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In-Vitro Measurement of pH and Antioxidant Capacity during Colonic Fermentation of Selected Underutilized Wild and Edible Beans  [PDF]
O. A. Awoyinka, T. R. Omodara, F. C. Oladel, O. O. Aina, O. Akinluyi
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2018.812065
Abstract: Human gut flora-mediated non-digestible fraction of wild edible and common edible was observed for pH at every 6 hours regime. The antioxidant ability was measured up to 18 hours of fermentation with different associated gut microbes. Changes in pH provide an overview of the fermentation process. In the in-vitro study of antioxidant activity by DPPH test, anti-oxidants values showed differences, depending on the substrate and microbial fermenters used for fermentation. At first 6 hours interval, it was observed that the wild bean-Feregede fermented by Enterococcus feacalis exerts the highest antioxidant capacity of 0.0043 Cathechin equivalents. It also exerts lowest antioxidant capacity of 0.0034 Cathechin equivalents after 18 hours fermentation. These data provided preliminary evidence that consumption of beans diet such as the wild bean—Otili, Feregede, pakala and edible bean—oloyin is limiting factor to liberation of antioxidant components during the gastrointestinal digestion. Thus, disruption of normal cellular homeostasis by redox signaling may result in the development of various gastrointestinal pathological conditions, including inflammatory bowel diseases.
Effect of Some Dietary Oils and Fats on Serum Lipid Profile, Calcium Absorption and Bone Mineralization in Mice  [PDF]
Amr A. Rezq,Fatma A. Labib,Abd Elrahman M. Attia
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2010,
Abstract: Amount and type of fats in the diet have an important effect on bone health and lipid profile. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different types of dietary oils and fats on lipid profile, calcium absorption and bone mineralization in male mice. Mice weighing 25±5 g were divided into nine groups and fed on diets without oils or fats (control group) and containing soybean oil, corn oil, olive oil, palm oil, sunflower oil, butter, animal fat or margarine. Mice fed on diet containing soybean oil or olive oil had the lowest levels of TG, TC, LDL-c and HDL-c as compared to the other groups. Diets with palm oil, olive oil, sunflower oil, butter, animal fat or margarine caused significant decreases in the serum level of calcium as compared to the effect of diet without oils or fats. Mice fed diet containing olive oil, butter or animal fat had significant increase in bone density, while those fed diet containing soybean oil, corn oil, sunflower oil or margarine had significant decreases in femur bone density, compared to the control group. The apparent calcium absorption was significantly increased by feeding diets containing soybean oil, corn oil, palm oil, olive oil, sunflower oil, butter or animal fat. Dietary intake of vegetable oils improved lipid profile while butter, animal fat and margarine had the opposite effect. Butter and animal fats increased calcium and phosphorus deposition in femur bone more than vegetable oils.
Plasma lipids and prothrombin time in rats fed palm oil and other commonly used fats in Egypt
Hussein, Mona M.,Salama, Fawzy M.,Ebada, Karina M.
Grasas y Aceites , 1993,
Abstract: Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for a total period of 8 weeks on six diets that were different in the source of their fat content. The fat content was provided either, palm oil or palm olein or corn oil or hydrogenated fat, or frying palm oil and mixture of corn oil + hydrogenated fat in the ratio (1:1). The latter was given to the control group. Animals fed these various experimental diets showed statistically significant differences in serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides content among all group. Increased HDL-cholesterol content was evident in animals fed on palm-olein and palm oil. The frying oil fed group showed lowest HDL-cholesterol content. In these experiments palm olein fed animals showed highest ratio of HDL-cholesterol to total cholesterol while the lowest ratio was shown in rats fed on frying oil. Prothrombin (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (PTT) showed higher values In palm oil, palm olein and corn oil diets as compared to all groups with each other. Ratas Sprague-Dawley fueron alimentadas durante un periodo total de 8 semanas con seis dietas diferentes en su contenido graso. El contenido graso fue proporcionado por aceite de palma u oleína de palma o aceite de maíz o grasa hidrogenada o aceite de palma de fritura y mezcla de aceite de maíz + grasa hidrogenada en la relación (1:1). El último fue dado al grupo de control. Los animales alimentados con las diferentes dietas experimentales mostraron diferencias significativas estadísticamente en el contenido en colesterol y triglicéridos en suero entre todos los grupos. El aumento en contenido HDL-colesterol fue evidente en animales alimentados con oleína de palma y aceite de palma. El grupo alimentado con aceite de fritura mostró el más bajo contenido en HDL-colesterol. En estos experimentos, los animales alimentados con oleína de palma mostraron la mayor relación de HDL-colesterol a colesterol total, mientras que la relación más baja fue mostrada en ratas alimentadas con aceite de fritura. El tiempo de protrombina (PT) y tromboplastina parcialmente activada (PTT) mostró valores elevados en dietas de aceite de palma, oleína de palma y aceite de maíz al comparar estos grupos con los demás.
Comparative Study on Nigerian Wild and Edible Beans in Reversing Incidence of Colon Cancer in Albino Rats
O. A. Awoyinka, A. Ileola, C. N. Imeoria, A. E. Omonisi, F. C. Oladele, M. F. Asaolu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102708
Abstract:
This work is an investigation of the curative effects of some edible and wild type beans on colonic inflammation induced by Dextran Sulphate Sodium (DSS) in wister albino rats. Macroscopic examination performed on the colon after seven-day exposure of the animals to both DSS and bean sample revealed a high incidence of colonic inflammation in rats fed with macuna compared to other groups. However, from the histological examination, the groups fed with Otili and Feregede had a low incidence of dysplasia showing Otili and Feregede to be good candidates that could mitigate effect of Dextran Sodium Sulphate.
Growth and Subsequent Egg Production Performance of Shika-Brown Pullets Fed Graded Levels of Cooked Lablab purpureus Beans  [PDF]
I.A. Adeyinka,O.O. Oni,A. Abeke,I.I. Dafwang
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: : The lablab seeds were cooked for 30 min, sundried for three days and thereafter milled and incorporated into chickens’ diets. Six treatments, comprising of six dietary levels of lablab at 0.0, 7.5, 15.0, 22.5, 30.0 and 37.5%, respectively was fed during the grower’ s phase. Results obtained for the growers phase indicate that final weight (g/bird), weight gain (g/bird) and feed cost (N kg- 1) decreased significantly (p<0.05) as the level of lablab increased in the diet. Feed intake (g/bird and g/bird/day) as well as feed cost (N/bird) and total cost (N/bird) also decreased significantly (p<0.05) as the level of lablab increased in the diet up to 22.5% inclusion level before increasing as the level of lablab in the diets continued to increase. The level of lablab in the diet had no effect on mortality throughout the experimental period. In addition haematological parameters such as Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Haemoglobin (Hb) and Total Protein (TP) were not significantly (p<0.05) affected by feeding diets containing graded levels of cooked lablab beans to pullets. Results obtained during the laying phase indicates that feeding lablab seed meal up to 22.5% in the diets at the growers stage had no significant adverse effect (p<0.05) on final weight, feed intake, feed efficiency, percent henday and henhoused egg production, percent production at peak, kilogramme feed per twelve eggs, feed cost per twelve eggs, Haugh Unit and yolk index. However, age of birds at first egg, age at 50% production and age at peak egg production were increased significantly (p>0.05) with increase in the level of lablab seed meal in the growers diets.
Drought Tolerance in Wild Plant Populations: The Case of Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)  [PDF]
Andrés J. Cortés, Fredy A. Monserrate, Julián Ramírez-Villegas, Santiago Madri?án, Matthew W. Blair
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062898
Abstract: Reliable estimations of drought tolerance in wild plant populations have proved to be challenging and more accessible alternatives are desirable. With that in mind, an ecological diversity study was conducted based on the geographical origin of 104 wild common bean accessions to estimate drought tolerance in their natural habitats. Our wild population sample covered a range of mesic to very dry habitats from Mexico to Argentina. Two potential evapotranspiration models that considered the effects of temperature and radiation were coupled with the precipitation regimes of the last fifty years for each collection site based on geographical information system analysis. We found that wild accessions were distributed among different precipitation regimes following a latitudinal gradient and that habitat ecological diversity of the collection sites was associated with natural sub-populations. We also detected a broader geographic distribution of wild beans across ecologies compared to cultivated common beans in a reference collection of 297 cultivars. Habitat drought stress index based on the Thornthwaite potential evapotranspiration model was equivalent to the Hamon estimator. Both ecological drought stress indexes would be useful together with population structure for the genealogical analysis of gene families in common bean, for genome-wide genetic-environmental associations, and for postulating the evolutionary history and diversification processes that have occurred for the species. Finally, we propose that wild common bean should be taken into account to exploit variation for drought tolerance in cultivated common bean which is generally considered susceptible as a crop to drought stress.
Comparative Studies on Mineral and Scavenging Ability of Edible and Some Underexploited Wild Beans in Nigeria
O. A. Awoyinka, A. Ileola, C. N. Imeoria, M. F. Asaolu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102318
Abstract: This work was set out to assay for some minerals essential for healthy state and biochemical indices that underlined degenerative diseases in some edible bean cultivar and nearly extinct local wild bean. Against this backdrop, ash composition was determined before Na , K , Ca2 , Mg2 , Zn2 , Fe2 , Pb2 and Cd were determined by Flame Photometer and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) respectively. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Vitamin E and Vitamin C were also assayed to determine the scavenging ability of the bean samples. The proximate ash composition result of unprocessed and malted edible bean IT99K-573-2-1 had the highest ash content value of 6.90 ± 0.01 and 6.92 ± 0.01 respectively. In the bean samples Pb2 and Cd2 were not detected. The empirical mineral composition varies across both the wild and edible bean without significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) except IT07K-243-1-10 that had Ca2 to be significantly higher than other bean samples. K was found to be significantly higher in Feregede and IT07K-243-1-10 compared to other bean samples. Changes in the radical scavenging ability of the various sample in this study after malting, showed a slight reduction in DPPH content except for the edible beans—IT04K-333-2 and IT845-2246-4. Well, there was slight reduction of Vitamin E only in Otili, Mucuna and IT99K-573-1-1. Compared to others only Otili and IT845-2246-4 had slight reduction in Vitamin C after malting.
The impact of local extinction on genetic structure of wild populations of lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) in the Central Valley of Costa Rica: consequences for the conservation of plant genetic resources
Barrantes,Daniel; Macaya,Gabriel; Guarino,Luigi; Baudoin,Jean Pierre; Rocha,Oscar J;
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2008,
Abstract: plant populations may experience local extinction and at the same time new populations may appear in nearby suitable locations. species may also colonize the same site on multiple occasions. here, we examined the impact of local extinction and recolonization on the genetic structure of wild populations of lima beans (phaseolus lunatus) in the central valley of costa rica. we compared genetic diversity from the samples taken from the populations before and after extinction at 13 locations using microsatellite markers. locations were classified according to the occurrence of extinction episodes during the previous five years into three groups: 1) populations that experienced extinction for more than one year, and were later recolonized (recolonized), 2) populations that did not experience local extinction (control), and 3) populations that did not experience local extinction during the study, but were cut to experimentally simulate extinction (experimental). our data did not show a clear tendency in variation in allele frequencies, expected heterozygosity, and effective number of alleles within and between groups of populations. however, we found that the level of genetic differentiation between samples collected at different times at the same location was different in the three groups of populations. recolonized locations showed the highest level of genetic differentiation (mean fst= 0.2769), followed by control locations (mean fst= 0.0576) and experimental locations (mean fst= 0.0189). similar findings were observed for nei?s genetic distance between samples (di,j= 0.1786, 0.0400, and 0.0037, respectively). our results indicate that genetic change in lima beans depends on the duration and frequency of local extinction episodes. these findings also showed that control populations are not in equilibrium. implications of these results for the establishment of conservation strategies of genetic resources of lima beans are discussed. rev. biol. trop. 56 (3): 1023-1041. e
Naringin Improves Diet-Induced Cardiovascular Dysfunction and Obesity in High Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet-Fed Rats  [PDF]
Md. Ashraful Alam,Kathleen Kauter,Lindsay Brown
Nutrients , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/nu5030637
Abstract: Obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and fatty liver, together termed metabolic syndrome, are key risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Chronic feeding of a diet high in saturated fats and simple sugars, such as fructose and glucose, induces these changes in rats. Naturally occurring compounds could be a cost-effective intervention to reverse these changes. Flavonoids are ubiquitous secondary plant metabolites; naringin gives the bitter taste to grapefruit. This study has evaluated the effect of naringin on diet-induced obesity and cardiovascular dysfunction in high carbohydrate, high fat-fed rats. These rats developed increased body weight, glucose intolerance, increased plasma lipid concentrations, hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis, liver inflammation and steatosis with compromised mitochondrial respiratory chain activity. Dietary supplementation with naringin (approximately 100 mg/kg/day) improved glucose intolerance and liver mitochondrial dysfunction, lowered plasma lipid concentrations and improved the structure and function of the heart and liver without decreasing total body weight. Naringin normalised systolic blood pressure and improved vascular dysfunction and ventricular diastolic dysfunction in high carbohydrate, high fat-fed rats. These beneficial effects of naringin may be mediated by reduced inflammatory cell infiltration, reduced oxidative stress, lowered plasma lipid concentrations and improved liver mitochondrial function in rats.
The impact of local extinction on genetic structure of wild populations of lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) in the Central Valley of Costa Rica: consequences for the conservation of plant genetic resources  [cached]
Daniel Barrantes,Gabriel Macaya,Luigi Guarino,Jean Pierre Baudoin
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2008,
Abstract: Plant populations may experience local extinction and at the same time new populations may appear in nearby suitable locations. Species may also colonize the same site on multiple occasions. Here, we examined the impact of local extinction and recolonization on the genetic structure of wild populations of lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) in the Central valley of Costa Rica. We compared genetic diversity from the samples taken from the populations before and after extinction at 13 locations using microsatellite markers. Locations were classified according to the occurrence of extinction episodes during the previous five years into three groups: 1) populations that experienced extinction for more than one year, and were later recolonized (recolonized), 2) populations that did not experience local extinction (control), and 3) populations that did not experience local extinction during the study, but were cut to experimentally simulate extinction (experimental). Our data did not show a clear tendency in variation in allele frequencies, expected heterozygosity, and effective number of alleles within and between groups of populations. However, we found that the level of genetic differentiation between samples collected at different times at the same location was different in the three groups of populations. Recolonized locations showed the highest level of genetic differentiation (mean Fst= 0.2769), followed by control locations (mean Fst= 0.0576) and experimental locations (mean Fst= 0.0189). Similar findings were observed for Nei’s genetic distance between samples (di,j= 0.1786, 0.0400, and 0.0037, respectively). Our results indicate that genetic change in lima beans depends on the duration and frequency of local extinction episodes. These findings also showed that control populations are not in equilibrium. Implications of these results for the establishment of conservation strategies of genetic resources of lima beans are discussed. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (3): 1023-1041. Epub 2008 September 30. Las poblaciones de plantas pueden experimentar extinción local, y al mismo tiempo, pueden surgir a sus alrededores nuevas poblaciones. Algunas especies pueden colonizar el mismo sitio en múltiples ocasiones. Aquí examinamos el impacto de la extinción local y recolonización en la estructura genética de poblaciones silvestres del frijol lima (Phaseolus lunatus) en el valle Central de Costa Rica. Comparamos la diversidad genética de muestras tomadas en poblaciones, antes y después de la extinción, en 13 sitios, usando marcadores de microsatélite. Según los episodios de exti
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