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Why only few are so successful ?  [PDF]
P. K. Mohanty
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1016/j.physa.2007.04.118
Abstract: In many professons employees are rewarded according to their relative performance. Corresponding economy can be modeled by taking $N$ independent agents who gain from the market with a rate which depends on their current gain. We argue that this simple realistic rate generates a scale free distribution even though intrinsic ability of agents are marginally different from each other. As an evidence we provide distribution of scores for two different systems (a) the global stock game where players invest in real stock market and (b) the international cricket.
Mobile and Social: Ten Best Practices for Designing Mobile Applications  [PDF]
Liviu LICA
Informatica Economica Journal , 2010,
Abstract: This paper gives ten best practices for designing mobile applications that have social-networking functions. The need for such an approach is given by the rapid growth in impor-tance of both social networks and mobile applications. In order to make it easy to follow where the best practices come from, the paper starts with a look at why social networks are more than just a buzz word and at how the field of mobile applications is evolving. It also shows how and why the two fields go together so well. To further make the point, there is a case study of four interesting mobile applications that are textbooks examples of successful applications. The best practices are based on research done for this article and on the extensive knowledge of the author.
Why is Tin so soft?  [PDF]
J. Piekarewicz
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.76.031301
Abstract: The distribution of isoscalar monopole strength in the neutron-even 112-124Sn-isotopes has been computed using a relativistic random-phase-approximation approach. The accurately-calibrated model used here (``FSUGold'') has been successful in reproducing both ground-state observables as well as collective excitations - including the giant monopole resonance (GMR) in 90Zr, 144Sm, and 208Pb. Yet this same model significantly overestimates the GMR energies in the Sn isotopes. It is argued that the question of ``Why is Tin so soft?'' becomes an important challenge to the field and one that should be answered without sacrificing the success already achieved by several theoretical models.
The Legal and Regulatory Framework of Mobile Banking and Mobile Payments in South Africa  [cached]
Vivienne Lawack-Davids
Journal of International Commercial Law and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: South Africa is a developing economy and has both a first and second economy. One of the problems that it faces is that of the “unbanked”, that is, a large segment of the population does not have bank accounts and “banking” happens through informal means. It also appears from latest figures that more people in South Africa have mobile phones than bank accounts. The usage of mobile banking and in particular, payments by means of mobile phones, has increased in recent years, with consequent impacts viewed from a legal and regulatory point of view. This paper seeks to examine the legal and regulatory framework pertaining to mobile banking, and in particular, mobile payments in South Africa. Regulatory gaps and areas for improvement are highlighted. The author argues for a more flexible approach to regulation in South Africa.
Why the Internet is so 'small'?  [PDF]
Shi Zhou
Computer Science , 2010, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-11284-3_2
Abstract: During the last three decades the Internet has experienced fascinating evolution, both exponential growth in traffic and rapid expansion in topology. The size of the Internet becomes enormous, yet the network is very `small' in the sense that it is extremely efficient to route data packets across the global Internet. This paper provides a brief review on three fundamental properties of the Internet topology at the autonomous systems (AS) level. Firstly the Internet has a power-law degree distribution, which means the majority of nodes on the Internet AS graph have small numbers of links, whereas a few nodes have very large numbers of links. Secondly the Internet exhibits a property called disassortative mixing, which means poorly-connected nodes tend to link with well-connected nodes, and vice versa. Thirdly the best-connected nodes, or the rich nodes, are tightly interconnected with each other forming a rich-club. We explain that it is these structural properties that make the global Internet so 'small'.
Why was a Fuzzy Model so Successful in Physical Organic Chemistry?
F. Michael Akeroyd
Hyle : International Journal for Philosophy of Chemistry , 2000,
Abstract: This paper examines a facet of the rise of the Hughes-Ingold Theory of Nucleophilic Substitution in Organic Chemistry 1933-1942, arguing that the SN1/SN2 model of reaction mechanism used by Hughes and Ingold is an example of a fuzzy model. Many real world 'Fuzzy Logic' Controlling Devices gave better results compared to classical logic controlling devices in the period 1975-1985. I propose that the adoption of fuzzy principles in the Hughes-Ingold program 1933-1940 led to scientific advance at a time when the rival programs, based on classical principles, had stalled owing to problems associated with the fuzziness of the data. I suggest also that there is an analogy between the success of second generation fuzzy logic controllers 1985-95 and the success of the successor Winstein model from 1956 onwards.
Why is Open Access Development so Successful? Stigmergic organization and the economics of information  [PDF]
Francis Heylighen
Computer Science , 2006,
Abstract: The explosive development of "free" or "open source" information goods contravenes the conventional wisdom that markets and commercial organizations are necessary to efficiently supply products. This paper proposes a theoretical explanation for this phenomenon, using concepts from economics and theories of self-organization. Once available on the Internet, information is intrinsically not a scarce good, as it can be replicated virtually without cost. Moreover, freely distributing information is profitable to its creator, since it improves the quality of the information, and enhances the creator's reputation. This provides a sufficient incentive for people to contribute to open access projects. Unlike traditional organizations, open access communities are open, distributed and self-organizing. Coordination is achieved through stigmergy: listings of "work-in-progress" direct potential contributors to the tasks where their contribution is most likely to be fruitful. This obviates the need both for centralized planning and for the "invisible hand" of the market.
Why Mathematics Works So Well  [PDF]
Noson S. Yanofsky
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: A major question in philosophy of science involves the unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics in physics. Why should mathematics, created or discovered, with nothing empirical in mind be so perfectly suited to describe the laws of the physical universe? We review the well-known fact that the symmetries of the laws of physics are their defining properties. We show that there are similar symmetries of mathematical facts and that these symmetries are the defining properties of mathematics. By examining the symmetries of physics and mathematics, we show that the effectiveness is actually quite reasonable. In essence, we show that the regularities of physics are a subset of the regularities of mathematics.
So Many Plasminogen Receptors: Why?
Edward F. Plow,Loic Doeuvre,Riku Das
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/141806
Abstract: Plasminogen and plasmin tether to cell surfaces through ubiquitously expressed and structurally quite dissimilar family of proteins, as well as some nonproteins, that are collectively referred to as plasminogen receptors. Of the more than one dozen plasminogen receptors that have been identified, many have been shown to facilitate plasminogen activation to plasmin and to protect bound plasmin from inactivation by inhibitors. The generation of such localized and sustained protease activity is utilized to facilitate numerous cellular responses, including responses that depend on cellular migration. However, many cells express multiple plasminogen receptors and numerous plasminogen receptors are expressed on many different cell types. Furthermore, several different plasminogen receptors can be used to support the same cellular response, such as inflammatory cell migration. Here, we discuss the perplexing issue: why are there so many different Plg-Rs?
The Impact of Mobile Payments on the Success and Growth of Micro-Business: The Case of M-Pesa in Kenya
Marion Mbogo
Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa , 2010,
Abstract: Micro-business enterprises in the developing world are increasingly deploying the use of mobile payments to enhance the quality of their services and increase growth. The pace of transformation in the micro business sector has speeded up with more micro businesses realizing the potential of using the mobile payments in their service delivery. However, there are only a handful of studies on the application of digital technology for success and growth on micro business.This paper aims to investigate the success factors attributable to the use of mobile payments by micro-business operators. The study is based on a survey conducted through administration of questionnaires. The data was collected from a sample of 409 micro business entrepreneurs in Nairobi, Kenya. The study applies the Theory of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) which was extended to include other factors to help us predict success and growth in micro-businesses. Analyses of the data reveal that convenience of the money transfer technology plus its accessibility, cost, support and security factors are related to behavioral intention to use and actual usage of the mobile payment services by the micro businesses to enhance their success and growth.
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