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Language as Investment, Capital, and Economics: Spanish-Speaking English Learners’ Language Use and Attitudes
Xiaoping Liang
International Journal of English Linguistics , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ijel.v2n6p1
Abstract: Drawing on the notion of investment in language and identity, the concept of language as capital, and the theory of language as part of economics, this study explores California high-school Spanish-speaking English learners’ use of Spanish and English at home, at school, and in the ESL class, and their perceptions on these two languages. Analysis of 37 survey responses reveals that the participants did not have an either-or attitude toward the languages they spoke and concurrently claimed frequent use of and even fluency in the societal language and their heritage language. They did not have a simplistic notion of linguistic identity and simultaneously claimed the English-speaking identity, the Spanish-speaking identity, and the bilingual identity. The results indicate that, rather than a sign of second language insufficiency, bilingual language use in and outside of the ESL class served as an intentional investment in language development and maintenance, identity construction, and preparation for participation in the multilingual marketplace in the internationalized new economy. ESL instructors are encouraged to recognize and acknowledge the role of bilingual language use in class and to create a supportive classroom environment that builds on the linguistic and cultural capital of English learners and fosters the development of both languages into literate, academic and professional capacity.
Use of Language Learning Strategies by Spanish Adults for Business English  [cached]
Jeff Wallace Judge
International Journal of English Studies (IJES) , 2012, DOI: 10.6018/ijes.12.1.117951
Abstract: The aim of this phenomenological study was to explore the language learning strategies (LLSs) of Spanish adults in a business context. The research questions examined the specific LLSs used by Spanish adults in business communication tasks. In addition, this study addressed the cultural influences on LLSs from the Spanish educational system along with the influence from current and historical events in Spain. The conceptual framework was the Oxford LLS model. These qualitative data were collected through 11 semistructured, in- depth interviews with Spanish business people who use English in their work and who studied English in Spanish secondary school. The data were analyzed following a typological analysis. The results show a strong tendency towards cognitive, metacognitive, and social strategies in business tasks. Cultural influences include the media, past political situation in Spain, and general issues in the English class in Spanish secondary schools. El objetivo de este estudio fenomenológico era el de explorar las estrategias de aprendizaje de un idioma (LLS) de adultos espa oles dentro del contexto de la empresa. Las preguntas examinaban las LLS específicas utilizadas por los adultos espa oles en tareas de comunicación comercia. Además, el estudio abordaba las influencias culturales del sistema educativo espa ol sobre los LLS y las influencias de los eventos actuales e históricos de Espa a. El marco conceptual era el de las LLS del modelo Oxford. Estos datos cualitativos se recogieron a través de 11 entrevistas semiestructuradas exhaustivas de empresarios espa oles. Los datos se analizaron usando el análisis tipológico. Los resultados muestran una fuerte tendencia hacia estrategias cognitivas, metacognitivas y sociales en tareas laborales. Las influencias culturales abarcan los medios de comunicación, el pasado político espa ol y temas generales de las clases de inglés de los centros de estudios secundarios espa oles.
English Language Assessment for the Business Processing Outsourcing (Bpo) Industry: Business Needs Meet Communication Needs  [PDF]
Jane Lockwood
School of Doctoral Studies Journal , 2012,
Abstract: The ability to communicate well in English with native speaker customers on the phones, especially those from the USA, UK and Australia, is a much valued commodity in the newly established outsourced and off-shored (O & O) call centres in post - colonial Asian countries such as the Philippines and India. But how is this commodity sourced, developed and measured within the business processing outsourcing (BPO) industry in Asia? This article chronicles, from an applied linguistic researcher / consultant stance, the development of language measurement tools and processes for English communication in these O&O call centres. This narrative traces critical incidents and insights experienced by the researcher/consultant in different call centre worksites in the Philippines and India that led, over time, to the development of the Business Processing Language Assessment System (BUPLAS). It tells the story of how business communication problems and stakeholder concerns in this industry became the starting point in crafting a measurement solution for the industry. What emerged in BUPLAS were very different assessment tools and processes from the traditional generic business English tests such as TOEIC (Test of English for International Communication-ETS English Testing Services USA) and BULATS (Business language Testing Service-Cambridge ESOL, UK) where external testing services merely provide a one point in time proficiency score as a per head cost. What seemed to be needed was something in-house; something owned and operated by the industry stakeholders themselves and something tailored to their business needs. This article provides an engaging account of the risks and rewards in crafting the BUPLAS solution that is becoming a popular communications assessment choice in the call centre industry in Asia.
English Language Assessment for the Business Processing Outsourcing (BPO) Industry: Business Needs Meet Communication Needs  [cached]
Jane Lockwood
English Language and Literature Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ells.v2n4p22
Abstract: The ability to communicate well in English with native speaker customers on the phones, especially those from the USA, UK and Australia, is a much valued commodity in the newly established outsourced and off-shored (O & O) call centres in post - colonial Asian countries such as the Philippines and India. But how is this commodity sourced, developed and measured within the business processing outsourcing (BPO) industry in Asia? This article chronicles over a period of 5 years (2003-2008), the development of language measurement tools and processes for English communication in these O&O call centres. This narrative is told form an applied linguistic researcher/consultant stance and traces critical incidents and insights experienced by the researcher/consultant in different call centre worksites in the Philippines and India that led, over time, to the development of the Business Performance Language Assessment System (BUPLAS). It describes how business communication problems and stakeholder concerns in this industry became the starting point in crafting a measurement solution for the industry. What emerged in BUPLAS were very different assessment tools and processes from the traditional generic business English tests such as TOEIC (Test of English for International Communication - ETS English Testing Services USA) and BULATS (Business language Testing Service - Cambridge ESOL, UK) where external testing services merely provide a one point in time proficiency score as a per head cost. What seemed to be needed was something in-house; something owned and operated by the industry stakeholders themselves and something tailored to their business needs. This article provides an engaging account of the risks and rewards in crafting the BUPLAS solution that is becoming a popular communications assessment choice in the call centre industry in Asia.
On Differences between General English Teaching and Business English Teaching  [cached]
Wenzhong Zhu,Fang Liao
English Language Teaching , 2008, DOI: 10.5539/elt.v1n2p90
Abstract: With the accelerating rate of globalization, business exchanges are carried out cross the border, as a result there is a growing demand for talents professional both in English and Business. We can see that at present Business English courses are offered by many language schools in the aim of meeting the need for Business English talent. Many researchers argue that no differences can be defined between Business English teaching and General English teaching. However, this paper concludes that Business English is different from General English at least in such aspects as in the role of teacher, in course design, in teaching models, etc., thus different teaching methods should be applied in order to realize expected teaching goals.
On Teaching Economics and Management from Entrepreneurship Education Perspective
Jing MA
Cross-Cultural Communication , 2012, DOI: 10.3968/j.ccc.1923670020120806.1871
Abstract: The major of economics and management becomes the most initiative and positive volunteer of entrepreneurship education, the launcher of entrepreneurship, the teaching implementation institution, and the consultancy operation institution as its characteristics for specialization resources and talents training, which plays very important role on entrepreneurship education. Moreover, according to over 20 years’ entrepreneurship education experience in American universities, they always focus on business and management majors. Based on entrepreneurship education, this paper systematically analyzed the influential factors, such as teachers’ quality, bilingual teaching, practice ability training. Finally, we proposed several countermeasures on developing entrepreneurship education for economics and management major from innovation consciousness, innovation capacity, class teaching, and assessment system and entrepreneurship lectures perspective. Key words: Entrepreneurship education; Economics and management major; Education research
Unlearning as a Process of Learning: Practical Aspects in Teaching English in a Second Language Setting
JT Dooga
African Research Review , 2010,
Abstract: This paper addresses pedagogic issues relating to the teaching of English in a second language setting. It argues for a descriptive and functional approach to language teaching and learning and insists that traditional approaches, which tend to be mainly prescriptive, are no longer adequate for addressing the communicative needs of today’s language learners. Specifically, it opines that learning English entails “unlearning” the discomfort we are taught about such things as double negatives. It proposes a dynamic, interactive and collaborative approach to English language teaching and learning. Results of actual classroom experiments are presented to illustrate how instructors can determine the actual language needs of students and thus tailor their instructions to address these. The experiments also support the central argument in this essay that predetermined department-based syllabi might need to be regulated to make them functional to the needs of specific students. As the results of the experiments show, a failure to make such functional alignments could produce students who are only notionally educated but functionally empty. Key Words: unlearn, second language, ESP, ESL, pedagogy, chalkface, elearning
Challenges to preschool teachers in learner\'s acquisition of English as Language of Learning and Teaching
S du Plessis, B Louw
South African Journal of Education , 2008,
Abstract: Multilingualism in classrooms is currently prompting debate and has significantly impacted on schooling in South Africa over the last decade. At present South African educators face the challenge of coping with and finding solutions to culturally and linguistically diverse urban school contexts which did not exist before. In many South African communities young learners, without any prior knowledge of English, are enrolled in English preschools. Preschool teachers have the demanding task of preparing these multilingual preschoolers for formal schooling in English, and, in addition, are pressurised by parents or caregivers who expect their children to be fluent in English by the time they enter primary school. A group of preschool teachers in a specific urban, multilingual preschool context expressed concern about multilingual preschool learners' academic performances and their future, and requested advice and support from speechlanguage therapists. To investigate this need, an exploratory, descriptive, contextual research design, incorporating the quantitative perspective, was selected to describe the specific educational context of multilingual preschools in the Pretoria central business district (CBD) and the Sunnyside area. Results indicated that the participants perceived certain personal challenges while supporting the preschool learners acquiring English as Language of Learning and Teaching (ELoLT). These participants expressed a need for knowledge and support.
Challenges to preschool teachers in learner's acquisition of English as Language of Learning and Teaching
Sandra du Plessis,Brenda Louw
South African Journal of Education , 2008,
Abstract: Multilingualism in classrooms is currently prompting debate and has significantly impacted on schooling in South Africa over the last decade. At present South African educators face the challenge of coping with and finding solutions to culturally and linguistically diverse urban school contexts which did not exist before. In many South African communities young learners, without any prior knowledge of English, are enrolled in English preschools. Preschool teachers have the demanding task of preparing these multilingual preschoolers for formal schooling in English, and, in addition, are pressurised by parents or caregivers who expect their children to be fluent in English by the time they enter primary school. A group of preschool teachers in a specific urban, multilingual preschool context expressed concern about multilingual preschool learners' academic performances and their future, and requested advice and support from speech-language therapists. To investigate this need, an exploratory, descriptive, contextual research design, incorporating the quantitative perspective, was selected to describe the specific educational context of multilingual preschools in the Pretoria central business district (CBD) and the Sunnyside area. Results indicated that the participants perceived certain personal challenges while supporting the preschool learners acquiring English as Language of Learning and Teaching (ELoLT). These participants expressed a need for knowledge and support.
Helping students overcome foreign language speaking anxiety in the English classroom: theoretical issues and practical recommendations  [cached]
Iakovos Tsiplakides,Areti Keramida
International Education Studies , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/ies.v2n4p39
Abstract: Despite the fact that foreign language speaking anxiety is a common phenomenon in the teaching of English as a foreign language in Greece, teachers do not always identify anxious students, and often attribute their unwillingness to participate in speaking tasks to factors such as lack of motivation, or low performance. This article aims to contribute to the literature on language anxiety and to provide teachers with strategies for reducing foreign language speaking anxiety stemming from students’ fear of negative evaluation from their peers and perception of low ability. Using qualitative research, it presents a classroom-based case study which aims at examining the characteristics of anxious students with a view to implementing classroom interventions to reduce foreign language speaking anxiety. The effectiveness of these interventions is also presented and evaluated, and the pedagogical implications of the findings are discussed.
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