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Intergenerational income and educational mobility in urban Chile
Nú?ez,Javier; Miranda,Leslie;
Estudios de economía , 2011, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-52862011000100008
Abstract: this paper provides evidence on the degree and patterns of intergenerational income and educational mobility in urban chile. we find intergenerational income elasticity’s for greater santiago in chile in the range of 0.52 to 0.54. this is lower than recent nation-wide elasticities for chile of about 0.6-0.7, but still stands as fairly high in comparison with the comparable international evidence. we also find that intergenerational educational mobility is lower for the younger cohorts, which however does not necessarily imply an increase of intergenerational educational mobility in the last decades, as life-cycle effects may be at work. finally, we find evidence of a higher degree of intergenerational persistence of income at the two extremes of the income distribution, which is more accentuated at the top centiles of the distribution. we suggest that this may mirror the unusually high concentration of income at the top of the income distribution in chile, a hypothesis that requires further research.
Revista de análisis económico , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-88702010000200003
Abstract: in this paper we analyze intergenerational income and schooling mobility during the 1996-2006 decade in chile. using the countries most extended household panel survey, we overcome some of the limitations of the previous chilean studies by using observed income data for both parents and children, as opposed to observed income data only for children and income data that is generated for parents from the information given by their children retrospectively. following the recent literature, we control our estimates for time-series variation (lee and solon, 2009). our results show high intergenerational income elasticities in comparison to other developing countries, and these values are higher for sons than for daughters. the same results hold for educational mobility. trends analysis show that the transmission of economic status have remained constant during the last years in chile, while educational mobility has increased.
Revista de análisis económico , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-88702010000200002
Abstract: this article reviews evidence on intergenerational social mobility in latin america. results indicate that mobility is low in the region, even when compared with the united states and united kingdom, which rank low on social mobility. the evidence also suggests high levels of immobility at the income distribution's lower and upper tails. while intergenerational education mobility have improved in recent decades, which may increase income mobility for younger cohorts, overall the region still presents lower intergenerational social mobility. previous studies suggest that these results might be associated to social exclusion, low access to higher education, and labor market discrimination.
A Note on Intergenerational Schooling Mobility  [cached]
Thomas Bassetti
Review of European Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/res.v4n4p121
Abstract: This article studies how parental education affects children's completed years of schooling. Using a long-term survey, we test whether the intergenerational schooling mobility follows a linear or a nonlinear path. In line with some influential theoretical models, we find that the intergenerational link is clearly nonlinear. In particular, using a quantile regression technique and a generalized additive model, we conclude that this relationship has a logistic shape. This evidence suggests that works in which the intergenerational schooling mobility is estimated by using standard linear techniques do not capture salient nonlinearities.
高学历人群代际流动性的阶段解析    ——基于CGSS及CLDS数据
An Stage-analysis of Intergenerational Mobility of Highly Educated People

- , 2018,
Abstract: 近年来,我国高学历人群的社会代际流动性较1990年 代呈现出显著的下降趋势。利用中国综合社会调查(CGSS) 及中国劳动力动态调查(CLDS)数据,通过构建代际流动 表,对社会代际流动性变化的趋势进行剖析,同时,建立基于 明瑟收入方程的高学历人群代际流动性回归模型,对代际流 动性的影响因素和路径进行定量阐释。研究表明,教育依然 是提高代际流动的主要途径,而家庭资源的劣势则是阻碍高 学历人群社会代际流动性提高的主要因素,但这种阻碍作用 往往被高估。
Social intergenerational mobility is a phenomenon that the social and economic status of children is different from that of their parents. In particular, for those who have received higher education, the factors affecting intergenerational mobility show more significant, and the parents has more direct influence on the social and economic status of their offspring. Family resources represent the social and economic status of the parents, and affect the offspring's chance to accept high-quality education and work choice. In recent years, the intergenerational mobility of highly educated population in China has shown a significant downward trend compared with the 1990s. The remark that "an elite will never come from a poor house" arouses profound thinking of the whole society. The motivation of this study is to find the reasons behind the weakening of intergenerational mobility and the solidifying of social classes. In this empirical research, the data is collected from Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) from 2010 to 2013 and China Labor-force Dynamics Survey (CLDS) in 2014. Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS), which started in 2003, is one of the most important data sources for Chinese social science research, including data on multiple levels of society, community, family and individual. China Labor-force Dynamics Survey (CLDS) is a tracking survey conducted every two years, including 29 provinces or cities in China, except Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan, Tibet, Hainan province. CLDS systematically monitors the interactions among village/communities, families and labors, and also establishes a three level tracking database of communities, families and labors. We apply social intergenerational mobility table to analyze the intergenerational mobility for the groups with different higher education levels in different decades. And then we respectively explore the factors of social intergenerational mobility in two aspects of subjective and objective perspective, in order to accurately evaluate social intergenerational mobility. In addition to the influence of the offspring income on the social and economic status of their parents, there are also some unobservable factors that affect (such as family social relationships, genetic inheritance, etc). These issues may cause endogeneity in the model. In this study, the two-stage
INTERGENERATIONAL INCOME MOBILITY IN URBAN CHINA——An Estimation Based on JorgensonFraumeni Income Approach

- , 2016,
Abstract: 摘要 本文运用中国家庭收入项目调查(CHIP)1988年、1995年、2002年及2007年独生子女样本,使用JorgensonFraumeni未来终生收入法,旨在更加精确地估算中国城镇的代际收入流动水平,并分析其时间趋势、群体分布特点。研究发现:第一,基于该方法得到的未来终生年收入均值可最大程度显著减小父代收入测量误差导致的向下偏误。第二,我国城镇代际收入流动水平趋于下降,收入结构趋于固化,1988年、1995年、2002年、2007年代际收入弹性系数范围分别为(大于0262)、(大于0483)、(0466,0544)以及(0483,0554)。第三,中国城镇的代际收入流动水平呈现非线性特征,不同收入水平的家庭之间代际收入流动差别较大。
Abstract: :Using the onlychild sample from China Household Income Project dataset, we study the trend and magnitude of intergenerational income in urban China from 1988 to 2007 Using more accurate measures of parents permanent income based on JorgensonFraumeni LifeCycle Income Approach, we alleviate the downward bias in IGM estimations It is found that IGM in urban China has been decreasing, which implies that the income structure is experiencing consolidation The ranges of IGM for year 1988, 1995, 2002 and 2007 are (>0262),(>0483),(0466,0544) and (0483,0554) respectively IGM in urban China is nonlinear in income We find a lower IGM in high income families than low income families.
Intergenerational income and educational mobility in urban Chile  [cached]
Javier Nú?ez,Leslie Miranda
Estudios de Economia , 2011,
Abstract: Este paper proporciona evidencia sobre el grado y los patrones de movilidad intergeneracional del ingreso y la educación en zonas urbanas de Chile. Encontramos elasticidades intergeneracionales del ingreso en el Gran Santiago del orden de 0.52-0.54, las que son menores que valores reportados para Chile en el rango de 0.6-0.7, pero son aún elevadas en relación a la evidencia internacional. También encontramos mayor movilidad en los cohortes más jóvenes, lo que no debe interpretarse necesariamente como aumentos en la movilidad del ingreso, pues efectos de ciclo de vida pueden estar presentes. Finalmente, encontramos evidencia de mayor persistencia intergeneracional del ingreso en los dos extremos de la distribución, la cual es particularmente acentuada en los centiles de ingreso más altos de la población. Sugerimos que este hallazgo puede reflejar la gran concentración de ingresos en los centiles altos que caracteriza a la distribución del ingreso en Chile, hipótesis que amerita investigación a futuro.
Modeling the mobility of living organisms in heterogeneous landscapes: Does memory improve foraging success?  [PDF]
Denis Boyer,Peter D. Walsh
Quantitative Biology , 2010, DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2010.0275
Abstract: Thanks to recent technological advances, it is now possible to track with an unprecedented precision and for long periods of time the movement patterns of many living organisms in their habitat. The increasing amount of data available on single trajectories offers the possibility of understanding how animals move and of testing basic movement models. Random walks have long represented the main description for micro-organisms and have also been useful to understand the foraging behaviour of large animals. Nevertheless, most vertebrates, in particular humans and other primates, rely on sophisticated cognitive tools such as spatial maps, episodic memory and travel cost discounting. These properties call for other modeling approaches of mobility patterns. We propose a foraging framework where a learning mobile agent uses a combination of memory-based and random steps. We investigate how advantageous it is to use memory for exploiting resources in heterogeneous and changing environments. An adequate balance of determinism and random exploration is found to maximize the foraging efficiency and to generate trajectories with an intricate spatio-temporal order. Based on this approach, we propose some tools for analysing the non-random nature of mobility patterns in general.
Educational Differences in Smoking among Adolescents in Germany: What is the Role of Parental and Adolescent Education Levels and Intergenerational Educational Mobility?  [PDF]
Benjamin Kuntz,Thomas Lampert
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph10073015
Abstract: Background: Adolescence is the period in which smoking onset usually occurs and the course for future socioeconomic status (SES) is set. However, because of the transitional nature of adolescence, it is questionable whether health inequalities are best measured by indicators of parental SES or rather by indicators of the adolescents’ own developing SES. We examine the independent effects of parental and adolescent education and intergenerational educational mobility on adolescent smoking behaviour while controlling for differences in parental and close friends’ smoking behaviour. Methods: The study is based on data from a subsample (12–17 years, n = 5,053) of the nationally representative German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). Participants reported their education level as well as their personal and close friends’ smoking behaviour. Information on parental education and smoking behaviour was obtained via parent interviews. Adolescent and parental education data were dichotomized (low/high), leading to four categories of intergenerational educational mobility: stable high, potentially upwardly mobile, potentially downwardly mobile, and stable low. Results: After adjustment for parental and close friends’ smoking behaviour, adolescent smoking habits were strongly related to their personal education level, but not that of their parents. Among boys, both stable low and downwardly mobile adolescents had a 2.7-fold increased risk of being a smoker compared with peers with a stable high education. Among girls, only those with a stable low education had a 2.2-fold increased risk of smoking. Among both genders, educational upward mobility was associated with significantly lower smoking rates compared with peers with a stable low education (boys: OR 0.32; 95% CI 0.20–0.53; girls: OR 0.52; 95% CI 0.37–0.73). Conclusions: Our results show that the risk of an adolescent smoking is influenced by their own education level rather than that of their parents. Educational upward mobility seems to be protective against becoming a smoker in youth. Boys who experience downward mobility tend to have a significantly higher inclination to smoke than their peers with a stable high education. These findings illustrate the potential public health benefits of investments in education and help identify high-risk groups for smoking onset.
Getting ahead, falling behind and standing still: Income mobility in Chile
Estudios de economía , 2011, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-52862011000100010
Abstract: this paper analyses household income mobility in chile between 1996 3nd 2001. compared to industrialized and most developing countries, mobility has been quite high. the purpose of this paper is to apply a binomial probit model and split analysis into assessment of individuals and households on the relative income distribution. main results are that moving from unemployment to employment significantly increases probability of moving up and decreases probability of moving down. technical-professional education is promoting move up on the relative income scale and it is protecting movement down. an important result is that high-school education decreases probability of degradation.
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