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A Location-Allocation Model for Seaport-Dry Port System Optimization  [PDF]
Xuejun Feng,Yan Zhang,Yuwei Li,Wei Wang
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/309585
Abstract: Seaports participate in hinterland economic development through partnerships with dry ports, and the combined seaport-dry port network serves as the backbone of regional logistics. This paper constructs a location-allocation model for the regional seaport-dry port network optimization problem and develops a greedy algorithm and a genetic algorithm to obtain its solution. This model is applicable to situations under which the geographic distribution of demand is known. A case study involving configuration of dry ports near the west bank of the Taiwan Strait is conducted, and the model is successfully applied. 1. Introduction Rapid development of seaports and intermodal transportation systems under integrated planning has made it necessary for seaports to dynamically assess what constitutes their hinterlands, and the scramble for hinterlands by seaports is heating up. On the other hand, it is increasingly recognized by hinterlands that seaports guide and support regional economic development, and there is a growing need to perform in hinterland locations seaports’ functions except ship loading and unloading. The interactions of these two driving forces have induced rapid development of dry ports as both a means by which seaports vie for hinterland access and a means by which hinterlands stimulate economic growth. Logistics networks, each including a group of seaports and some dry ports, are becoming backbones of regional goods movement. At the end of 2011, there were over 100 dry ports built or being built in China, with the Port of Tianjin leading the development of more than 20 of them. There were also a large number of road and rail transportation hubs which were in many aspects similar to dry ports. The development of dry ports can mitigate problems caused by constraints related to land and others that limit seaports’ growth. Dry ports can also coordinate the operation of the port supply chain and support regional economic development. Consequently, dry ports are changing the dynamics of interaction between seaports and hinterlands. This paper studies the location of dry ports from the perspective of seaport-hinterland interaction and optimizes the configuration of the seaport-dry port system, taking into consideration the relationships between dry ports, seaports, and the regional logistics system. On the evolution of a port, Bird [1] developed the Anyport model describing how port infrastructures develop over time and space and how the relationship between ports and their host cities evolves. Three major steps of port development were identified:
A Ricardian Analysis of the Impact of Temperature and Rainfall Variability on Ag-riculture in Dosso and Maradi Regions of Niger Republic  [PDF]
Garba Hima Mamane Bello, Maman Nafiou Malam Maman
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/as.2015.67070
Abstract: The impact of climate variability on Maradi and Dosso agriculture was estimated taking into account farmer adaptations. The study used a Ricardian analysis of 200 farms to explore the effects of climate variability on net revenue. It also simulates the impact of different climate scenarios on agriculture incomes. This analysis bespeaks that if temperature increases 1°C annually, the annual crop net revenues for both frameworks will decrease up to 582170.7 FCFA2 for model without adaptation (M1) and up to 1316 FCFA for model with adaptation (M2). An increase of Precipitation of 1 mm/month will increase crop receipts for the frameworks up to 721,917 FCFA for M1 and 1,861,455 FCFA for M2. In order to predict climate change impacts for these regions, the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 of IPCC scenarios were examined. The crop net receipts will fall between 10% and 26% if the scenarios happen. Another finding of this study is that each farmer who is practicing adaptation is able to cover the potential loss from climate variability up to 8.95% and 12.71% per ha respectively in Maradi and in Dosso. The study proposes that these regions should start planning measures for unexpected event of climate conditions. Irrigated systems need to be encouraged in order to minimize the vulnerability of the agricultural sector.
Dry Port Development in Togo: A Multi-Criteria Approach Using Analytic Network Process [ANP]  [PDF]
Degbe Sewodo Augustin, Dassanou Latre Akossiwa, Degbe Nana Esther
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2019.96086
This paper aims to determine an optimum location for dry port development in Togo. The dry port location decision problem is formulated using Analytic Network Process which consists of multi-criteria evaluation techniques through a pairwise comparison and a super-matrix formation. This research also conducted a field survey through questionnaires and interviews in order to retrieve adequate data from group of experts which were analyzed in establishing the ANP model using Super Decision software. Sokodé has the highest ideal score of 0.94 among other selected alternatives thus, making it the best location for establishing a dry port in Togo. Although all parameters estimated should be uncertain in reality but the sensitivity analysis of the model still indicates that the output results are quite stable. Furthermore, the port of Lomé is also considered as the gateway port providing both inbound and outbound traffic to the hinterland locations within Togo and also to West African landlocked countries.
Assessment of Dry Port Efficiency in Africa Using Data Envelopment Analysis  [PDF]
Hamadou Tahirou Abdoulkarim, Seydou Harouna Fatouma, Hamadou Tahirou Hassane
Journal of Transportation Technologies (JTTs) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jtts.2019.92012
Abstract: This work involves the evaluation of dry port competitiveness through analysis of efficiencies for selected dry ports in Africa. Five dry ports were selected and analysis carried out over a period of four years. The dry ports considered were Mojo and Kality in Ethiopia, Mombasa in Kenya, Isaka in Tanzania and Casablanca in Casablanca, Morocco. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was applied for this work. Container throughputs for the various ports under consideration were used as the output variable for the data analysis model, while the number of reach stackers, the number of tractors, the number of forklifts and the size of the dry port were used as the input variables. From the results, the Mombasa dry port was found to be the most efficient with an average score of approximately 1 over the period under consideration. Casablanca was the second efficient dry port with an average score of 0.762, while Isaka was the least efficient with an average score of 0.142. This research is significant since the African countries have embraced the dry port concept, as witnessed in the huge investments in this sector, and would serve to highlight areas that need improvement for the few existing dry port facilities, most of which are undergoing expansion as well as modernization.
Toxicologic screening of fungi isolated from millet (pennisetum spp) during the rainy and dry harmattan seasons in Niger state, Nigeria
HA Makun, TA Gbodi, AS Tijani, A Abai, GU Kadiri
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2007,
Abstract: A survey of fungi contaminating mouldy field, stored and marketed millet samples collected during rainy and dry harmattan seasons of the year 2000 from the twenty five local government areas of Niger State, Nigeria, was conducted. Some of the fungal isolates from the two groups of samples were screened for their mycotoxin producing potentials in mice. Aflatoxin B1 content of the rainy season millet samples was determined. Aspergillus niger was the predominant fungi found in millet during the rains. Twelve out of the 49 wet season millet samples were contaminated with AFB1 at concentrations between 1370.28 and 3495.10 ug/kg. Penicillium spp. was the commonest contaminant of millet during the dry harmattan season. Thirty five of the fifty five fungal isolates screened for toxicity were found to produce toxic metabolites that were lethal to mice and were isolates of Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Mucor, Syncephalastrum, and Helminthosporium.
Prevalence of Dry Eye Disease in a Rural Niger Delta Community, Southern Nigeria  [PDF]
A. A. Onua, I. O. Chukwuka
Open Journal of Ophthalmology (OJOph) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojoph.2017.72014
Abstract: Background: Dry Eye Disease (DED) or Dry Eye Syndrome (DES) is the fast growing public health problem characterized by deficiency in the quantity and/or quality of tear film due to tear deficiency or excessive tear evaporation. It negatively affects the health and the quality of life of individuals. Although dry eye is a common eye disease world-wide, many people are undiagnosed and untreated especially in underdeveloped countries. Aim: To determine the prevalence of dry eye disease in Aluu community. Methods: The cross-sectional, population-based study from 16th to 18th June 2016. Participants were members and residents of the community who consented to ocular examinations. Ocular examinations including Schimer’s test were carried out. Data were entered into a spread sheet using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) 16.0 statistical software and subsequently analysed. Results: Seven hundred and thirty persons (210 males and 520 females) participated in the study. The mean age was 34.2 ± 12.4 years. The prevalence of Dry Eye Disease in this study was 27.4%. Over 72% of the study population had normal Schimer’s test 95% CI [15.0 - 15.2], 18.4% had mild dry eye syndrome 95% CI [10.1 - 10.7], 6.8% had moderate dry eye syndrome test 95% CI [5.5 - 7.6] while 2.2% had severe dry eye syndrome test 95% CI [3.0 - 3.8]. Conclusion: The prevalence of dry eye disease in Aluu community is high. It is therefore, advocated special eye healthcare intervention by governments and non-governmental agencies be extended to this rural Niger Delta community.
Effect of Dry Season Tomato Farming on Poverty Alleviation among Women Farmers in Niger State, Nigeria
R.S Olaleye, I.S Umar, M.A Ndanitsa
Journal of Agricultural Extension , 2009,
Abstract: Generally, the study examines the effect of dry season tomato farming on poverty alleviation among women farmers in Niger State, Nigeria. Specifically, it examines the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the women dry season tomato farmers, their major sources of resources for tomato farming, marketing and marketing channels for tomato produced as well as the monthly income generated from the sales of harvested tomatoes and the effect on poverty alleviation in terms of provision for food, clothing, housing, health care and children’s education. Three Local Government Areas (LGAs), from each of the three geo-political zones of the State were purposively selected .A total of 15 villages were randomly selected from these LGAs and based on the preponderance of women tomato farmers, respondents were purposively selected to give a total of 233 . Findings showed that over one-half of the respondents (52.4%), had formal education and married (53.2%), with majority (91.3%), of them having four and more people in their households.Morever,41.6% of the women practiced farming as their major occupation. Furthermore, over two-thirds of them cultivated 0.5ha of tomato farm, while only 2.1% of them cultivated above 1ha. Findings indicated that majority of them had more than four years tomato farming experience and access to farm land was never a problem but many of them (51.9%), relied mostly on family labour. Niger State Agricultural Development (NSADP) plays a leading role in the provision of relevant technical information to most of the women farmers especially, in the areas of improved seed varieties among others. Results showed that many of the women (61.7%),usually sold their produce at the village markets ,mostly every week either in retails or in bulks or both(47.6%) with an estimated monthly income of between N6,000 and N15,000 by many of them (63%).In view of this, their expenditure performances indicated that many of the women farmers were above average in meeting the following basic needs; food (52%), clothing (48.1%), housing (57%),health care (39.9%) and children’s education (19.4%).Generally the effect of dry season tomato farming on poverty reduction as indicated by majority of the women farmers was on the high side. Chi-square tests showed significant relationships between some independent variables and the effect of dry season tomato farming as strategy for poverty reduction; household size ((Χ2=246.29,P<0.05), children’s education (Χ 2= 353.3,P<0.05) and tomato farming experience (Χ 2 =121.7, P<0.05 ) as well as correlation between income generated and the effect of dry season tomato farming (r=0.85, P<0.05).Cobb-Douglas multiple regression analysis model showed a significant relationship between contributions to household expenditures and the effect of dry season tomato farming (F=6.54,P<0.05). Housing (t= -3.85,P<0.05), clothing (t=-3.56,P<0.05) and food(t=-2.31,P<0.05) were inverse but significant in explaining 62% variation i
Contraceptive Trends and Preferred Methods among Users in Port Harcourt, Niger Delta Region of Nigeria  [PDF]
John Dimkpa Ojule, Dagogo Semenitari Abam
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2017.58008
Abstract: Background: Family planning has clearly been a major public health success as evidenced by substantial fertility decline and reductions in maternal mortality in countries with high contraceptive prevalence rates. Nigerian governments have continued to expand the scope and improve accessibility and availability of contraceptive commodities to improve uptake, giving the numerous benefits. Objective: To determine the trends in contraceptive usage and the preferred method among clients visiting the family planning clinic of University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH), Nigeria. Method: It was a cross sectional study of all clients who accepted contraceptive methods at the UPTH, between 1st January 2000 and 31st December, 2015. Results: During the period, a total of 9190 clients accepted contraceptive methods, and 40,334 women were delivered in the maternity unit giving an acceptance rate of 1 in 4 deliveries or 22.8%. The acceptors of modern contraceptives increased steadily from 491 clients in 2001 to a peak in 2008 with 1477 clients and sharply declined to 381 in 2009 before increasing gradually again to 519 clients in 2015. The most commonly used method was the male condom by 3194 clients (37.9%), followed by injectables, which was accepted by 2185 clients (23.8%) while 1752 clients (19.1%) used the IUD. Implant contraceptive was used by 915 clients (9.9%), followed by oral contraceptive pills used by 547 (6.0%). Female sterilization was the least commonly used method by 302 clients (3.3%). There was no vasectomy over the 15 years period. Conclusion: Contraceptive trend in Port Harcourt has an ambivalent acceptance pattern. Although male condom and injectable contraceptives are the most commonly used method over time, the subdermal implants are increasingly becoming very popular in recent time. Female sterilization remains the least common method with no record of vasectomy.
Physico-Chemistry Quality of Trans-Amadi (Woji) Creek Port Harcourt, Niger Delta, Nigeria
O.A. Davies,A.A.A. Ugwumba,D.S. Abolude
Journal of Fisheries International , 2012,
Abstract: The Trans-amadi (Woji) Creek of the Upper Bonny Estuary in Port Harcourt, Nigeria has received little attention regarding its physico-chemistry quality. The creek is a sink receiving multiple organic anthropogenic effluents from its surroundings. This study was conducted to assess the physico-chemical properties of the surface water and the impact of municipal wastes on these parameters. Surface water samples were collected for physico-chemistry analyses from May 2004 to April 2006 from 4 stations according to standard methods. Turbidity, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, magnesium, hardness, nitrate, phosphate and sulphate demonstrated significant spatial and seasonal variations. Total dissolved solids, total organic carbon, total organic matter, phosphate and ammonia exceeded United States Environmental protection Agency acceptable levels for natural water bodies. The presence of these organic pollutants indicates organic pollution and stress in this creek. Concerted surveillance of this environmental is advocated to restore its integrity.
Long term precipitation chemistry and wet deposition in a remote dry savanna site in Africa (Niger)
C. Galy-Lacaux, D. Laouali, L. Descroix, N. Gobron,C. Liousse
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2009,
Abstract: Long-term precipitation chemistry have been recorded in the rural area of Banizoumbou (Niger), representative of a semi-arid savanna ecosystem. A total of 305 rainfall samples ~90% of the total annual rainfall) were collected from June 1994 to September 2005. From ionic chromatography, pH major inorganic and organic ions were detected. Rainwater chemistry is controlled by soil/dust emissions associated with terrigeneous elements represented by SO42 , Ca2+, Carbonates, K+ and Mg2+. It is found that calcium and carbonates represent ~40% of the total ionic charge. The second highest contribution is nitrogenous, with annual Volume Weighed Mean (VWM) for NO3 and NH4+ concentrations of 11.6 and 18.1 μeq.l 1, respectively. This is the signature of ammonia sources from animals and NOx emissions from savannas soil-particles rain-induced. The mean annual NH3 and NO2 air concentration are of 6 ppbv and 2.6 ppbv, respectively. The annual VWM precipitation concentration of sodium and chloride are both of 8.7 μeq.l 1 which reflects the marine signature of monsoonal and humid air masses. The median pH value is of 6.05. Acidity is neutralized by mineral dust, mainly carbonates, and/or dissolved gases such NH3. High level of organic acidity with 8μeq.l 1 and 5.2 μeq.l 1 of formate and acetate were also found. The analysis of monthly Black Carbon emissions and Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR) values show that both biogenic emission from vegetation and biomass burning could explain the rainfall organic acidity content. The interannual variability of the VWM concentrations around the mean (1994–2005) is between ±5% and ±30% and mainly due to variations of sources strength and rainfall spatio-temporal distribution. From 1994 to 2005, the total mean wet deposition flux in the Sahelian region is of 60.1 mmol.m 2.yr 1 ±25%. Finally, Banizoumbou measurements are compared to other long-term measurements of precipitation chemistry in the wet savanna of Lamto (C te d'Ivoire) and in the forested zone of Zoétélé (Cameroon). The total chemical loading presents a maximum in the dry savanna and a minimum in the forest (from 143.7, 100.2 to 86.6 μeq.l 1), associated with the gradient of terrigeneous sources. The wet deposition fluxes present an opposite trend, with 60.0 mmol.m 2.yr 1 in Banizoumbou, 108.6 mmol.m 2.yr 1 in Lamto and 162.9 mmol.m 2.yr 1 in Zoétélé, controlled by rainfall gradient along the ecosystems transect.
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