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Assessing Reactions of Genetically Improved and Local Cassava Varieties to Cassava Mosaic Disease (CMD) Infection in a Savannah Region of the DR-Congo  [PDF]
Marcel Muengula-Manyi, Lyna Mukwa, Kabwe K. Nkongolo, Patrick Tshilenge-Djim, Stephan Winter, Claude Bragard, Adrien Kalonji-Mbuyi
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.44101

The responses of eight genetically improved and eight local cassava varieties to cassava mosaic disease (CMD) were evaluated under field conditions at two sites, in Eastern Kasa?, region of the DR-Congo). The varieties were planted using randomized complete block design with three replications. The rate of cuttings sprouted varied significantly from variety to variety and from location to location. Local varieties were severely infected than improved varieties throughout the trial period. In general, the level of CMD incidence for genetically improved varieties was below 15% while it reached 100% for the local cassava varieties six months after planting (MAP). This trend was also observed for the CMD severity and gravity. The mean scores for CMD severity were 2 and 3.6 for genetically improved and local varieties, respectively at 6 MAP. CMD gravity for improved varieties was below 21% for genetically improved varieties and exceeded 85% for local varieties at the end of trials. Area Under the Severity index Progress Curve (AUSiPC) and Area Under Disease Progress Curve (AUDPC) estimates confirmed that improved varieties were moderately infested comparatively to local varieties. Molecular analysis is being conducted to determine the genetic variability and complexity of the cassava mosaic virus strains involved.

Analysis of Adaptive Response of Maize (Zea mays) Varieties from DR-Congo to Water Stress  [PDF]
Jean Pierre Kabongo Tshiabukole, Amand Mbuya Kankolongo, Gertrude Pongi Khonde, Antoine Mumba Djamba, Roger Kizungu Vumilia, Kabwe Nkongolo
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2017.89153
Abstract: Maize production in tropical Africa is often negatively affected by drought. The main objectives of the present study were to 1) analyze the impact of water stress on the agro-morphological performance of two varieties of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) compared to two normal maize varieties and 2) assess their adaptive response in contrasting water environments. Agro-morphological responses to water deficiency of maize (Zea mays L.) were assessed in controlled experiments using four maize varieties, two normal maize (Zm725 and Mus1) and two quality protein maize (Mudishi1 and Mudishi3) varieties. They were subjected to three water regimes (100%, 60%, 30% water retention capacity) at the beginning of the bloom stage, using a Fischer block design with four replications. Significant differences (p < 0.05) among varieties, water regimes and their interactions for plant growth and production parameters were observed. Reduction of water supply to plants caused changes in aerial and underground plant growth. Plant stem height, foliar expansion, and root system development characterizing vegetative growth showed variation in varietal response to water regimes. Mus1 (normal maize variety) was the best adapted to variations in water regimes because they developed an important root volume to adapt to the effects of water deficit while maintaining their morphological and productive characteristics.
War, plague and exploitation in DR Congo  [PDF]
Dim?evska Antoaneta K.,Kecmanovi? Sonja K.,Ma?anovi? Marija M.
Sociologija , 2007, DOI: 10.2298/soc0704333d
Abstract: Late in autumn 2006 one of the headlines in world media was the first democratic elections in DR Congo. They took place after 30 years of Mobutu Sese Seko’s dictatorship and bloody civil wars in the period 1996-2002. These conflicts, which took approximately 4 million human lives, are called "The First African World War". Elections were held but they did not guarantee the end of trouble for the divided and tormented people in the northeast of Congo, the real scene of bloodshed. The area is still turbulent because it abounds in mineral wealth - gold, diamonds and raw materials for nuclear technology. For a whole decade, unscrupulous actors of the African crisis were fighting there, for illegal profits (achievable in the chaos of bloodshed) rather than for democracy, defense of tribal interests, security, etc. as they claimed. In the mines of Eastern Congo unprecedented exploitation of people is still going on, especially of children, victims of conflicts, who suffer in great numbers from violence, starvation and diseases. These slaves of the crisis make local "warlords" and their mentors rich. The looting of the mines has stabilized the crisis because it makes possible enormous accumulation of wealth among armed decision-makers - which also includes availability of countless slaves-miners who have lost everything except their bare lives. Eastern Congo is, however, one of world’s three old focuses of plague; wild exploitation of ores in the area of this endemic disease has activated a sleepy focus and added pneumonic plague to the burdens suffered by the population of the rich but ill-fated region. This was to be expected because endemic plague in the gold-bearing evil circumstances impedes safe mining - and this will be the crucial challenge in the future of Congo. This article is an anthropological outline of the area where gold, plague, weapons and incomparable suffering of people merge together just because of cynic greed producing abuse and death, including the plague.
Growth and Leaf Area Index Simulation in Maize (Zea mays L.) Under Small-Scale Farm Conditions in a Sub-Saharan African Region  [PDF]
Jean-Claude Lukombo Lukeba, Roger Kizungu Vumilia, Kabwe C. K. Nkongolo, Mo?se Lufuluabo Mwabila, Mbungu Tsumbu
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.43075
Abstract: Different crop models including MAIZE Ceres, STICS and other approaches have been used to simulate leaf area index (LAI) in maize (Zea mays L.). These modeling tools require genotype-specific calibration procedures. Studies on modeling LAI dynamics under optimal growth conditions with yields close to the yield potential have remained scarce. In the present study, logistic and exponential approaches have been developed and evaluated for the simulation of LAI in maize in a savannah region of the DR-Congo. Data for the development and the evaluation of the model were collected manually by non-destructive method from small farmers’ field. The rate of expansion of the leaf surface and the rate of change of leaf senescence were also simulated. There were measurable variations among sites and varieties for the simulated height of maize plants. At all sites, the varieties with short plants were associated with expected superior performance based on simulation data. In general, the model underestimates the LAI based on observed values. LAI values for the genetically improved maize varieties (Salongo 2, MUS and AK) were greater than those of the unimproved local variety (Local). There were significant differences for K,
New political order in the DR Congo? the transformation of regulation  [PDF]
Raeymaekers, Timothy,Vlassenroot, Koen
Afrika Focus , 2008,
Abstract: It has been said repeatedly: the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire) remains only a shadow of its former self, a typical case of state failure and collapse. Closer observation suggests a different image, however: not only has this country demonstrated “a remarkable propensity for resilience” (Englebert, 2003), its administration and regulatory frameworks – which in some domains have not changed since colonial times – have remained largely intact even during the latest period of war and political turmoil. In this article, we would like to explain these different “cross currents and contradictions” (Young, 2004) that emerged during the past Congolese war, addressing the question of whether processes of state erosion and political reconfiguration during this period should be described as a further “privatisation of the state”, as proposed by Hibou and others, or rather as a transformation or commodification of state sovereignty. The article is organized diachronically: it first discusses the Mobutu period (1965-1997), and then the war (1996-2003), tofinally draw some conclusions from Congo’s long period of political “transition”.
Nutritional Status of Tuberculous Children Diagnosed and Treated in an Urban Area in DR Congo
Bafwafwa Ntumba Don Dieu, Kanteng A. Wakamb Gray, Mutombo Mulangu Augustin, Lukamba Mbuli Robert, Tshikamba Erick, Wembonyama Okitotsho Stanislas, Luboya Numbi Oscar
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103557
Introduction: Tuberculosis and malnutrition are major health problems in DR Congo, and children are particularly vulnerable. The objective of this study is to determine the incidence of malnutrition in tuberculous children in DR Congo and to identify the associated factors. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted, and concerned 22 Tuberculosis Diagnosis and Treatment Centers (TDTCs). It was carried out over a period from 2013 to 2015 and involved 717 tuberculosis children less than 15 years of age. Nutritional status was assessed on the basis of the values of the Z-score Weight for age (global malnutrition) according to the NCHS curves. Results: Tuberculosis incidence was 8.2%. The prevalence of underweight (<﹣2 z-score) is 20.8%, of which 8.4% is severely malnourished (<﹣3 z-score). An age of less than 60 months is significantly associated with poor nutritional status (OR = 0.3, CI 0.2 - 0.5). TB-HIV co-infection is significantly associated with poor nutritional status (OR = 0.4, CI 0.2 - 0.6). It was noticed that the outcome is favorable (recovery) in patients with good nutritional status (OR = 12, CI 8.0 - 18.9). Conclusion: Underweight is present in Congolese tuberculosis children. An adequate nutritional policy is needed to improve the prognosis of the disease.
Incidence, Severity and Gravity of Cassava Mosaic Disease in Savannah Agro-Ecological Region of DR-Congo: Analysis of Agro-Environmental Factors  [PDF]
Marcel Muengula-Manyi, Kabwe K. Nkongolo, Claude Bragard, Patrick Tshilenge-Djim, Stephan Winter, Adrien Kalonji-Mbuyi
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2012.34061
Abstract: African Cassava mosaic disease (ACMD) is the most severe and widespread disease caused by viruses limiting production of the crop in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of the present study was to evaluate CMD incidence, severity, and gravity under different agro-environmental conditions. A total of 222 fields were surveyed in 23 different locations. All the farmers grow only local cassava varieties without applications of fertilizers. Overall, mean CMD incidences for all sites surveyed were 58.2% and 51.7%, in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Disease severity ranged from 2.4 to 3.1 on a scale of 1 to 5. Mean disease gravity varied from 29.7% to 62%, in 2010, and 2009, respectively. Detailed analysis of agronomic and environmental revealed no significant association between cassava stand locations, age, land topography and the development of CMD. Likewise intercropping practices and field topping did not affect the development of CMD in all the fields surveyed. There were significant differences in the number of white flies (Bemisia tabaci) per plant in 2009 and 2010, but no significant correlations between the number of B. tabaci per plant and CMD incidence, severity, and gravity was found. In most fields, CMD appears to originate mostly from unhealthy cassava cuttings used for planting.
Reproductive health needs of physical handicapped females in Kinshasa, DR Congo  [PDF]
Tandu-Umba Barthélémy, Sukama Tandu Yves
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2013.31A033

Objective: Our study is intended to evaluate mobility impairment’s level in adult females, their sociodemographic status, knowledge, and practices related to reproductive health in order to provide healthcare givers and policy makers with tools to meet appropriate needs of these vulnerable persons in Kinshasa, DR Congo. Study design: A cross-sectional descriptive study from March 20th 2012 throughout July 20th 2012 concerned 138 physical (non mental) disabled attendees of 7 centers for disabled adults in Kinshasa, DR Congo. Concerns about extend of the disability focused on parts of the body concerned, functional capacity (self walking, crutches, prosthesis, wheel-chairs) and manual freedom. Participants were interviewed using open-ended questions about sociodemographic status, knowledge, and practices related to reproductive health. Issues concerned included age at menarche, age at first sex experience, marital status, education level, employment status, obstetric history, sex abuse, birth control and sexual transmitted diseases. For statistic analysis OR (CI at 95%) was calculated to seek for possible association between physical impairment and parturition’s characteristics. Results: The mean age of the study group (31.1 ± 5.7 years) ranged from 15 to 40 years. Most were affected by legs and the majority (69.1%) needed crutches or wheelchair for moving. Only 21 (15.2%) were married, most (15) of them with a disabled colleague. Mean parity and gravidity were 2.78 ± 2.3 (range 0 - 11) and 3.4 ± 2.5 (range 0 - 12), respectively. Sex experience was initiated at 17.5 ± 3.7 years (range of 12 - 35), 13 (9.4%) had experienced rape, and 37 (26.8%) had (illegally) aborted. Of the 117 women who had had a child 82 (70.7%) had vaginal delivery. In 24 of 34 cesarean sections fetopelvic disproportion or protracted pelvis was the main indication (68.6%), the risk for cesarean section being somewhat related to involvement of 2 legs. Data concerning the issue of knowledge and practices related to reproductive health were very limited and unreliable. Conclusion: Based on the age at menarche, at first intercourse and having had child reflect obvious interest of disabled in sex and reproduction, even if unmarried. Their limited information on reproductive health education results in unplanned pregnancy, unsafe abortion and risk for HIV and other sexual transmitted diseases. The rate of vaginal delivery is likely to redeem own perception on their health status. This could be basis for adhesion to specific programs

Emergence and Seedling Characteristics of Maize Native to the Southwestern US  [PDF]
Jennifer M. Bousselot, Deborah Muenchrath, Allen D. Knapp, Jean D. Reeder
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2017.86087
Abstract: Locally adapted maize landraces, which are associated with Native American groups, were traditionally planted deeply, reportedly up to 45 cm deep. Crop resources such as these should be evaluated for possible use in future sustainable farming practices. Cold temperatures often delay maize (Zea mays L.) planting in the Corn Belt, possibly reducing yield potential, and spring frost and hail can damage early plantings. If producers could plant deeper and earlier in the spring, the planting season period could be extended and the potential for frost damage reduced because the growing point would be insulated below the soil surface for a longer period of time. The emergence capabilities of eleven Native American landraces were evaluated at various planting depths and compared to one Corn Belt line, BSSS-53. Emergence from depths between 5 and 45 cm was evaluated in a growth chamber study. Seedling dry matter partitioning and morphological characteristics were also examined. A field study was then performed to further test those landraces that successfully emerged (≥ 75%) from the 25 cm depth in the growth chamber. Results indicate that some of the evaluated Native American landraces have a greater capacity to emerge from depth than BSSS-53. Emergence capacity was not related to initial seed weight. Mesocotyl elongation largely accounted for successful emergence from greater planting depths. The landraces partitioned relatively more dry matter to roots than shoots compared to BSSS-53. These results suggest that several of these Native American landraces may be useful for the development of maize varieties more tolerant to deep planting.
Profile of Aggressive and Chronic Periodontitis in Kinshasa Dental Hospitals, DR Congo  [PDF]
Em Kalala Kazadi, Steve Sekele Masin, Nyimi Bushabu Fidele, Isourady Bourley Jean Paul Sekele, Jacques Bolenge, Augustin Mantshumba, Ingaya Ediz Ekofo, Mulumba Hubert Ntumba
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2017.710038
Abstract: Periodontitis is a prevalent destructive gum disease, characterized by loss of tissues supporting the teeth. The two main forms, chronic and aggressive have not been assessed in Kinshasa, DR Congo. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the Prevalence and the pattern of chronic periodontitis (CP) and aggressive periodontitis (AP) in order to improve its management. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study of 404 subjects attending the dental services of the four hospitals of Kinshasa city, from October 2013 to April 2014 was carried out. The plaque index (PlI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing pocket depth (PPD) and frequency of tooth brushing (FTB) were the parameters assessed. The SPSS software version 20.0 was used. Results: Out of 404 patients examined, 322 (79.7%) had chronic periodontitis versus to 44 (10.9%) of aggressive periodontitis. The female was higher than males with a sex ratio of 1.49:1 and the age group between 20 and 29 was the most represented. PPP of ≥6 mm was found in 24.6%, 5 or 5.5 mm in 27.3% and PPP of 3.5 to 4.5 mm in 48.1% of patients with periodontitis. Significant difference was found between CP and AP according to age variable, p-value < 0.001. PlI for CP was 0.97 (SD ± 0.38) while that for AP was 0.90 (SD ± 0.43). No significant differences were found between PlI, p-value = 0.47; FTB (p = 0.055) and BOP of subjects with AP and those with CP (p = 0.105). Conclusion: The two main forms of periodontitis diseases are more prevalent in patients attending dental services in Kinshasa and affect male as well as female. Age remains an essential variable to distinguish between CP and AP.
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