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The burden of cancer risk in Canada's indigenous population: a comparative study of known risks in a Canadian region
Elias B, Kliewer EV, Hall M, Demers AA, Turner D, Martens P, Hong SP, Hart L, Chartrand C, Munro G
International Journal of General Medicine , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S24292
Abstract: urden of cancer risk in Canada's indigenous population: a comparative study of known risks in a Canadian region Original Research (2570) Total Article Views Authors: Elias B, Kliewer EV, Hall M, Demers AA, Turner D, Martens P, Hong SP, Hart L, Chartrand C, Munro G Published Date October 2011 Volume 2011:4 Pages 699 - 709 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S24292 Brenda Elias1, Erich V Kliewer1–3, Madelyn Hall1, Alain A Demers1,2, Donna Turner1,2, Patricia Martens1, Say P Hong1, Lyna Hart4, Caroline Chartrand5, Garry Munro4 1Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 2CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 3British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 4Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs Health Information Research Governance Committee, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 5Manitoba First Nations Diabetes Integration Project, Winnipeg, MB, Canada Background: Canadian First Nations, the largest of the Aboriginal groups in Canada, have had lower cancer incidence and mortality rates than non-Aboriginal populations in the past. This pattern is changing with increased life expectancy, a growing population, and a poor social environment that influences risk behaviors, metabolic conditions, and disparities in screening uptake. These factors alone do not fully explain differences in cancer risk between populations, as genetic susceptibility and environmental factors also have significant influence. However, genetics and environment are difficult to modify. This study compared modifiable behavioral risk factors and metabolic-associated conditions for men and women, and cancer screening practices of women, between First Nations living on-reserve and a non-First Nations Manitoba rural population (Canada). Methods: The study used data from the Canadian Community Health Survey and the Manitoba First Nations Regional Longitudinal Health Survey to examine smoking, binge drinking, metabolic conditions, physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption, and cancer-screening practices. Results: First Nations on-reserve had significantly higher rates of smoking (P < 0.001), binge drinking (P < 0.001), obesity (P < 0.001) and diabetes (P < 0.001), and less leisure-time physical activity (P = 0.029), and consumption of fruits and vegetables (P < 0.001). Sex differences were also apparent. In addition, First Nations women reported significantly less uptake of mammography screening (P < 0.001) but similar rates for cervical cancer screening. Conclusions: Based on the findings of this retrospective study, the future cancer burden is expected to be high in the First Nations on-reserve population. Interventions, utilizing existing and new health and social authorities, and long-term institutional partnerships, are required to combat cancer risk disparities, while governments address economic disparities.
Addressing Sustainability Risks of Bioenergy—Policy Strategies and Corporate Initiatives  [PDF]
Michael Krug, Gra?yna Rabczuk, Adam Cenian
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2015.75022
Abstract: This paper focuses on the sustainable use of solid and gaseous biomass for electricity, heating and cooling. It provides updated findings of policy analyses and corporate strategy analyses performed in the frame of BIOENERGY PROMOTION, one of the flagship projects under the EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region. In particular, the paper highlights policies and measures which have been adopted by the EU and EU Member States to address environmental and social sustainability risks of bioenergy. Taking into account the conclusions of BIOENERGY PROMOTION, the paper identifies promising policy developments, but also shortcomings. On the Member State level, the paper refers to the examples of Germany and Poland. It illustrates how problematic policy priorities and policy malfunctioning in two sub-sectors (biogas from energy crops in Germany, biomass co-firing in Poland) led to undesirable environmental and social developments and how policies have been re-adjusted to mitigate sustainability risks. The paper also portrays a number of voluntary corporate sustainability initiatives which emerged due to the lack of a binding European sustainability framework for solid and gaseous biomass. The authors conclude that without a binding sustainability framework at EU level there is a risk of having a patchwork of potentially diverging sustainability regimes and initiatives across Europe causing market intransparency and insecurity for investors.
The burden of cancer risk in Canada's indigenous population: a comparative study of known risks in a Canadian region  [cached]
Elias B,Kliewer EV,Hall M,Demers AA
International Journal of General Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: Brenda Elias1, Erich V Kliewer1–3, Madelyn Hall1, Alain A Demers1,2, Donna Turner1,2, Patricia Martens1, Say P Hong1, Lyna Hart4, Caroline Chartrand5, Garry Munro41Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 2CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 3British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 4Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs Health Information Research Governance Committee, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 5Manitoba First Nations Diabetes Integration Project, Winnipeg, MB, CanadaBackground: Canadian First Nations, the largest of the Aboriginal groups in Canada, have had lower cancer incidence and mortality rates than non-Aboriginal populations in the past. This pattern is changing with increased life expectancy, a growing population, and a poor social environment that influences risk behaviors, metabolic conditions, and disparities in screening uptake. These factors alone do not fully explain differences in cancer risk between populations, as genetic susceptibility and environmental factors also have significant influence. However, genetics and environment are difficult to modify. This study compared modifiable behavioral risk factors and metabolic-associated conditions for men and women, and cancer screening practices of women, between First Nations living on-reserve and a non-First Nations Manitoba rural population (Canada).Methods: The study used data from the Canadian Community Health Survey and the Manitoba First Nations Regional Longitudinal Health Survey to examine smoking, binge drinking, metabolic conditions, physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption, and cancer-screening practices.Results: First Nations on-reserve had significantly higher rates of smoking (P < 0.001), binge drinking (P < 0.001), obesity (P < 0.001) and diabetes (P < 0.001), and less leisure-time physical activity (P = 0.029), and consumption of fruits and vegetables (P < 0.001). Sex differences were also apparent. In addition, First Nations women reported significantly less uptake of mammography screening(P < 0.001) but similar rates for cervical cancer screening.Conclusions: Based on the findings of this retrospective study, the future cancer burden is expected to be high in the First Nations on-reserve population. Interventions, utilizing existing and new health and social authorities, and long-term institutional partnerships, are required to combat cancer risk disparities, while governments address economic disparities.Keywords: indigenous population, cancer risk, health behaviors, metabolic diseases, cance
Risk management approaches for environmental and human health risks in the United States and Canada
美国、加拿大环境和健康风险管理方法

HE Guizhen,LV Yonglong,
贺桂珍
,吕永龙

生态学报 , 2011,
Abstract: With an increase in environmentally harmful accidents and amplification in their impact, the concept of "environmental risk assessment and management" has been formally acknowledged and applied for the last 30 years. As environmental risks have become more complex and relevant scientific knowledge has increased in its degree of detail, guidelines for the implementation of existing environmental risk assessment and risk management frameworks are needed. More and more international organizations and countries have developed and applied approaches to environmental risk assessment and risk management. The United States and Canada are two pioneers in the field. Although China faces various environmental risks and environmental accidents in the midst of its rapid social, economic and political transitions, for a long time, it has been lacking an environmental management system. After a series of accidents, especially SARS in 2003 and water pollution of Songhuajiang River in 2005, the setting-up of a national risk management system in China was initiated. However, it has not been systematically developed and falls short of guidelines for its implementation as well as practical and suitable methods for environmental risk assessment and risk management. With the aim of learning from the experiences of the two pioneers of environmental risk assessment and risk management, the authors conducted a literature and document review, email exchanges and telephone interviews, and applied comparative analysis methods from February to October 2009, focusing on experiences of environmental, ecological, and human health risk assessment and management methodology. This article reviews more than 50 sets of environmental, ecological and human health risk assessment and management approaches currently being applied by agencies of the United States and Canada. Out of them, 24 frameworks are selected and their characteristics are described. Among these, 10 frameworks are analyzed in detail. We compare their basis and limitations, strengths and weaknesses, their application to case studies, as well as specific issues addressed by the frameworks. Based on the above analysis, we identified seven common elements that should be included in an effective and comprehensive framework to assess environmental, human health and work-related health risks. The seven elements are: risk formulation, involvement of stakeholders in this process, risk communication to stakeholders, quantitative risk assessment, reiteration and evaluation of the process, decision-making based on sound science, and flexibility of the environmental and ecological risk assessment and management framework. Strategies to develop risk management objectives are also discussed based on the experiences in the United States and Canada. This study concludes that decision makers in China should foremost focus on the formulation of objectives for environmental and ecological risk management. Other concerns include a sound
Recommending Investors for Crowdfunding Projects  [PDF]
Jisun An,Daniele Quercia,Jon Crowcroft
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: To bring their innovative ideas to market, those embarking in new ventures have to raise money, and, to do so, they have often resorted to banks and venture capitalists. Nowadays, they have an additional option: that of crowdfunding. The name refers to the idea that funds come from a network of people on the Internet who are passionate about supporting others' projects. One of the most popular crowdfunding sites is Kickstarter. In it, creators post descriptions of their projects and advertise them on social media sites (mainly Twitter), while investors look for projects to support. The most common reason for project failure is the inability of founders to connect with a sufficient number of investors, and that is mainly because hitherto there has not been any automatic way of matching creators and investors. We thus set out to propose different ways of recommending investors found on Twitter for specific Kickstarter projects. We do so by conducting hypothesis-driven analyses of pledging behavior and translate the corresponding findings into different recommendation strategies. The best strategy achieves, on average, 84% of accuracy in predicting a list of potential investors' Twitter accounts for any given project. Our findings also produced key insights about the whys and wherefores of investors deciding to support innovative efforts.
Investors’ Risk Preference Characteristics and Conditional Skewness  [PDF]
Fenghua Wen,Zhifang He,Xiaohong Chen
Mathematical Problems in Engineering , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/814965
Abstract: Perspective on behavioral finance, we take a new look at the characteristics of investors’ risk preference, building the D-GARCH-M model, DR-GARCH-M model, and GARCHC-M model to investigate their changes with states of gain and loss and values of return together with other time-varying characteristics of investors’ risk preference. Based on a full description of risk preference characteristic, we develop a GARCHCS-M model to study its effect on the return skewness. The top ten market value stock composite indexes from Global Stock Exchange in 2012 are adopted to make the empirical analysis. The results show that investors are risk aversion when they gain and risk seeking when they lose, which effectively explains the inconsistent risk-return relationship. Moreover, the degree of risk aversion rises with the increasing gain and that of risk seeking improves with the increasing losses. Meanwhile, we find that investors’ inherent risk preference in most countries displays risk seeking, and their current risk preference is influenced by last period’s risk preference and disturbances. At last, investors’ risk preferences affect the conditional skewness; specifically, their risk aversion makes return skewness reduce, while risk seeking makes the skewness increase. 1. Introduction Risk preference refers to the attitude people hold towards risks, which is a key factor in studies on investors’ decision-making behavior. Standard financial theory assumes that investors are rational and believes that when making investment decisions they tend to have invariant risk preferences-risk averse. However, as the research goes, people gradually find that the investors’ decision-making behavior in real life does not always comply with the assumption of rationality and their behaviors are usually limited by their own cognitive biases and external environment, leading to their risk preferences varying with different situations. With the development of behavioral finance, a multitude of research indicated that the result of investment in the financial market can affect their decisions, making them exhibit inconsistent risk preference. Prospect Theory proposed by Kahneman and Tversky [1] had described some prominent psychological traits of investors in their decision-making under uncertainty. Their experiments suggested that individuals tend to be risk averse with gain and risk seeking with loss, which have been confirmed by a variety of subsequent studies. For example, Laughhunn and Payne [2] found evidence that 20 managers in the process of their multiple risk choice
Shortcomings of the Child Protection System in Romania
CRISTINA D?MBOEANU
Revista Roman? de Sociologie , 2010,
Abstract: This article aims to emphasize the main shortcomings characterizing the system for the protection of children's rights in Romania. In this respect, the article presents the results of a qualitative research project, based on interviews and focus-group discussions with specialists in the field of child protection. This research was carried out by the Institute of Sociology within the National Research, Development and Innovation Plan (PNII), the Ideas program.
The Institutional Investors and Corporate Governance
Niculae Feleaga
Theoretical and Applied Economics , 2006,
Abstract: The years between 1990-2000 represented the rising power period for the institutional investors, especially within the developed countries. In the Anglo-Saxon environment, such a growth significantly modified the structure of companies’ shareholder frameworks. The development and the institutionalization of the stock exchange market determined the companies’ bonds to be more concentrated within the hands of the financial institutions, which have a superior economic expertise, rather than do the natural persons when saving. In order to diminish the informational lack of symmetry, between the company’s leaders and its shareholders, and for influencing the leaders in managing the enterprise – with the purpose of maximizing value – some institutional investors tried to implement an external control system. Therefore, they formulated new corporate governance procedures. The development of the institutional investors is part of a reform movement targeted towards the macro-financial environment. That is why, two important elements deserve to be mentioned: the households’ financial patrimonies and the structure of the financing frameworks. The institutional investors are essentially the mutual funds, the insurance companies and the pension funds, and therefore they manage considerable amounts of capital (in thousands of billions of dollars) within the assembly of OCDE countries.
Identification of Occupational Cancer Risks in British Columbia, Canada: A Population-Based Case—Control Study of 1,155 Cases of Colon Cancer  [PDF]
Raymond Fang,Nhu Le,Pierre Band
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph8103821
Abstract: Objective: Cancer has been recognized to have environmental origin, but occupational cancer risk studies have not been fully documented. The objective of this paper was to identify occupations and industries with elevated colon cancer risk based on lifetime occupational histories collected from 15,463 incident cancer cases. Method: A group matched case-control design was used. All cases were diagnosed with histologically proven colon cancers, with cancer controls being all other cancer sites, excluding rectum, lung and unknown primary, diagnosed at the same period of time from the British Columbia Cancer Registry. Data analyses were done on all 597 Canadian standard occupation titles and 1,104 standard industry titles using conditional logistic regression for matched data sets and the likelihood ratio test. Results: Excess colon cancer risks was observed in a number of occupations and industries, particularly those with low physical activity and those involving exposure to asbestos, wood dusts, engine exhaust and diesel engine emissions, and ammonia. Discussion: The results of our study are in line with those from the literature and further suggest that exposure to wood dusts and to ammonia may carry an increased occupational risk of colon cancer.
Schizophrenic Representative Investors  [PDF]
Philip Z. Maymin
Quantitative Finance , 2010,
Abstract: Representative investors whose behaviour is modelled by a deterministic finite automaton generate complexity both in the time series of each asset and in the cross-sectional correlation when the rule governing their behaviour is schizophrenic, meaning the investor must hold multiple seemingly contradictory beliefs simultaneously, either by switching between two different rules at each time step, or computing different responses to different assets.
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