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Prevalence of common gastrointestinal nematode parasites in scavenging pigs of different ages and sexes in Eastern Centre province, Burkina Faso  [cached]
H.H. Tamboura,H. Banga-Mboko,D. Maes,I. Youssao
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/ojvr.v73i1.169
Abstract: The range and infestation intensities of gastrointestinal parasitic nematode species depend on the type of swine production system. The present study focused mainly on nematodes of veterinary importance in scavenging pigs in Burkina Faso, and aimed at determining the prevalence of gastro-intestinal nematode parasites by means of faecal egg per gram (EPG) counts. Between November 2001 and October 2002, faecal samples from 383 pigs of different sexes and ages (< 5 months, 5-12 months and > 12 months) were collected from the rectum and examined for gastrointestinal nematodes parasites using the Mc Master method. Of the 383 pigs examined, 91 % were infected by one or more para sites. Ascaris suum (40 %; 100-1 400 EPG) was the most prevalent parasite followed by Strongyloides ransomi (21 %; 100-4 200 EPG), Oesophagostomum spp. (18 %; 100-1 000 EPG), Hyostrongylus rubidus (11 %; 100-1 800 EPG), Globocephalus spp. 10 %; 100-400 EPG) and Trichuris suis (1 %; 100-200 EPG). The prevalence was significantly higher in female pigs (n = 239) than in males. In addition, females excreted significantly (P < 0.05) more eggs in their faeces than males, except in the case of Globocephalus spp. The age of the animal had no effect on the prevalence of A. suum whereas there were significant differences in age categories concerning S. ransomi, H. rubidus, Oesophagostumum spp. and Globocephalus spp. Unexpectedly, the high prevalence of these common parasites was not accompanied by elevated EPG values, which suggests the existence of moderate infestations. The present work indicates that the common nematode infestations in pigs do not necessarily need a systematic herd anthelmintic treatment, as only a small number of worms is required to induce immunity. A further study is needed to formulate appropriate and cost-effective strategies for the control of gastro-intestinal nematode parasites in pigs in Burkina Faso.
Hygienic Quality and Nutritional Value of Attiéké from Local and Imported Cassava Dough Produced with Different Traditional Starters in Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Guira Flibert, Kabore Donatien, Sawadogo-Lingani Hagrétou, Savadogo Aly
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2016.77057
Abstract: Attiéké is an essentially flavour starchy food produced from fermented cassava root. The product is widely consumed in Burkina Faso. The objective of the present study was to investigate the biochemical and the microbiological characteristics of attiéké from Burkina Faso. The samples (36) were collected from six (6) producers. Cassava dough which is used for attiéké production contains from 70.67% ± 0.25% to 86.02% ± 0.2% as starch. The undesirable organic elements rate is about 1.28% ± 0.14% to 26.46% ± 0.53%. The inorganic impurities rate is about 0 to 7 ± 0.1 mg/100g. Cassava dough acidity varies from 1.8 ± 0.2 to 12.4 ± 0.1; and its pH from 3.48 ± 0.01 to 4.20 ± 0.01. Lactic bacteria are the main microorganisms involved in cassava dough fermentation (5.17 to 9.30 log cfu/g). Yeasts and molds number is low (<6.53 log cfu/g). Attiéké moister is about 50.6% ± 0.00% to 55.12% ± 0.7% and its protein contents from 0.77 to 1.74 ± 0.13 g/100g. The content in lipid of attiéké shows an important variation and is about 0.15 to 3.28 ± 0.32 g/100g. Carbohydrates content varies from 36.6 ± 0.04 to 47.01 ± 0.1 g/100g and its ashes content is from 140 to 780 ± 20 mg/100g. Attiéké acidity and pH are less weak than cassava dough. They vary respectively from 0.92% ± 0.05% to 4.08% ± 0.57% and from 3.7 to 4.4 ± 0.01. As a main energizer food, attiéké energizing value is from 161.95 to 215.26 Kcal/100g. All the attiéké analyzed was exempt of aflatoxin (B1, B2, G1, G2) and ochratoxin A. The local attiéké has higher acidity, fermented bacteria load, protein and minerals salt than the imported one. The process mastery is the mainly factor that determines nutritional and sanitary quality of attiéké.
Abortion in the North of Burkina Faso
Karl Lorenz Dehane
African Journal of Reproductive Health , 1999,
Abstract: Knowledge and use of abortifacients were investigated in a remote ethnically heterogeneous area in the north of Burkina Faso. A questionnaire survey was carried out among 320 married women in 21 villages and supplemented with key informants' interviews, clinical observations at the provincial hospital, and observations in one of the villages. Almost half of the sampled women of all ethnic groups admitted to the existence of abortion carried out by their peers. Response rates and knowledge of abortions were lower among younger women and among those belonging to the Islamic Hamallist and Wahabiya sects. Abortions were commonly induced by drinking a watery solution of the roots and leaves of a commonly found bush –– Securidaca longepedunculata. The plant contains uterine contraction stimulating ergot-alkaloids, but also strychnine-like toxic substances. It is reportedly effective in provoking abortions within one day of treatment, but its side-effects are severe and include heavy vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, diarrhoea and vomiting, and death. There is a need for the rapid introduction of safer birth control methods in the region. (Afr J Reprod Health 1999; 3[2]: 40-50) Key Words: Burkina Faso, Fulbe, Gurmance, abortion, abortifacients, ergot-alkaloids
The rise of the “artist” in Burkina Faso
R Rousseau
Tydskrif vir letterkunde , 2007,
Abstract: It is only during the last twenty years that contemporary art has found actors in Burkina Faso. Thomas Sankara's revolutionary regime was the first to offer artists a frame to promote and perfect their technique. During the 1980s, the Semaine National de la Culture (National Week of Culture), the Pan-African Film Festival of Ouagadougou (Fespaco), and the Salon International de l'Artisanat de Ouagadougou (Ouagadougou International Handicraft Show) were the only major projects that allowed artists to learn new techniques and to be known. However, because Thomas Sankara's government expected the creators to participate in the revolutionary project, this left them little space for innovation and the expression of their artistic freedom. The early 1990s saw the rise of new events, which at last offered artists a space to practice their art, based on personal inspiration and competence in artistic technique. The Laongo symposium of granite sculpture, PIAMET (an event started by two well-known Burkinabè artists), and Ouaga'Art (organised by the French Cultural Centre of Ouagadougou) thus offered young artists the possibility of discovering the techniques of their colleagues from Africa and elsewhere in the world. However, except the Olorun Foundation, there is no permanent space dedicated to training and artistic exhibition. This lack is a source of obvious problems for the creator who, as a result, may find himself entrenched in a circuit where commercialism seems to dominate artistic research.
The effects of zooprophylaxis and other mosquito control measures against malaria in Nouna, Burkina Faso
Shelby S Yamamoto, Valérie R Louis, Ali Sié, Rainer Sauerborn
Malaria Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-8-283
Abstract: A matched, population-based case control study was carried out in the semi-urban region of Nouna, Burkina Faso. Surveys and mosquito captures were conducted for each participating household. Data were analysed using conditional logistic regression and Pearson's product-moment correlations.In Nouna, Burkina Faso, the main types of reported mosquito control measures used included sleeping under bed nets (insecticide-treated and untreated) and burning mosquito coils. Most of the study households kept animals within the compound or house at night. Insecticide house sprays, donkeys, rabbits and pigs were significantly associated with a reduced risk of malaria only in univariate analyses.Given the conflicting results of the effects of zooprophylaxis from previous studies, other community-based preventive measures, such as bed nets, coils and insecticide house-spraying, may be of more benefit.Africa is particularly vulnerable to malaria for several reasons, including being exposed to the most severe form of the disease, having inadequate resources to bear the economic burden of the consequences and having to cope with the lack of proper infrastructure to effectively treat cases [1]. Hence, prevention of the disease becomes paramount. The use of individual methods of protection are particularly important, especially in areas lacking any formal mosquito control programmes, like Burkina Faso. Bed nets, window screens, house sprays, ceilings, closed eaves and in some cases, zooprophylaxis can reduce the risk of malaria [2-6]. The evaluation of the different types of mosquito control methods used by households may be used to aid in the development and promotion of preventive measures that can be more readily integrated into communities. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the reported use of different mosquito control methods among residents and their effects on the risk of malaria in the semi-urban area of Nouna, Burkina Faso.The study site of Nouna, Burkina Faso is loca
Prostate cancer outcome in Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Kabore Fasnéwindé A,Zango Barnabé,Sanou Adama,Yameogo Clotaire
Infectious Agents and Cancer , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1750-9378-6-s2-s6
Abstract: Introduction African-American black men race is one of non-modifiable risk factors confirmed for prostate cancer. Many studies have been done in USA among African- American population to evaluate prostate cancer disparities. Compared to the USA very few data are available for prostate cancer in Sub-Saharan African countries. The objective of this study was to describe incident prostate cancer (PC) diagnosis characteristics in Burkina Faso (West Africa). Methods We performed a prospective non randomized patient’s cohort study of new prostate cancer cases diagnosed by histological analysis of transrectal prostate biopsies in Burkina Faso. Study participants included 166 patients recruited at the urology division of the university hospital of Ouagadougou. Age of the patients, clinical symptoms, digital rectal examination (DRE) result, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, histological characteristics and TNM classification were taking in account in this study. Results 166 transrectal prostate biopsies (TRPB) were performed based on high PSA level or abnormal DRE. The prostate cancer rate on those TRPB was 63, 8 % (n=106). The mean age of the patients was 71, 5 years (52 to 86). Urinary retention was the first clinical patterns of reference in our institution (55, 7 %, n = 59). Most patients, 56, 6 % (n = 60) had a serum PSA level over than 100 ng/ml. All the patients had adenocarcinoma on histological study of prostate biopsy cores. The majority of cases (54, 7 % n = 58) had Gleason score equal or higher than 7. Conclusion Prostate cancer is diagnosed at later stages in our country. Very high serum PSA level and poorly differentiated tumors are the two major characteristics of PC at the time of diagnosis.
Factors Associated with the Prevalence of Circulating Antigens to Porcine Cysticercosis in Three Villages of Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Rasmané Ganaba ,Nicolas Praet,Hélène Carabin,Athanase Millogo,Zékiba Tarnagda,Pierre Dorny,Sennen Hounton,Adama Sow,Pascal Nitiéma,Linda D. Cowan
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000927
Abstract: Background Little is known about porcine cysticercosis in Burkina Faso. We conducted a pilot study to estimate the prevalence of antigens of Taenia solium cysticercosis and to identify associated factors in pigs of three villages in Burkina Faso, selected to represent different pig management practices: one village where pigs are allowed to roam freely (Batondo), one village where pigs are penned part of the time (Pabré) and one village with limited pig farming (Nyonyogo). Methods/Principal Findings A clustered random sampling design was used. Data on socio-demographic characteristics (source of drinking water, presence of latrines in the household, type and number of breeding animals) and pig management practices were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Blood samples were collected from one pig per household to determine the presence of antigens of the larval stages of T. solium by the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA. The associations between seropositivity and socio-demographic and pig management practices were estimated using logistic regression. Proportions of 32.5% (95% CI 25.4–40.3), 39.6% (31.9–47.8), and 0% of pigs, were found positive for the presence of circulating antigens of T. solium in Batondo, Pabré, and Nyonyogo, respectively. The results of the logistic regression analyses suggested that people acquire knowledge on porcine cysticercosis following the contamination of their animals. The presence of antigens in the pigs' sera was not associated with the absence of latrines in the household, the source of drinking water or the status of infection in humans but was associated with pig rearing practices during the rainy season. Conclusions/Significance The results suggest that education of pig farmers is urgently needed to reduce the prevalence of this infection.
Plants used in traditional beekeeping in Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Schweitzer Paul, Nombré Issa, Aidoo Kwamé, Boussim I. Joseph
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2013.35040
Abstract:

Beekeeping is one of the recommended approaches in the implementation of poverty alleviation programs in rural areas of Burkina Faso. However, plants that are important in beekeeping have not been identified. The use of parts and organs of plants by beekeepers and their methods of harvesting remain unknown. These limit the conservation efforts of these important plants and affect beekeeping development. The study was carried out in the south-central, eastcentral regions and in Comoé and Boucle of Mouhoun regions ofBurkina Faso. The objective of the study was to identify the plants species used by traditional beekeepers, the different uses made of these plant parts and organs and then to discuss the impact of these activities on the survival of the plant resources. An ethnoapiculture survey was conducted in the main apiculture zone of Burkina Faso, using semi-structured interviews. The methodology of botanical coherence or convergence was applied to classify botanical species. Results showed that 35 botanical species were used in traditional beekeeping. The use of plant parts or organs in traditional hives construction represents 55%, attraction of wild swarms in new beehives is 37.50% and use as a torch or as a smoker, 7.50%. The barks are the organs most used. Trees are botanical type most used. The results are not exhaustive and therefore other additional studies need to be carried out. In order to sustain the use of these important plants, their growing in nursery and their planting in the field are recommended.

Enriching nutritive value of cassava root by yeast fermentation
Boonnop, Krisada;Wanapat, Metha;Nontaso, Ngarmnit;Wanapat, Sadudee;
Scientia Agricola , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-90162009000500007
Abstract: cassava (manihot esculenta) is extensively cultivated throughout the tropics and subtropics regions due to its ability to grow in diverse soil conditions and minimal management. experiments were made to study the cassava root fermentation by yeasts in order to enhance the nutritive value of their products (fresh pulp and chips). both cassava chip (cc) and fresh cassava root pulp (fcr) samples were fermented by saccharomyces cerevisiae in solid-liquid media fermentation conditions during 132 hours and dried at 30oc. products were analyzed for proximate composition, mineral composition, essential aminoacids and antinutrient content. there were increases (p < 0.01) in protein (30.4% in cc and 13.5% in fermented cassava root -fcr) and fat contents (5.8% in cc and 3.0% in fcr). s. cerevisiae fermented cassava products had very low hydrocyanic acid (hcn) contents (cc, 0.5 mg kg-1 and fcr, 47.3 mg kg-1). there was a remarkable increase in lysine content in the fermented cassava chip (fcc). the best acceptability and organoleptic attributes (color, texture and aroma) of enriched cassava chip were achieved after 132h of bioprocessing. the results of this study suggest that fcc can be nutritionally improved with s. cerevisiae for animal feeding.
Molecular Variability and Genetic Structure of IYMV in Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Moustapha Koala, Drissa Sérémé, Florence Vignols, Eric Lacombe, Martine Bantgratz, Bouma James Neya, Christophe Brugidou, Nicolas Barro, Oumar Traoré
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2018.92025
Abstract:

Imperata yellow mottle virus (IYMV, Sobemovirus) was first described in 2008 in the south-western region of Burkina Faso (West Africa). The genetic diversity of IYMV was not documented up to day. In this study, the variability of CP of IYMV was evaluated through the molecular characterization of 38 isolates collected in the western part of Burkina Faso. Comparison of sequences of these new isolates and one IYMV sequence available in GenBank revealed that the average nucleotide diversity was low. The ratio of non-synonymous over synonymous nucleotide substitutions per site was low, indicating a CP diversification under strong purifying selection. Despite of the low nucleotide diversity, phylogenetic analyses revealed segregation of IYMV isolates into six major clades. There was no correlation of phylogenetic grouping of isolates based on geographical location. This is the first study of the genetic diversity of IYMV.

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