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Affective Responses of Early Life Photoperiod in Male Wistar Rats  [PDF]
Nassira Benabid, Ali Ouichou
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2011.23025
Abstract: Behavior changes season dependant are probably linked to change in day length or photoperiod. Although much research on seasonality in small mammals has focused on photoperiod manipulations in adults, early life photoperiod is also an important source of seasonal information and can establish individual’s developmental trajectory by regulating somatic and reproductive development and affective responses to day lengths later in life. The experiments developed in this work are based on the hypothesis that early life photoperiod affect emotionality in adult rats. To cheek this hypothesis, male rats were exposed at birth to different photoperiods (LP: 16L/8D; SP: 8L/16D). 8, 16 or 24 weeks later, rats were subjected to different behavioral tests to quantify anxiety-like behavior. Independently of duration, rats exposed to SP exhibited higher levels of anxious-like behavior than rats raised in LP, in an open field test (OFT) and in elevated plus maze (EPM). Repeated comparisons showed that photoperiod effect was accentuated after 16 weeks of treatment. 24 weeks of treatment failed to induce any effect on emotionality in male rats. Our results indicate that changes in day length are associated with different levels of anxious-like behaviors; consistent with the conjecture that early life photoperiod may influence affective behavior in adult male rats.
Effect of Chronic Oral Administration of Chloroquine on the Histology of the Liver in Wistar Rats  [cached]
A.M. Izunya,A.O. Nwaopara,L.C. Anyanwu,M.A.C. Odike
British Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology , 2011,
Abstract: The effect of chronic oral administration of chloroquine, an antimalarial and antirheumatic drug on the histology of the liver in wistar rats was investigated. Ten wistar rats were randomly grouped into two, control and treated. The treated group rats were administered 20 mg/kg body wt, weekly of chloroquine for 4 weeks while the control group rats were given distilled water for 4 weeks. On day 29th of the experiment, the rats were weighed and sacrificed by cervical dislocation. The livers were carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histological studies. The histological findings after H and E methods indicated that the treated sections of the liver showed cytoplasmic vacuolation; nuclear enlargement and vesiculation of the hepatocytes when compared with the control. Thus, our result suggests that though chloroquine may be a widely used antimalarial and antirheumatic drug, its chronic administration may have a deleterious effect on the liver of wistar rats and by extension may affect its function. It is therefore recommended that the drug be prescribed with caution in patients with history of liver disease.
Effect of Chronic Aluminum Administration on Affective and Cognitive Behavior in Male and Female Rats  [PDF]
Oussama Zghari, Ayoub Rezqaoui, Sihame Ouakki, Mouloud Lamtai, Jihane Chaibat, Abdelhalem Mesfioui, Aboubaker El Hessni, El-Housseine Rifi, Azzouz Essamri, Ali Ouichou
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2018.84012
Abstract: In this study, we investigated the effect of chronic exposure of low doses of Aluminum on affective and cognitive disorders in male and female rats. Twenty-five rats for each gender are used and the treatment carried out for 8 weeks. Animals received distilled water for control or an intraperitoneal injection of different doses of Aluminum: 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg. Behavioral performance is measured in various tests mainly the Open Field, Elevated Plus Maze, Force Swimming Test, Morris Water Maze, Y-maze and Object Recognition Test. Al exerts anxiogenic properties and depressive effect. The effect begins at 0.25 mg/kg to reach a maximum at 1 mg/kg. In addition, chronic exposure to Aluminum causes cognitive disorders characterized by affection of memory and influence spatial learning performance. The effect of Aluminum on working memory is effective just at 1 mg/kg, while the effect on spatial learning performance begins at 0.25 mg/kg to reach a maximum at 1 mg/kg. In conclusion, Aluminum enhances anxiety and depression parameters and cognitive disorders characterized by the affection of memory and spatial learning performance.
Histological Observations of the Testis of Wistar Rats Following the Oral Administration of Cotecxin (dihyroartemisinin)
T. Murdakai,A.A. Buraimoh,H.O. Kwanashie
International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2011,
Abstract: Cotecxin has been reportedly used in the treatment of malaria with high clinical effect and low toxicity. This study therefore, tried to examine the effects of cotecxin on the histology of the testis of wistar rats. A total of twenty four (24) male wistar rats were the subjects used in this experiment. The wistar rats were divided into three groups with each group containing eight (8) rats. Different concentrations of cotecxin were administered orally to the wistar rats which had an average weight of 150 g. Group I is the control group, Group II received 3.42 mg/kg and Group III were given 17.10 mg/Kg. The duration of administration was seven days. After which four (4) rats from each group were sacrificed on the 8th day. The remaining twelve rats were equally sacrificed on the 15th day and immediately fixed in 10% formalin. The tissues were processed and stained in haematoxylin and eosin (H&E). The changes observed on the eighth day in the testis were disarray of the spermatogenic cells and disorientation of the testis. These changes were observed to have been disappearing and normal histological features being restored in those rats sacrificed at the 15th day. It was therefore concluded that cotecxin has negative effect on the histology of the testis during administrations and these effects were reversible some days after stoppage of the administration. This suggests that cotexcin could be safe but It’s prolong usage may be discouraged.
Effect of chronic oral administration of chloroquine on the histology of the heart in Wistar rats
AM Izunya
Biology and Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: The effect of chronic oral administration of chloroquine, an antimalarial and antirheumatic drug on the histologyof the heart in Wistar rats was investigated. Ten Wistar rats were randomly grouped into two, control and treated.The treated group rats were administered 20mg/kg body wt, weekly of chloroquine for 4 weeks while the controlgroup rats were given distilled water for 4 weeks. On day 29 of the experiment, the rats were weighed andsacrificed. The hearts were carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for routine histologicalstudy after H&E method. The histological findings indicated that the treated sections of the hearts showedmoderate hypertrophy of the cardiomyocytes when compared with the control. Thus, our result suggests thatthough chloroquine may be a widely used antimalarial and antirheumatic drug, its chronic administration mayresult in cardiotoxicity. Therefore, it is recommended that the drug be prescribed with caution in patients withcardiac abnormality, such as cardiomyopathy and further studies to corroborate this observation should becarried.
The effect of administration of amodiaquine on some Parameters of neurobehaviour of wistar rats
M.B Ekong, A.O Igiri, O.E Mesembe
Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: The effect of administration of Amodiaquine (AQ) on some parameters of neurobehaviour of Wistar rats was carried out. Twenty adult Wistar rats weighing between 160-190g were divided equally into four groups. Group 1 served as the control, while groups 2, 3 and 4 were the experimental groups. The control group received distilled water. Groups 2 and 3 were treated with 8.75mg/kg and 17.50mg/kg respectively of AQ for three days, while group 4 was treated with 8.75mg/kg of AQ for six days. Neurobehaviour test using the open field was carried out twelve hours after the last administrations. There were no significant differences between the control and the experimental groups in total locomotor activity (TLA), central square duration (CSD), stretch-attend (SA) and defecation. In the central square frequency (CSF), group 3 was significantly (P<0.05) higher than all the groups, while the control was the same as group 4, but higher than group 2, with the difference not being significant. In conclusion, AQ increased TLA and exploration, while simultaneously reducing anxiety in Wistar rats and these were dose dependent.
Histological effects of chronic administration of Phyllanthus amarus on the kidney of adult Wistar rat
Josiah Obaghwarhievwo Adjene,Ezekiel Uba Nwose
North American Journal of Medical Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: Background: Phyllanthus amarus is commonly used for treatment such as in gastro, urogenital diseases and infection. However, it is speculated to have some toxic effects such as renal tubular damage. Aims: This study was to investigate the histological effects of chronic administration of the herb on kidney of adult Wistar rats. Material and Methods: Rats of both sexes (n = 24), with average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into two treatments (A and B) and control (C) groups of 8 rats each. Rats in treatment groups (A) and (B) respectively received daily administration of 400mg and 800mg of aqueous Phyllanthus amarus, per 70kg body weight for 30days through the orogastric tube. The control group received distilled water through the same route. All rats were fed with grower’s mash and given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation on the thirty-first day of the experiment and the kidneys were carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histological study. Results: The observations indicate that rats in the treated groups showed some varying degree of distortion and disruption in microanatomy of the kidney including interstitial oedema and tubular necrosis, when compared to the control section. Conclusion: This report provides further evidence that medicinal use of Phyllanthus amarus has a potential adverse effect. This warrants further studies to establish or rule out any untoward side-effect of chronic renal dysfunctions.
Safety of Moxifloxacin following repeated intramuscular administration in Wistar rats
K.A. Sadariya,A.K. Gothi,S.D. Patel,S.K. Bhavsar and A.M. Thaker
Veterinary World , 2010,
Abstract: Moxifloxacin is a novel fourth generation fluoroquinolone with broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. The study was conducted to evaluate the safety of Moxifloxacin (5.0 mg/kg) after repeated intramuscular administration at 24 h interval for 14 days in male and female wistar rats. Hematological (Haemoglobin, RBC, WBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC, HCT and DLC), blood biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, ALP, Total Bilirubin, Total Serum Protein, Serum Albumin, Globulin, Serum Creatinine, Urea, Uric acid and Blood glucose) and histopathological examination of various tissues were carried out in the present study. Male and female animals of any group did not reveal any clinical symptoms and mortality attributable to the 14 days intramuscular administration of Moxifloxacin. The data were compared by unpaired two tail `t` test using Graph Pad Prism (Version 4.00). All above hematological and blood biochemical parameters were found to fluctuate within normal range during treatment period and the mean values were not significantly differ (p < 0.05) from corresponding control values. Moreover, no gross or microscopic changes were found in the liver, kidney, heart, spleen, stomach, intestine and joint cartilages of the treated wistar rats. Results indicate that daily administration of Moxifloxacin for 14 days seems to be safe and well tolerated in rats. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(10.000): 449-452]
Effects of Oral Administration of Aluminium Chloride on the Histology of the Hippocampus of Wistar Rats  [cached]
A.A. Buraimoh,S.A. Ojo,J.O. Hambolu,S.S. Adebis
Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The study of the effects of oral administration of aluminium chloride on the Hippocampus of wistar rats was designed in order to ascertain whether the small daily amount of aluminium that gain access to the body produce any damage to the hippocampus. This investigation was carried out using 50 female adult wistar rats.The animals were divided into five groups; 10 rats per group (cage). Stock solution of aluminium chloride was prepared (2 g/L or 2 mg/mL). Different concentrations of aluminium were administered to different groups orally. Group I was control, while Groups II-V were given 0.4, 1, 2, and 3 mg, respectively per each rat with an average weight of between 150-200 g for duration of twelve (12) weeks. The animals were humanly sacrificed using chloroform and then the brain tissues were fixed immediately in Bouin’s fluid. The brain sections (hippocampus) were processed through the routine tissue processor. The stained samples were examined by means of light microscope for histological changes. Histological examinations showed clumpy of cell neurons, or reduced pyramidal cells and scant,y neurofibrillary tangle which was an indication of neurodegeneration in the treated groups when compared to the control. It was however, concluded that the oral administration of aluminium chloride could induce brain damage which may impair memory and learning as seen in Alzheimer disease.
Histometric analysis of gingival hyperplasia in Wistar rats during nifedipine administration  [PDF]
Brki? Zlata
Vojnosanitetski Pregled , 2007, DOI: 10.2298/vsp0701019b
Abstract: Background/Aim. The use of calcium channel blockers, especially nifedipine, causes gingival hyperplasia which leads to the destruction of the deeper periodontal tissues. During this process, inflammatory changes and the changes of colagen fibers occur. The aim of this study was to metrically compare the extent of proliferation of connective tissue in the deeper periodontal tissue in experimental animals regarding the dose and duration of nifedipine administration. Methods. The study involved 50 Wistar rats to which water solution of nifedipine was given in certain time intervals and doses. Before starting the experiment, i.e. before nifedipine administration, and in the defined time intervals, measuring of the morphology of gingival size was performed including the buccolingual and mesiodistal wideness and vertical altitude of the central interdental papilla. The measurement was performed by the use of a special graduated probe. Histometric analyses of the tissue samples were done on the sagital cross-sections in the direction from the top to the bottom of papilla on five levels. For the statistical analysis of the data, the established values to the extent of the most present changes were used. The mesiodistal and buccolingual diameters for the levels L2 and L3 were quantitively determined and compared. These values were compared to the vertical diameter of gingival growth determined before the onset of patohistologic analyses of the tissue samples. Results. At the beginning of the experiment, the volume of the lower incisive central papilla in the rats was 12 mm3. The central interdental papilla vertical altitude was 6.6 mm in rats which had received a lower dose of nifedipine, 8 mm in rats which had received a higher dose in the defined time intervals while the value for the control group was 3.8 mm. Conclusion. The obtained results showed that the administration of nifedipine led to the extensive gingival hyperplasia in the experimental animals. Gingival hyperplasia correlates with both the dose of nifedipine and the duration of its administration.
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