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Gender Inequality in the Division of Household Labour in Tanzania
S Feinstein, R Feinstein, S Sabrow
African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie , 2010,
Abstract: This study examined the gender norms and the language used for rationalising gender inequality regarding the division of household labour in Tanzania. Tanzanian university students and secondary students participated in interviews, focus groups, and surveys for this study. Findings suggest that Tanzanian men have very traditional expectations regarding gender roles while Tanzanian women have more progressive expectations. Some gender norms, including the expectation that women should be responsible for the children and should do more work than men overall, were demonstrated. Naturalisation, the attempt to justify an inequality such as sexism by claiming that the disparity is simply natural, was used to explain inequalities; as was minimisation, the attempt to justify an inequality by reducing the significance of the problem. Lastly, cultural sexism attempted to justify gender inequality by explaining the differences between genders as a result of cultural practices rather than sexism.
Teaching Spatial Science Courses in Public Universities in Tanzania: Challenges and Opportunities  [PDF]
Emiliana John Mwita
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2013.56051
Abstract:

Spatial science courses that are Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) are increasingly growing into extremely important disciplines that accommodate various applications in wider sectors of development. Effective teaching and learning of the courses, however, requires intensive investment in facilities and human resources, since the technology is sophisticated and growing fast. This study aims at exploring the challenges of teaching and learning spatial science courses, RS and GIS, particularly in public universities in Tanzania. The study also identifies possible opportunities to improve the situation. Using social survey techniques in data gathering and analysis and author’s own experience, lack of resources, poor background to the courses, delivery methods, limited number of staff and large classes were seen to be the major obstacles in successful learning and teaching. Opportunities exist in using open source resources, collaboration with other institutions within and outside the country and for the universities to give due weight to the courses by building capacity of their staff and procuring facilities, especially laboratories equipments.

 

Impact of Gender Segregation on Workplace Advancement of Women in Ghanaian Universities  [PDF]
kua Ahyia Adu-Oppong, Stephen Bugu Kendie
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2018.611023
Abstract: This paper is underlined by attempts to understand the extent to which women in Ghanaian universities experience segregation at the workplace. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of workplace gender segregation processes on the career advancement of women in Ghanaian universities. Data for the study was collected using questionnaires and analysed using both descriptive statistics and correlation analysis. The results of the study showed that women in Ghana experience and encounter segregation as a barrier to advancement in the workplace.
GENDER AND EDUCATION OPPORTUNITIES IN TANZANIA: “DO WE BRIDGE THE GAP OF QUALITY?”  [PDF]
Budeba Petro Mlyakado
Academic Research International , 2012,
Abstract: Tanzania in response to the World Declaration on Education for All (EFA) – Universal Primary Education by 2000, Millennium Development Goals, and the Dakar EFA Goals embarked on different programmes and initiatives to address the issue of education as the major strategy to development challenges. The adoption of Education and Training Policy(1995) and subsequently the launching of Education Sector Development Programme (1997) were fundamental in reforming education in the country. Then, in the 2000s, two programmes [Primary Education Development Programme and Secondary Education DevelopmentProgramme] were launched to deal with issues of education in primary and secondary schools. By 2010, Tanzania has attained gender parity in primary school enrolment and near parity in lower secondary school enrolment. However, it remained difficult to resolve genderinequalities through education as many gender disparities persevere in higher levels of education and science fields; education for vulnerable and disadvantaged population groups is not well addressed; and, the quality of education has deteriorated overtime. It is high time then, for Tanzania to address gender equality through education and improve the quality of education by investing in Early Childhood Education and Development (ECED), educating the vulnerable and disadvantaged population groups, developing learning curiosity amongwomen and girls, and improving quality of teachers.
Gender and School types as Factors Responsible for Job Stress in Nigeria Universities.
OA Adeoye, NE Okonkwo
Edo Journal of Counselling , 2010,
Abstract: The paper examined gender and school types as factors responsible for job stress. The sample for the study consists of 250 workers (male and female) randomly selected from 2 Nigeria Universities - Private (Babcock University) and Public (Olabisi Onanbanjo University). The instrument for the study was developed by the Researchers namely: Job stress Questioneer (JBSQ), which contains 24 structured questions and ex-post facto research type was employed. Three hypotheses were tested. Data collected were analyzed by Analysis of Variance (One-way), Independent –t test and Pearson product moment Correlation. The results show that there is no significant difference in Job stress and Gender in that F(201,48)=0.896; p>.05) and there is a significant difference between Job stress and School types as F(201,48)=1.858; p<.05, Also, a significant difference existed between school type and job stress .School type shows that ((t- cal = 4.5321> tcri = 1.960; df =248, p<.05). Lastly, job stress is positively related to school r = 506, p<.0.5; and not related too Gender (r =.132. p>.0.5) but Gender is not related to school as (r =.316; p>.0.5. On the basis of the findings, it was suggested that public Universities should be looked into so that all factors responsible for stress might be reduced to the minimum. . Also, counselling psychologists, social workers and those who are concerned with health should assist by campaign on how stress can be curtailed in schools. Key Words: Gender, school types, job stress, Nigeria
Self-identified Feminists Among Gender Activists and Scholars at Indonesian Universities
Alimatul Qibtiyah
ASEAS : ?sterreichische Zeitschrift für Südostasienwissenschaften , 2010,
Abstract: Being a self-identified feminist is controversial among women’s rights activists and scholars. This relates to different interpretations of and positive and negative associations with the term ‘feminist’ in society. The research presented here discusses the different ‘feminist’ identities and other labels among activists and scholars at Indonesian universities and explores what ‘feminist’ means for them. Respondents come from Pusat Studi Wanita (Centres for Women’s Studies) or Pusat Studi Gender (Centres for Gender Studies) at six universities in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Many respondents acknowledge that Western feminists are able to raise awareness of gender issues, strengthen feminist identity, and build up faith in Islam. The paper, however, also addresses the question of why some reject the ‘feminist’ label. ----- Die Selbstidentifikation als FeministIn ist unter FrauenrechtsaktivistInnen und WissenschafterInnen ein kontroverses Thema. In erster Linie liegt dies wohl an unterschiedlichen Interpretationen und positiven wie auch negativen Assoziationen die gela ufigerweise mit dem Begriff FeministIn“ verbunden sind. Die hier pra sentierte Forschung untersucht wie sich AktivistInnen und WissenschafterInnen an indonesischen Universita ten innerhalb oder gegenu ber dem Begriff Feminismus selbst verorten und analysiert die den jeweiligen Inhalt und die Bedeutung, welche der Begriffs FeministIn“ fu r die befragten Personen einnimt. Die Datenerhebung erfolgte an Pusat Studi Wanita (Zentren fu r Frauenforschung) bzw. Pusat Studi Gender (Zentren fu r Genderforschung) sechs verschiedener indonesischer Universita ten in Yogyakarta. Viele Befragte unterstreichen die Bedeutung westlicher FeministInnen fu r die Bewusstseinschaffung fu r geschlechtsspezifische Probleme, fu r die Sta rkung feministischer Identita t sowie islamischen Glaubens. Diese Untersuchung behandelt jedoch auch gezielt die Frage, warum der Begriff FeministIn“ widerum von anderen abgelehnt wird.
Social Impacts of Protected Areas on Gender in West Kilimanjaro, Tanzania  [PDF]
Sayuni B. Mariki
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2016.43028
Abstract: In most cases, the establishment of protected areas (PAs) goes hand-in-hand with an increase in conservation costs to communities living adjacent to these PAs. This paper draws insights from gender theories in particular feminist political ecology approach to unravel the impact of PAs on men and women around the Kilimanjaro National Park (NP) and the Enduimet Wildlife Management Area (WMA) in Tanzania. Specifically, it investigates how the creation and expansion of two PAs in Tanzania have impacted men and women in different ways. A combination of in-depth interviews, focus-group discussions, and key informant interviews was used to collect data from local people who live adjacent to these PAs. The findings reveal that the PAs impact both men and women, but the most significant impact is felt by women due to inequality in the gendered division of labour and resources at the household level. Poor men and women together with most women in female-headed households, suffer more from strong restrictions on access to PA-based resources than other people as they have limited alternatives. The benefits of PAs in compensating for resource restrictions were found to be modest and do not meet the needs of predominantly poor men and women. The majority of local people collect resources from PAs illegally to meet their livelihood needs, despite restrictions on resource access. This study concludes that, instead of PAs paying attention to people’s relevant livelihood needs and improving their wellbeing, they have unfortunately worsened their situation.
Increasing Access and Equity in Higher Education in Tanzania: A Case Study of University of Dar es Salaam
Kapinga Bernadetha Benjamin,Bie Dunrong
The Social Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3923/sscience.2010.208.212
Abstract: Since the independence in 1961, gender equality and equity has become one of the country s agenda in Tanzania, various policies and programmes of action have been made for the purpose of insuring gender equity for higher education in Tanzania. This study focuses on programmes of action introduced and designed to facilitate women s participation at the University of Dar es Salaam. The results of this study found that the programmes of action have positive efforts towards increasing female students participation at the University of Dar es Salaam, although the number has not reached parity by sex. More strategies are needed to deliberately favour comparative increase in the rate of admission of females into Universities in Tanzania to ensure adequate representation of female graduates in the professional and the production sectors.
Gender Differences in Domains of Job Satisfaction: Evidence from Doctoral Graduates from Australian Universities  [PDF]
Temesgen Kifle,Isaac H. Desta
Economic Analysis and Policy , 2012,
Abstract: Based on data from a study of graduates from PhD programs at the Australia’s Group of Eight (Go8) universities, a gender gap in job satisfaction domains is estimated using a Mann-Whitney U test. Findings from the aggregate model shows significant gender differences in only 5 out of 17 domains of job satisfaction. Further, separate analyses by age, employment status and family type/living arrangement broadly support the absence of gender differences in domains of job satisfaction. For aspects of job satisfaction that show significant gender differential it is found that males are more satisfied than females with their hours worked, opportunity for career advancement and workload, whereas females are more satisfied than males with their relationship with co-workers and contribution to society. This implies that males are more satisfied with intrinsic dimension of job satisfaction while females are more satisfied with extrinsic aspects of job satisfaction
Gender norms and family planning decision-making in Tanzania: a qualitative study  [cached]
Sidney R. Schuler,Elisabeth Rottach,Peninah Mukiri
Journal of Public Health in Africa , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/jphia.2011.e25
Abstract: Experience suggests that the incorporation of gender approaches into family planning (FP) and reproductive health (RH) programs may increase their impact and sustainability, but further work is needed to examine the interactions between gender norms and family planning and to incorporate this understanding into behavior change communication (BCC) in specific social contexts. We conducted open-ended, in-depth interviews with 30 young currently married men, 30 young married women and 12 older people who influenced FP decisions. Six focus group interviews were also conducted. The interviews focused on the role of gender norms in reproductive decision-making and contraceptive use among young married men and women in Tanzania. The findings suggest that gender factors, such as men’s dominance in decision-making do function as barriers to the use of modern contraceptives, but that fear of side effects, by both men and women, may be even more important deterrents. Results from this research will inform the development of BCC interventions to be tested in a subsequent intervention study in which gender factors and poor information about contraceptive methods will be addressed.
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