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Strategic Container Ports Competitiveness Analysis in West Africa Using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) Model  [PDF]
Bomboma Kalgora
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2019.72046
Abstract: This study presents a competitiveness analysis of five strategic container ports in West Africa using the DEA model Windows I-C method. This method takes into account the different changes in these ports efficiency and performance using a window length of 3 over the years 2005 to 2016. The model is used to provide a ranking of the efficient strategic ports in the region. Efficient ports promote trade growth by empowering a country’s imports and exports. The ranking and competitiveness of a port are evaluated based on its efficiency compared to others in its group. From the one output and the seven input variables selected, the results reveal the port of Tema to be the most competitive in the West Africa with 95% production average efficiency score, then followed respectively by Lagos, Abidjan, Lomé and Cotonou port.
Assessment of Port Efficiency in West Africa Using Data Envelopment Analysis  [PDF]
George Kobina van Dyck
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2015.54023
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to apply the DEA method in assessing efficiencies of major ports in West Africa. Six ports were selected based on their container throughput levels, and the DEA model was used to determine their relative efficiencies and their efficiencies over time through window analysis. The DEA model was applied to a number of inputs of port production and a single output (container throughput). It was determined that the Port of Tema in Ghana was the most efficient West African port under study. Although Tema exhibited some inefficiency in its operations, the port was found to make good use of its resources for production. On the other extreme, the Port of Cotonou in Benin was found to be the least efficient port obtaining the lowest average efficiency rating over a seven year period. It was determined that the port exhibited a substantial waste in production. Generally, ports in West Africa could be said to exhibit high levels of efficiency con-sidering that four out of six ports had an average efficiency score of 76% or higher for the period under study.
Dry Ports in China and West Africa: A Comparative Study  [PDF]
Hamadou Tahirou Abdoulkarim, Seydou Harouna Fatouma, Elijah Musango Munyao
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2019.93030
The dry port concept was first adopted in Europe and North America, followed by Asia, South America and then Africa. Since then, the development of inland cargo distribution facilities has been an active approach to support the hinterlands of maritime gateways among other functions. Dry ports can be developed in the hinterland based on different approaches, involving differing functions, actors, motivations and logistical models. They can be classified as close, mid-range or distant, with respect to the seaport. Dry port development can be carried out by port authorities, port terminal operators and transport providers such as third-party logistics providers or rail operators or by public bodies: local, national or regional. One of the design strategies for these facilities is rail-based which promotes economies of scale on high capacities and long distance links. The other strategy is the road-based short-distance satellite terminals aimed at decongesting the port or facilitating faster custom clearances. This paper carries out a comparative analysis of dry ports in China and the West African countries using a descriptive approach and providing case studies for each parameter used in the comparative study. This study is based on motivations for dry port development in these regions, as well as the development and management models applied in the dry port sector. In addition, a discussion on the merits and demerits of the management and development models applied on dry ports in these regions are also included in this study, from which conclusions and recommendations are drawn to support policy formulation and future studies. This paper not only serves to contribute to the existing academic knowledge on dry ports, but also provides the policy makers and practitioners in the logistics and trade sectors with an invaluable opportunity to compare the practices in the two regions for application to appropriate scenarios.
Hinterland Intermodal Freight Flow Optimization for Ports Competition Evidence of West Africa ECOWAS Region  [PDF]
Brou Mathias Allate
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2019.94018
Abstract: Major problem considered in this study was the intermodal routing problem of regional freight transportation in West Africa ECOWAS (Economic Community Of West Africa States), which can be defined as the problem of determining the freight flow quantity, the transportation mode in each transit corridor while satisfying the freight demand at each West Africa transit country (Mali, Burkina Faso and Niger). The objective was to minimize in land transportation costs. In order to solve optimally and represent the problem, this research employed a linear programming model. The model was solved using Lingo Mathematic Application. The model results showed that port oriented freight logistics in west Africa ECOWAS region do not flow along optimal path and such incur longer time and higher logistics cost than is geographically necessary.
Assessment of Dry Port Efficiency in Africa Using Data Envelopment Analysis  [PDF]
Hamadou Tahirou Abdoulkarim, Seydou Harouna Fatouma, Hamadou Tahirou Hassane
Journal of Transportation Technologies (JTTs) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jtts.2019.92012
Abstract: This work involves the evaluation of dry port competitiveness through analysis of efficiencies for selected dry ports in Africa. Five dry ports were selected and analysis carried out over a period of four years. The dry ports considered were Mojo and Kality in Ethiopia, Mombasa in Kenya, Isaka in Tanzania and Casablanca in Casablanca, Morocco. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was applied for this work. Container throughputs for the various ports under consideration were used as the output variable for the data analysis model, while the number of reach stackers, the number of tractors, the number of forklifts and the size of the dry port were used as the input variables. From the results, the Mombasa dry port was found to be the most efficient with an average score of approximately 1 over the period under consideration. Casablanca was the second efficient dry port with an average score of 0.762, while Isaka was the least efficient with an average score of 0.142. This research is significant since the African countries have embraced the dry port concept, as witnessed in the huge investments in this sector, and would serve to highlight areas that need improvement for the few existing dry port facilities, most of which are undergoing expansion as well as modernization.
Efficiency analysis of Brazilian Northeeast ports using Data Envelopment Analysis
José Nauri Cazuza de Sousa Júnior,Ernesto Ferreira Nobre Júnior,Bruno de Athayde Prata
Sistemas & Gest?o , 2008,
Abstract: The port system is a key element to the economic development of a region. In this sense, theperformance evaluation is fundamental to the monitoring and improving the activities ofabove mentioned sector. Data Envelopment Analysis – DEA is a method, based onmathematical programming, which analyses, with agreement to a set of inputs and outputs ofa process, the relative efficiency of a group of decision making units. The objective of thiswork was create a model to evaluate the performance of the ports in Northeast of Brazil,adopting a model oriented to inputs. It was considered two inputs (length of the pier andadmissible depth) and one output (cargo handling, in weight or number of containers). Thismodel was applied to the 22 ports of the above mentioned region. These ports wereclassified for type of cargo. The analysis made possible to observe that the majority of portslocated in the Northeast of Brazil uses inefficiently its infrastructures. The determination ofthe relative efficiencies of these ports allows observe that its have capacity to handling amajor quantity of goods with the same inputs. As conclusions, one can observe that DEA isa feasible and useful technique to the analysis, management and planning in the port sector,aiding the decision making process.
Application of data envelopment analysis (DEA) to evaluate the efficiency of Brazilian ports [paper in Portuguese]  [cached]
Cristina Maria Machim Acosta,Ana Maria Volkmer de Azambuja da Silva,Milton Luiz Paiva de Lima
Journal of Transport Literature , 2011,
Abstract: This study aimed to identify benchmarkings in Brazilian ports using the technique of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). This technique enabled the construction of a score of technical efficiency from inputs and outputs considered important in the process of port handling services. From these indices it was possible to verify which ports have been presenting better performances, in other words, optimizing their resources to improve the movement of their cargo. The ports that showed to be more efficient were Areia Branca (RN), Itaqui (MA), Natal (RN), Santos (SP) and S o Francisco do Sul (SC). The analysis of these ports showed that factors like the kind of cargo moved, location and modernization contributed for them to reach the frontier of efficiency.
An Evaluation of West and Central African Ports to Serve as a Hub on the Gulf of Guinea Container Ports Range  [PDF]
Balla Nguele Veronique, Youfang Huang
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2019.94024
Abstract: The level of competitions among ports keep increasing as port worldwide keep upgrading and expanding their port infrastructures so as to capture the greater share of the market. Every continent phases these competitions. This phenomenon is more prominent in developed countries where ports do not only compete among regional ports but also compete with other ports within the same country such as in America, some European countries and part of Asia like in China. However, the situation is a bit different when it comes to African ports. Most African ports have poor infrastructures and limited technological investments and so port competitions in the African continent cannot be compared with that of the western ports. Despite these setbacks, there is a significant amount of competition among these African ports, especially on a regional basis. The aim of this paper is to determine which port can serve as a hub port between the West and Central African ports along the Gulf of Guinea. The method that will be used to evaluate these ports will be a port indexing method. This method considers different indices for port evaluation to determine the most suitable port. The port of Tema appeared as the most suitable port to serve as a hub port.
Assessment of Ports Competiveness in West and Central African Sub-Regions Using Priest Analytic Hierarchy Process: The Defies & Incompetence of the Port of Douala (Cameroon)  [PDF]
Veronique Nguele Balla, F. C. Anguibi China, R. A. N. Fouda, C. D. Bissemb
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2016.62012
Abstract: Ports play a fundamental role in a sustainable integration of Africa in International trade. Both importers and exporters, shipping companies and government, however face high cost for sea transport and substantial inefficiency in port operations. This has resulted in congestion, higher dwell time, higher costs which affect the competitive ability in sub regional and global economy. This study investigates the main factors explaining poor container handling operations and limited competitive ability in Cameroonian Ports and aggregating this to the competitive position of Cameroonian ports in the West and Central African sub-regions (WCA). Using Analytic Hierarchy Process (A.H.P), the paper seeks to provide a basic understanding of container transportation and port’s terminal operations problems (constraints & ineffectiveness) in Cameroon.
Port Logistics in West and Central Africa: A Strategic Development under Globalization  [PDF]
Regine Adele Ngono Fouda, Nana Darcis Romeo, Muhammad Azizi, S. Rick Fernandez
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2014.42009
Abstract: The main idea of this study is to provide help to West and Central Africa port logistics authorities in making, evaluating and realizing their decisions on port development/management, all in an effort to guaranty port efficiency and operational brilliance to profit the different ports, their hinterlands and their related clients. Consequently, an examination is made as far as port sector is concerned, with an ever more demanding enhancement in operational efficiency. Moreover, a past research on West and Central Africa Ports, as well as an overview on port logistics was made, making it possible to determine what has been done (prospects) and what is still to be done (ineffectiveness), in prospective of a more reformed and efficient port. One of the principles of this paper is also to confer all the aspects that operate as obstacles to the WCA port’s improvement and development; using thus the evaluation model called EWCA (Evaluation of West and Central Africa Ports), which gives a descriptive analysis of the present situation of the latter’s port logistics, including the aid of multiple regression model to determine an impact of explanatory variables on the study probability. Applying the method of strategic development, this paper thus deals with exploring typical problems and quandaries of West and Central Africa ports. The findings suggested how to fight back or overcome the constrictions and strangulations; enabling West and Central Africa port logistics attain their desired strategic development aims, despite the ineffectiveness. Tremendous efforts were made, giving a vital shoot on African economy and development; even though there is still a lot to do, for the data and variables showed how the port logistics augment and descend frequently without a long period of stability.
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