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Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Disease in North-Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo  [PDF]
Biya Nkizinkiko Robert, Mashako Ruhanga Many
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2019.72006
Abstract: Introduction: The emergency of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to the first line drug reduced access possibility to second line drugs for appropriate treatment and required for urgent action especially in le Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), which counts among the highest tuberculosis (TB) burden countries in Africa. Objective: To present prevalence and describe multidrug-resistant tuberculosis cases in North-Kivu Province identified by using Genexpert technology. Methods: We conducted an observational prospective study on multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases in North-Kivu Province, DRC from 2017 to 2018. All cases of MDR-TB identified by Genexpert MTB/ RIB were included in this series. Result: Of 15,544 tuberculosis cases registered during the study period, 19 cases of MDR-TB were identified. 57.9% was male, 89.5% was retreatment cases and 5.3% was coinfection HIV/TB cases. Conclusion: This new molecular technology diagnostic facilitates multidrug-resistance tuberculosis detection and improves the reporting of data lack.
Factors Associated with Mortality among Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis MDR/RR-TB Patients in Democratic Republic of Congo  [PDF]
Murhula Innocent Kashongwe, Leopoldine Mbulula, Pierre Umba, Francois Bompeka Lepira, Michel Kaswa, Zacharie Munogolo Kashongwe
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2017.54029
Abstract: Background: Tuberculosis remains a very common infectious disease in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The resistance to drugs worsens the prognosis and the outcome of patients affected tuberculosis and increase their mortality. Objective: To identify factors associated with death among Multidrugs resistant tuberculosis (MDR/RR TB) patients referred to the referential hospital, Centre d’Excellence Damien (CEDA). Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study of patients attending health care to the Center CEDA, a referral center for management of MDR/RR-TB in DR Congo. This study included all MDR/RR-TB patients referred from February 1st, 2015 to February 29th, 2017. A multivariate COX regression was performed to identify factors associated with mortality in the target population. Kaplan Meier method described the survival of patients and the comparison of curves was performed by the test of log Rank. Results: 199 patients were included in our study. Male gender was predominant with a sex ratio of 1.3. The mean age of patients was 35.8 ± 13.9 years. Among them, 18 (15.1%) were died. The major complications were Chronicles pulmonary Heart failure (p = 0.035), Chronic respiratory insufficiency (p = 0.004), depression (p = 0.044), undernutrition (p = 0.033), alcohol addiction (p = 0.006) and high smoking (p = 0.019). In multivariated analysis, factors associated to the death were alcohol addiction (HRa = 12.64, 95% CI 2.36 - 14.55, p = 0.003), asthenia (HRa = 4.75, 95% CI 1.56 - 14.50, p < 0.001), pulmonary consolidation (HRa = 10.01 95% CI 2.34 - 12.86, p = 0.02), some chest X-ray abnormalities such as signs of pulmonary fibrosis (HR = 4.7, 95% CI 2.78 - 28.94, p = 0.002) and the Chronic respiratory insufficiency (HRa = 3.77, 95% CI 1.37 - 10.43, p = 0.010). Conclusion: The present retrospective cohort study revealed that structural and functional pulmonary alteration emerged as the main factors associated with mortality among MDR/RR TB patients in Kinshasa. National Tuberculosis Programs should take into account those parameters while defining mortality reduction strategy.
Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection (HBsAg) in Rural Blood Donors, Moba, Tanganyika Province, Democratic Republic of Congo (2014 to 2016)
Bukasa Héman Kabemba, Ebondo Patrick Kasendue, Muteba André Shiku, Tchoni Savant Mukena, Tshinkobo Chicco Kasolva, Nsomue Gentil Kabingie, Kabiswe Joelle Pungue, Tshite John Kitengie
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103434
Abstract:
Blood transfusion is a salutary practice in modern medicine, but it carries a high risk of transmission of transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs), especially in developing countries. The objective of this study is to determine the seroprevalence of viral hepatitis B among blood donors. This is a retrospective and descriptive cross-sectional study of the period from 2014 to 2016 at the Katele Health Reference Center (Moba, DR. Congo). We investigated HBsAg in blood donors by using Determine HBSAg. 1145 blood donors with an age mean of 30.6 ± 6.9 years and predominantly male (62.5%) were retained. The seroprevalence of hepatitis B infection from 2014 to 2016 was 3.9% (0.3% for 2014, 9.4% for 2015 and 0.7% for 2016). The family blood donors (83.2%) were the only carriers of HBsAg and were significantly associated with hepatitis B infection (p < 0.05). Age [OR = 0.70 CI 95% 0.34-1.44; p 0.338] and sex [OR = 0.72 95% CI 0.27-1.97; p 0.529] were not associated with the occurrence of hepatitis B in blood donors. The risk of transmission of HBV during transfusion remains high. We recommend the strengthening of transfusion safety measures, the abandonment of family donors for regular voluntary donors, the improvement of screening and diagnostic tests, the involvement of the national blood transfusion program in epidemiological surveillance and the mobilization of the population in favor of the fight against hepatitis B.
Health Concerns and Talented Sportspersons Identification Derivable from Height, Weight, Body Mass Index and Ectomorphy Rating Mean Values in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) 2016-2017
André Mukala Nsengu Tshibangu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103915
Abstract:
During the academic year 2016-2017, students aged 18 years and older in their second year at the University of Kinshasa Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty have shown the following mean values, respectively of, cm height, kg weight, kg·m﹣2 BMI and unit-less ectomorphy: 1° non-sportsmen: 173.4 cm, 55.8 kg, 18.6 kg·m﹣2, and 4.8; 2° sportsmen: 174.2 cm, 63.6 kg, 20.9 kg·m﹣2, and 3.5; 3° non-sportswomen: 162.2 cm, 59.4 kg, 22.6 kg·m﹣2, and 2.2; 4° sportswomen: 161.5 cm, 52.4 kg, 19.9 kg·m﹣2, and 3.2; 5° all males students: 173.8 cm, 62.7 kg, 20.7 kg·m﹣2, and 3.6; 6° all female students: 160.4 cm, 54.5 kg, 20.6 kg·m﹣2, and 2.6; 7° all male and female students pulled together: 168.1 cm, 59.1 kg, 20.6 kg·m﹣2, and 3.2. Sports practice seems to increase in males but to decrease in females, height, weight and BMI; while it seems to decrease in males but to increase in females, ectomorphy rating. Sports practice could improve health situation of the population which is bad (14.4% of underweight BMI values instead of less than 5.0%). DRC is worth looking for the mean weight of the subjects enrolled in the experimentation that led to the direction for use adult recommended dose of each imported drug so as, if need be, to adapt it to DRC residents. Referencing values published by others have helped give examples of recruiting sportspersons so as to expect training to be rapidly successful and to expect sports practitioners to be at their best performance during competitions.
THE STATE AND CONFLICT IN THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO  [cached]
Hussein Solomon,Cornelia Cone
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5787/32-1-127
Abstract: This paper will unpack the nature of the state in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (D.R.C.) and explore the links between conflict and the state. The aim of this paper is to ultimately provide an answer to the question: ‘Is there a link between the nature of the state in the D.R.C. and the conflict in this country?’ and ‘If so, what is the link?’ The theoretical tenets of the argument will be encapsulated in a discussion that will juxtapose ‘strong states’ with African states. The nature of the state in the D.R.C., as an African state, will subsequently be explored. Lastly, links will be established between the nature of the state and conflict with particular reference to the situation in the D.R.C.
Ocular Pentastomiasis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo  [PDF]
Mihály Sulyok ,Lajos Rózsa,Imre Bodó,Dennis Tappe equal contributor,Richard Hardi equal contributor
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003041
Abstract: Ocular pentastomiasis is a rare infection caused by the larval stage of pentastomids, an unusual group of crustacean-related parasites. Zoonotic pentastomids have a distinct geographical distribution and utilize reptiles or canids as final hosts. Recently, an increasing number of human abdominal infections have been reported in Africa, where pentastomiasis is an emerging, though severely neglected, tropical disease. Here we describe four ocular infections caused by pentastomids from the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Two cases underwent surgery and an Armillifer grandis infection was detected by morphological and molecular approaches. Thus far, 15 other cases of ocular pentastomiasis have been reported worldwide. Twelve cases were caused by Armillifer sp., recorded almost exclusively in Africa, where such infections occur as a consequence of hunting and consuming snakes, their final hosts. Seven further cases were caused by Linguatula serrata, a cosmopolitan pentastomid whose final hosts are usually canids. Intraocular infections caused permanent visual damage in 69% and a total loss of vision in 31% of reported cases. In contrast, ocular adnexal cases had a benign clinical course. Further research is required to estimate the burden, therapeutic options and pathogenesis of this neglected disease.
The Instability of Political and Administrative Institutions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo  [PDF]
Chelo Kpats Guyguy, Xiaojun Xu
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2019.72005
Abstract: This article uses a historical approach to identify and analyze the factors leading to the instability of political and administrative institutions of the Democratic Republic of Congo from independence to the year 2017. There are multiple factors related to institutional instability in the DRC. Key among them includes the inadequate constitutional provisions, the difficulties caused by the non-application of democratic principles, the heterogeneity of the populace and frequent conflicts. Other contributors to the institutional instability experienced in the DRC include the politicization of the administration, the prevailing social-economic situation, poor governance, the non-observance of the laws, the poor distribution of the national wealth, foreign pressures and macroeconomic influences. The challenges due to institutional and political instability in the DRC provide opportunities for the Congolese state and its populace to re-invent itself to be a truly democratic space where the ambitions to develop and improve the living conditions of the people can be improved through stabilized and functional institutions.
Prevalence of Human African Trypanosomiasis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo  [PDF]
Dieudonne Mumba,Elaine Bohorquez,Jane Messina,Victor Kande,Steven M. Taylor,Antoinette K. Tshefu,Jeremie Muwonga,Melchior M. Kashamuka,Michael Emch,Richard Tidwell,Philippe Büscher,Steven R. Meshnick
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001246
Abstract: Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a major public health problem in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Active and passive surveillance for HAT is conducted but may underestimate the true prevalence of the disease. We used ELISA to screen 7,769 leftover dried blood spots from a nationally representative population-based survey, the 2007 Demographic and Health Survey. 26 samples were positive by ELISA. Three of these were also positive by trypanolysis and/or PCR. From these data, we estimate that there were 18,592 people with HAT (95% confidence interval, 4,883–32,302) in the DRC in 2007, slightly more than twice as many as were reported.
Sustainable Urbanization’s Challenge in Democratic Republic of Congo  [cached]
Misilu Mia Nsokimieno Eric,Chen Shouyu,Zhang li Qin
Journal of Sustainable Development , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/jsd.v3n2p242
Abstract: In the context of rapid urbanization in Democratic Republic of Congo, overpopulation in Kinshasa’s city increasingly carries out chaos, inequalities, poverty, environmental degradation, open spaces loss , socio - economic tension, and spontaneous settlements and sprawl. This rapid urban growth occurs without planning and productive employment compounded by weak government involvements. These crisis situations put to the forefront sustainable urbanization as a priority issue for urban development with reference to the globalization and technology. This requires reconsidering urbanization process to stimulate economic growth and mobilize resources at local, national and global levels. A comprehensive reform based on an integrating vision of governance and collective commitment to manage efficiently natural resources. The paper reviews pragmatic approaches in urban planning decision in its whole refers to the dynamics of management, qualification and transformation of the city. The paper presents urban renewal as remedial action holding opportunities to improve environmental quality.
Molecular Malaria Epidemiology: Mapping and Burden Estimates for the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2007  [PDF]
Steve M. Taylor,Jane P. Messina,Carla C. Hand,Jonathan J. Juliano,Jeremie Muwonga,Antoinette K. Tshefu,Benjamin Atua,Michael Emch,Steven R. Meshnick
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0016420
Abstract: Epidemiologic data on malaria are scant in many high-burden countries including the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), which suffers the second-highest global burden of malaria. Malaria control efforts in regions with challenging infrastructure require reproducible and efficient surveillance. We employed new high-throughput molecular testing to characterize the state of malaria control in the DRC and estimate childhood mortality attributable to excess malaria transmission.
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