA. Three of these were also positive by trypanolysis and/or PCR. From these data, we estimate that there were 18,592 people with HAT (95% confidence interval, 4,883–32,302) in the DRC in 2007, slightly more than twice as many as were reported.
Sustainable Urbanization’s Challenge in Democratic Republic of Congo  [cached]
Misilu Mia Nsokimieno Eric,Chen Shouyu,Zhang li Qin
Journal of Sustainable Development , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/jsd.v3n2p242
Abstract: In the context of rapid urbanization in Democratic Republic of Congo, overpopulation in Kinshasa’s city increasingly carries out chaos, inequalities, poverty, environmental degradation, open spaces loss , socio - economic tension, and spontaneous settlements and sprawl. This rapid urban growth occurs without planning and productive employment compounded by weak government involvements. These crisis situations put to the forefront sustainable urbanization as a priority issue for urban development with reference to the globalization and technology. This requires reconsidering urbanization process to stimulate economic growth and mobilize resources at local, national and global levels. A comprehensive reform based on an integrating vision of governance and collective commitment to manage efficiently natural resources. The paper reviews pragmatic approaches in urban planning decision in its whole refers to the dynamics of management, qualification and transformation of the city. The paper presents urban renewal as remedial action holding opportunities to improve environmental quality.
Lesula: A New Species of Cercopithecus Monkey Endemic to the Democratic Republic of Congo and Implications for Conservation of Congo’s Central Basin  [PDF]
John A. Hart, Kate M. Detwiler, Christopher C. Gilbert, Andrew S. Burrell, James L. Fuller, Maurice Emetshu, Terese B. Hart, Ashley Vosper, Eric J. Sargis, Anthony J. Tosi
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044271
Abstract: In June 2007, a previously undescribed monkey known locally as “lesula” was found in the forests of the middle Lomami Basin in central Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). We describe this new species as Cercopithecus lomamiensis sp. nov., and provide data on its distribution, morphology, genetics, ecology and behavior. C. lomamiensis is restricted to the lowland rain forests of central DRC between the middle Lomami and the upper Tshuapa Rivers. Morphological and molecular data confirm that C. lomamiensis is distinct from its nearest congener, C. hamlyni, from which it is separated geographically by both the Congo (Lualaba) and the Lomami Rivers. C. lomamiensis, like C. hamlyni, is semi-terrestrial with a diet containing terrestrial herbaceous vegetation. The discovery of C. lomamiensis highlights the biogeographic significance and importance for conservation of central Congo’s interfluvial TL2 region, defined from the upper Tshuapa River through the Lomami Basin to the Congo (Lualaba) River. The TL2 region has been found to contain a high diversity of anthropoid primates including three forms, in addition to C. lomamiensis, that are endemic to the area. We recommend the common name, lesula, for this new species, as it is the vernacular name used over most of its known range.
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