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Counter-term charges generate bulk symmetries  [PDF]
S. Hollands,A. Ishibashi,D. Marolf
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.72.104025
Abstract: We further explore the counter-term subtraction definition of charges (e.g., energy) for classical gravitating theories in spacetimes of relevance to gauge/gravity dualities; i.e., in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spaces and their kin. In particular, we show in general that charges defined via the counter-term subtraction method generate the desired asymptotic symmetries. As a result, they can differ from any other such charges, such as those defined by bulk spacetime-covariant techniques, only by a function of auxiliary non-dynamical structures such as a choice of conformal frame at infinity (i.e., a function of the boundary fields alone). Our argument is based on the Peierls bracket, and in the AdS context allows us to demonstrate the above result even for asymptotic symmetries which generate only conformal symmetries of the boundary (in the chosen conformal frame). We also generalize the counter-term subtraction construction of charges to the case in which additional non-vanishing boundary fields are present.
Continuous and Long-Term Volume Measurements with a Commercial Coulter Counter  [PDF]
Andrea K. Bryan, Alex Engler, Amneet Gulati, Scott R. Manalis
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029866
Abstract: We demonstrate a method to enhance the time resolution of a commercial Coulter counter and enable continuous and long-term cell size measurements for growth rate analyses essential to understanding basic cellular processes, such as cell size regulation and cell cycle progression. Our simple modifications to a commercial Coulter counter create controllable cell culture conditions within the sample compartment and combine temperature control with necessary adaptations to achieve measurement stability over several hours. We also wrote custom software, detailed here, to analyze instrument data files collected by either this continuous method or standard, periodic sampling. We use the continuous method to measure the growth rate of yeast in G1 during a prolonged arrest and, in different samples, the dependency of growth rate on cell size and cell cycle position in arrested and proliferating cells. We also quantify with high time resolution the response of mouse lymphoblast cell culture to drug treatment. This method provides a technique for continuous measurement of cell size that is applicable to a large variety of cell types and greatly expands the set of analysis tools available for the Coulter counter.
The long-term development of avalanche risk in settlements considering the temporal variability of damage potential
S. Fuchs, M. Keiler, A. Zischg,M. Bründl
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) & Discussions (NHESSD) , 2005,
Abstract: Recent studies on the avalanche risk in alpine settlements suggested a strong dependency of the development of risk on variations in damage potential. Based on these findings, analyses on probable maximum losses in avalanche-prone areas of the municipality of Davos (CH) were used as an indicator for the long-term development of values at risk. Even if the results were subject to significant uncertainties, they underlined the dependency of today's risk on the historical development of land-use: Small changes in the lateral extent of endangered areas had a considerable impact on the exposure of values. In a second step, temporal variations in damage potential between 1950 and 2000 were compared in two different study areas representing typical alpine socio-economic development patterns: Davos (CH) and Galtür (A). The resulting trends were found to be similar; the damage potential increased significantly in number and value. Thus, the development of natural risk in settlements can for a major part be attributed to long-term shifts in damage potential.
Short Term and Long Term Impact of Sales Promotion on Organizations’ Profitability: A Comparative Study between Convenience and Shopping Goods  [cached]
Syeda Nazish Zehra Rizvi,Sadia Malik,Syeda Farheen Batul Zaidi
International Journal of Business and Management , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ijbm.v7n5p247
Abstract: The research paper explores the short term and long term impact of sales promotion, through the use of financial analysis and consumer survey respectively, offered by Pakistani companies from two diverse industries, i.e. Beverage Industry (Shezan International Ltd) and Foam Manufacturing Industry (Diamond Supreme Foam). Survey research was conducted on a sample of 200 consumers to analyze the long term impact of consumer’s perception of sales promotion by measuring its relationship with brand loyalty. The questionnaire used to measure the consumer perception of sales promotion and brand loyalty were based on the scale developed by Astous and Jacob in 2002 and Quester and Lim in 2003 respectively. The financial indicators were used for measuring the financial performance of companies and Pearson Correlation, Cross tabulation and Regression Analysis were used for inferential analysis through the use of SPSS. Results reveal the presence of various extraneous factors impacting the effectiveness of promotions.
隧道下穿时基于傅里叶时间序列预测临近结构沉降发展
A forecasting method based on Fourier time series for short-term settlements in adjacent structures during an under-passing shield tunnel construction
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福州大学学报(自然科学版) , 2015, DOI: 10.7631/issn.1000-2243.2015.02.0238
Abstract: 隧道下穿临近结构时,目前仅能基于现有沉降判定结构是否安全,缺乏对未来短期内沉降发展的预测方法. 通过测量某隧道右线下穿临近某水库时水库逐小时的沉降,分析得出水库短期沉降主要由隧道下穿引起的趋势项和每日温度波动导致的周期项组成,并根据以上特点提出一种基于傅里叶时间序列的结构短期沉降预测方法. 该方法采用傅里叶级数和线性函数对周期项和趋势项分别进行拟合,并通过数据的新陈代谢保证一旦沉降发生突变后,该方法所得预测沉降对突变具有较好的灵敏度. 采用该水库在同一隧道左线下穿时的沉降实测数据对该方法和GM(1,1)灰色模型的预测精度进行比较. 结果表明,该方法的预测精度高于GM(1,1)灰色模型.
During an under-passing shield tunnel construction,the safety of the adjacent structures is only determined by existing structural settlements. It is lack of the forecasting method for the future short-term increment of the structural settlements. The hourly settlements of a reservoir suffering from an adjacent under-passing right shield tunnel construction has been measured and analyzed. Results show that the future short-term settlement can be divided into a trend part and a periodic part,which are caused by the adjacent under-passing shield tunnel construction and daily environmental temperature cycling,respectively. Then this paper proposes a forecasting method based on Fourier time series for short-term settlements,which uses a first-order transformation and the Fourier expansion to fit the trend part and the periodical part. And self-correcting process is including in this method to ensure that the forecasting settlements are sensitive to the sudden changes in settlements. At last,a series of practical monitoring settlements of the same reservoir suffering from the adjacent under-passing left shield tunnel construction are used to compare the forecasting precision between the proposed method and the gray model GM(1,1). Results from the comparison show that the forecasting settlements from the proposed method are more accurate than those from the gray model GM(1,1)
Quantum counter erasure  [PDF]
Fedor Herbut
Physics , 1999,
Abstract: Interference comes from coherent mixing. It can be suppressed by entanglement, and the latter can be erased so as to revive interference. If the entanglement is a mimal-term one (with minimal-term mixing), as is the case in most thought and real experiments reported, there appears the possibility of counter erasure and counter interference. This peculiar phenomenon of minimal-term mixing and minimal-term entanglement is investigated in detail. In particular, all two-term mixings of an (arbitrary) given minimal-term mixed state are explicitly exhibited. And so are their possible laboratory realizations in terms of distant ensemble decomposition.
Anomalies, Local Counter Terms and Bosonization  [PDF]
Kazuo Fujikawa,Hiroshi Suzuki
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1016/j.physrep.2004.05.002
Abstract: We re-examine the issue of local counter terms in the analysis of quantum anomalies. We analyze two-dimensional theories and show that the notion of local counter terms need to be carefully defined depending on the physics contents such as whether one is analyzing gauge theory or bosonization. It is shown that a part of the Jacobian, which is apparently spurious and eliminated by a local counter term corresponding to the mass term of the gauge field in gauge theory, cannot be removed by a {\it local} counter term and plays a central role by giving the kinetic term of the bosonized field in the context of path integral bosonization.
Circular migration patterns and determinants in Nairobi slum settlements  [cached]
Donatien Beguy,Philippe Bocquier,Eliya Msiyaphazi Zulu
Demographic Research , 2010,
Abstract: This paper measures migration flows and determinants in two slum settlements in Nairobi City between 2003 and 2007. The results confirm the high intensity of migration with a quarter of the total slum population and a third of those aged 15-30 being renewed annually. A circular migration system is at play whereby the majority of slum dwellers are short-term migrants spending on average less than 3 years in the area. Migration is more intense during early adulthood (20-24), and despite very similar determinants across gender, mobility is more intense among women compared to men. The increasing feminization of migration is likely to change the face of slum settlements, resulting in more balanced sex ratios, in line with city-wide trends in Nairobi over the past half century. The high population turnover is due to the insecurity of livelihoods, tenure, and poor basic amenities and social services in slum settlements.
Settlements of undeveloped areas of Serbia  [PDF]
To?i? Branka,Luki? Vesna,?irkovi? Marija
Journal of the Geographical Institute Jovan Cvijic, SASA , 2009, DOI: 10.2298/ijgi0902059t
Abstract: Analytical part of the paper comprises the basic demo-economic, urban-geographic and functional indicators of the state of development, as well as changes in the process of development in the settlements and their centres on undeveloped area of Serbia in the period in which they most appeared. The comparison is made on the basis of complex and modified indicators2, as of undeveloped local territorial units mutually, so with the republic average. The basic aims were presented in the final part of the paper, as well as the strategic measures for the development of settlements on these areas, with a suggestion of activating and valorization of their spatial potentials. The main directions are defined through the strategic regional documents of Serbia and through regional policy of the European Union.
The settlements of Ljig and Belanovica: Origin and development  [PDF]
Vemi? Mir?eta
Journal of the Geographical Institute Jovan Cvijic, SASA , 2006, DOI: 10.2298/ijgi0655087v
Abstract: Lig and Belanovica are two main settlements in the municipality of Ljig and the only ones which, according to the legal criterion, have a status of town settlements. They originated out of need for the smaller local centers in the regions of the District of Kolubara, with villages and hamlets dispersed or semi -dispersed in type. They originated as road settlements in the second half of the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century. Ljig developed at the major traffic artery Belgrade-Gornji Milanovac, at the crossroads where from the road branches off towards Mionica and Valjevo, while Belanovica originated at the old road Belgrade-Rudnik, which nowadays does not have the former significance and occupies the peripheral location in relation to Ibarska Highway. The settlements originated spontaneously along with passing from natural to the economy of goods in order to carry out certain economic function in relation to the territories which gravitate towards them. Belanovica was declared to be a small town in 1904. Ljig was declared in 1922 when it was formed as a traffic, trade and commercial center of the wider region. Ljig then obtained its first regulative plan, and later three more. The development of these settlements went differently into several phases, so that Ljig was formed as the primary, and Belanovica as the secondary center in the system of the settlements of the municipality of Ljig with certain spheres of influences on other settlements in the surroundings.
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