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Anaerobic digestion of cow dung for biogas production  [PDF]
Baba Shehu Umar Ibn Abubakar,Nasir Ismail
Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The effectiveness of cow dung for biogas production was investigated, using a laboratory scale 10L bioreactor working in batch and semi-continuous mode at 53oC. Anaerobic digestion seemed feasible with an organic loading of up to 1.7 kg volatile solids (VS)/L d and an HRT of 10 days during the semi-continuous operation. The averaged cumulative biogas yield and methane content observed was 0.15 L/kg VS added and 47 % respectively. The TS, VS and COD removals amounted to 49%, 47% and 48.5%, respectively. The results of the VS/TS ratio showed very small variation, which denote adequate mixing performance. However there was some evidence of ammonia inhibition probably due to the uncontrolled pH employed. The data obtained establish that cow dung is an effective feedstock for biogas production achieving high cumulative biogas yield with stable performance. The future work will be carried out to study the effect of varying organic loading rate on anaerobic digestion of cow dung in a semi-continuous mode.
Potentials for Biogas Production in Anambra State of Nigeria Using Cow Dung and Poultry Droppings  [PDF]
C. E. Umeghalu., E. C. Chukwuma, I. F. Okonkwo and S. O. Umeh
International Journal of Veterinary Science , 2012,
Abstract: Preliminary investigation of the major abattoirs and poultry farms in Anambra State was undertaken to determine the quantity of cow dung and poultry dropping generation with respect to biogas production. The study showed that about 15563 kg (15.6 tons) of fresh cow manure and about 2012 kg (2.01 tons) are produced daily in the state. These are sufficient to support biogas production in the state. Investigation shows that most of these manures are not properly managed resulting to environmental pollution. Result shows that only negligible proportion of these manures are used as manure for vegetable crops and feed stock for fish farming. Thus, there is need to popularize biogas technology which is a cheap and renewable source of energy whose effluent is a good fertilizer for crop growing.
Effect of Waste Paper on Biogas Production from Co-digestion of Cow Dung and Water Hyacinth in Batch Reactors
OIY Momoh, LI Nwaogazie
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management , 2007,
Abstract: The effect of waste paper on biogas production from the co-digestion of fixed amount of cow dung and water hyacinth was studied at room temperature in five batch reactor for over 60 days. Waste paper addition was varied for a fixed amount of cow dung and water hyacinth until maximum biogas production was achieved. Biogas production was measured indirectly by water displacement method. The production of biogas showed a parabolic relationship as the amount of waste paper (g) increased with a goodness of fit of 0.982. Maximum biogas volume of 1.11liters was observed at a waste paper amount of 17.5g which corresponded to 10.0% total solids of the biomass in 250ml solution. Thus, an optimum waste paper amount of 17.5g needs to combine with 5g of cow dung and 5g of water hyacinth in 250ml of water for maximum biogas production. Similar equivalents in kilograms and tonnes can be utilized in large-scale production of biogas which can provide decentralized source of fuel for university laboratories and also local supply of energy for electricity production. Also, the air pollution problems associated with open burning of waste papers can be eliminated. The biogas process has established to be cheap and practically feasible.
Effect of Waste Paper on Biogas Production from Co-digestion of Cow Dung and Water Hyacinth in Batch Reactors
OLY Momoh, LI Nwaogazie
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management , 2008,
Abstract: The effect of waste paper on biogas production from the co-digestion of fixed amount of cow dung and water hyacinth was studied at room temperature in five batch reactor for over 60 days. Waste paper addition was varied for a fixed amount of cow dung and water hyacinth until maximum biogas production was achieved. Biogas production was measured indirectly by water displacement method. The production of biogas showed a parabolic relationship as the amount of waste paper (g) increased with a goodness of fit of 0.982. Maximum biogas volume of 1.11liters was observed at a waste paper amount of 17.5g which corresponded to 10.0% total solids of the biomass in 250ml solution. Thus, an optimum waste paper amount of 17.5g needs to combine with 5g of cow dung and 5g of water hyacinth in 250ml of water for maximum biogas production. Similar equivalents in kilograms and tonnes can be utilized in large-scale production of biogas which can provide decentralized source of fuel for university laboratories and also local supply of energy for electricity production. Also, the air pollution problems associated with open burning of waste papers can be eliminated. The biogas process has established to be cheap and practically feasible
Production of Biogas from Co-Digestion of Cow Dung, Saw Dust and Maize Husk  [PDF]
Akindele Oyetunde Okewale, Felix Omoruwou, Christiana Edward Anih
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2018.83008
Abstract: The co-digestion of cow dung, with maize husk for biogas production at laboratory scale was investigated. The study was carried out at a temperature range of??24°C - 30°C and pH range of 5.5 - 6.5 for a period of 60 days with a total solid concentration of 7.4% in the digester sample (fermentation slurry). Water displacement method was used to collect the biogas produced which was subsequently measured. 444.8 mL was the cumulative biogas yield at the end of 60 days retention time in the digester 1, which comprised of cow dung, maize husk, and water. Digester 2, which is made up of sawdust, cow dung, and water produced negligible biogas at the end of 60 days of the experiment. X-RF analysis revealed high presence of elements like silica, aluminium oxides, and aluminium oxides in cow dung, maize husk, and sawdust respectively. The preponderance of alkanes and methyl group inmaize husk makes it to produce biogas compared to saw dust as shown by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) that was carried out to identify the various functional groups. The potential of maize husk to produced biogas was also established. The kinetic modeling shows that there was an increase in biogas yield as the retention time increases as depicted by the linear model.
UTILIZATION OF POULTRY, COW AND KITCHEN WASTES FOR BIOGAS PRODUCTION: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
S.J. Ojolo,S.A. Oke,K. Animasahun,B.K. Adesuyi
Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering , 2007,
Abstract: The amount of solid wastes generated in developing countries such as Nigeria has steadily increased over the last two decades as a result of population explosion and continuous growth of industries and agricultural practices. In agriculture, particularly cattle rearing, large quantities of cow wastes are generated, which could be used as biogas inputs to compliment the fuel usage alternative. In addition, a large number of families generate heavy wastes in the kitchen on a daily basis, which could be converted to economic benefits. In this work, a comparative study of biogas production from poultry droppings, cattle dung, and kitchen wastes was conducted under the same operating conditions. 3kg of each waste was mixed with 9L of water and loaded into the three waste reactors. Biogas production was measured for a period of 40 days and at an average temperature of 30.5oC. Biogas production started on the 7th day, and attained maximum value on the 14th days for reactor 1. Production reached its peak on the 14th day with 85′10-3dm3 of gas produced in reactor 2. For reactor 3, biogas production started on the 8th day and production reached a peak value on the 14th day. The average biogas production from poultry droppings, cow dung and kitchen waste was 0.0318dm3/day, 0.0230dm3/day and 0.0143dm3/day, respectively. It is concluded that the wastes can be managed through conversion into biogas, which is a source of income generation for the society.
Experimental Study of Biogas Production from Cow Dung as an Alternative for Fossil Fuels  [PDF]
Moutaz Benali, Tarek Hamad, Yousif Hamad
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems (JSBS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jsbs.2019.93007
Abstract: To treat the problem of fossil fuel usage and greenhouse gas emissions, biogas is considered a potential source of clean renewable energy. The aim of the work is to analyze the amount of biogas and ph from cow dung when an anaerobic digester operates in the mesophilic mode. In this study is presented the experimental investigation of biogas production from cow dung as an alternative energy resource. This is work using an 18 Liters capacity plastic as prototype biogas plant, plant to inspect the anaerobic digestion in producing biogas. The digester was batch operated and daily gas produced from the plant was observed for 30 days. The digester was fed within the ratio of 1:1 of dung to water respectively. The operating temperatures of the digester were maintained within mesophilic conditions. The Biogas production from cow dung fluctuates from the first day to the thirtieth day between 0 and 340 ml. The pH of cow dung is gradual reduction within the retention period.
Development of a Batch-Type Biogas Digester Using a Combination of Cow Dung, Swine Dung and Poultry Dropping  [PDF]
Olawale O. Olanrewaju, Obafemi O. Olubanjo
International Journal of Clean Coal and Energy (IJCCE) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ijcce.2019.82002
Abstract: The overdependence on crude oil in African countries warrants the need for alternative sources of energy. A 56-litre-capacity biogas digester was designed, fabricated and evaluated. Investigations were made into the production of biogas from the mixture of cow dung, swine dung and poultry dropping. Standard equations and models were used in the design of the components of the manually operated digester. The digester temperature, ambient temperature and pH were monitored during the experiment. The proximate analysis showed that volatile solid, total solid and moisture content for the mixed substrates at the initial stage were: 64.7%, 83.5% and 13.5% respectively. Similarly, at the digestion stage, the volatile solid, total solid and moisture content were: 54.1%, 22.6% and 74.4% respectively. Advancement of decomposition leads to gradual increasing pH value from 7.2 to 7.4, which indicates the stability of organic matter. The moisture content on a wet basis was initially 13.5%. This value latter increased to 74.4%. On the average, 15 kg of mixed substrates with 25 litres of impure water produced biogas within 25 days of digestion. The gas produced from mixed substrates became flammable with blue flame after 16 days of production, indicating that the ratio of methane gas generated with the three mixtures of fresh animal waste was higher than other gases produced.
Dry Anaerobic Digestion of Cow Dung for Methane Production: Effect of Mixing  [PDF]
Ajay Kumar Jha,Jianzheng Li,Qiaoying Ban,Liguo Zhang
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The performance characteristics of a dry batch reactor with a blender treating cow dung has been evaluated for 35 days in a single-stage batch reactor of 3 L effective volume at 35±1°C to investigate the effect of continuous-mixing on biogas production and organic materials removal. The results showed that the performance of unmixed and mixed digesters was quite different and the dry digester with mixing system produced methane of 0.358 LCH4/gVSr which was 7.50% higher than that for unmixed digester. Moreover, the organic material removal efficiency was increased by 9.73% in term of VS. The wide diversity of prominent bacteria and methanogenic archaea affiliated with all steps along the anaerobic degradation pathway made the process stable. But the dry digester with mixing system during start up was not beneficial, as it resulted in relatively higher volatile fatty acids, higher volatile fatty acid to alkalinity ratio, lower pH and consequently prolonged start up time.
ENHANCED BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM POULTRY DROPPINGS USING CORN-COB AND WASTE PAPER AS CO-SUBSTRATE.  [PDF]
AREMU, M .O,AGARRY, S. E.
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2013,
Abstract: The rising cost of conventional fuel in urban areas have necessitates the exploration of other cheap, renewable and sustainable alternative energy sources. This study investigates the potential of plant and animal wastes for biogas production at laboratory scales. The study was carried out through anaerobic fermentation using poultry droppings as main substrate and corn-cob and waste papers as co-substrate. The fermentation was carried out at temperatures between 27 – 35 °C and pH range of 4.2 – 8.0 for a period of 30 days. The results showed that poultry droppings alone in bio-digester A gave a cumulative average biogas volume of 3452 cm3 (115 cm3 day-1) and poultry droppings plus untreated co-substrates in bio-digester B gave a cumulative average biogas volume of 4811 cm3 (160.3 cm3 day-1) while poultry droppings plus treated co-substrates in bio-digesters C gave a cumulative average biogas volume of 6454 cm3 (215.1 cm3 day-1).
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