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Soybean Oil and Beef Tallow in Starter Broiler Diets
Fascina, VB;Carrijo, AS;Souza, KMR;Garcia, AML;Kiefer, C;Sartori, JR;
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-635X2009000400006
Abstract: the objective of this study was to determine the energy values of soybean oil (sbo) and tallow (t) combined in different ratios, and to evaluate their effects on the performance, body composition, and serum lipid levels of starter broilers. in experiment i, a digestibility trial was performed to determine the energy value of the sob and t mixtures using 100 12 - to 21 -day-old broilers. in experiment ii, 930 one-day-old broilers were used. treatments consisted of the inclusion of 4% sbo and t inclusions at the following ratios: 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, 100:0. each treatment included six replicates. in experiment i, ame and amen linearly increased (p<0.01), as sbo participation in the mixture increased. in experiment ii, the different lipid ratios quadratically influenced (p<0.01) body weight and weight gain at 21 days of age, increasing up to the ratio of 65.87:34.13. serum lipids linearly decreased (p<0.05) as sob inclusion in the diet increased. it was concluded that ame and amen of sbo and t at ratios of 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100:0 were 7.882 and 7.542, 8.384 and 8.076, 8.701 and 8.385, 8.801 and 8.727, and 9.478 and 9.271 kcal/kg, respectively. the best performance with no detrimental effect on carcass yield was obtained with the mixture of 75% sbo with 25% t. the highest dietary soybean oil level reduced serum lipid levels of 21-day-old broilers.
Modification of Beef Tallow Stearin and Olein by Chemical and Enzymatic Interesterification with Soybean Oil
Malgorzata Kowalska,Boleslaw Kowalski,Witold Bekas,Sylwester Stepniak
Journal of Food Technology , 2013,
Abstract: Beef tallow stearin and beef tallow olein were interesterified with soybean oil using sodium methoxide or immobilized lipases from Rhisomucor miehei (Lipozyme IM) and Candida antarctica (Novozym 435) as catalysts. It was found that after interesterification the contents of free fatty acids and of mono- and diacyloglycerols increased. The slip melting point and solid fat content of the triacylglycerol fraction isolated from interesterified samples containing stearin were lower compared with nonesterified blends. For interesterified mixtures containing olein and soybean oil opposite dependencies for slip melting point and solid fat content were observed. The total fatty acids composition of fats before and after interesterifications remained unchanged but their distributions between sn-1, 3 and sn-2 positions were modified depend on catalysts used. These distributions were random after chemical interesterification or close to random when Novozym 435 was used. When Lipozyme IM was used the fatty acid composition at sn-2 position remained practically unchanged compared with starting blend.
Energy Expenditure by Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Various Blends of Beef Tallow and Soybean Oil
Sasiphan Wongsuthavas,Chalermpon Yuangklang,Kraisit Vasupen,Jamlong Mitchaothai
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2007,
Abstract: Replacement of dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) has been consistently shown to reduce the amount of abdominal fat in broiler chickens, but the metabolic basis for this effect is unknown. It was hypothesized that the feeding of PUFA instead of SFA would induce more heat expenditure, this effect being associated with less deposition of abdominal fat. Broiler chickens were given one of five diets in which the beef tallow component, which is rich in SFA, was replaced by increasing amounts of soybean oil, which is rich in PUFA. The variable fat content of the diets was 3% (w/w). There were neither significant nor systematic effects on weight gain and feed:gain ratio. The amount of body fat was reduced significantly (p<0.05) when about 75% of the tallow was replaced by soybean oil, but there was no further decrease after the incorporation of more soybean oil into the diet. Calculated energy expenditure, either expressed as absolute amount or percentage of intake, trended to enhance but was not significantly affected by the amount of soybean oil in the diet.
Assessment of De-Novo Fatty Acid Synthesis in Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Different Mixtures of Beef Tallow and Soybean Oil  [PDF]
Sasiphan Wongsuthavas,Chalermpon Yuangklang,Kraisit Vasupen,Jamlong Mitchaothai
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2007,
Abstract: Replacement of dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) has been consistently shown to reduce the amount of abdominal fat in broiler chickens, but the metabolic basis for this effect is unknown. It was hypothesized that the feeding of PUFA instead of SFA would inhibit whole-body de novo fatty acid synthesis. As indexes of de novo fatty acid synthesis, we used the concentration of plasma triacylglycerols and minimum fatty acid synthesis calculated as fatty deposition minus digestible fatty acid intake. Broiler chickens were given one of five diets in which the beef tallow component, which is rich in SFA, was replaced by increasing amounts of soybean oil, which is rich in PUFA. The variable fat content of the diets was 3% (w/w). There were neither significant nor systematic effects on weight gain and feed:gain ratio. The amount of abdominal fat was reduced significantly when about 75% of the tallow was replaced by soybean oil, but there was no further decrease after the incorporation of more soybean oil into the diet. The decrease in abdominal fat was associated with a decrease in the level of plasma triacylglycerols, but it was not associated with minimum de novo fatty acid synthesis in the whole body.
Study of Soybean Oil Hydrolysis Catalyzed by Thermomyces lanuginosus Lipase and Its Application to Biodiesel Production via Hydroesterification
Elisa d'Avila Cavalcanti-Oliveira,Priscila Rufino da Silva,Alessandra Pe anha Ramos,Donato Alexandre Gomes Aranda,Denise Maria Guimar es Freire
Enzyme Research , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/618692
Abstract: The process of biodiesel production by the hydroesterification route that is proposed here involves a first step consisting of triacylglyceride hydrolysis catalyzed by lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus (TL 100L) to generate free fatty acids (FFAs). This step is followed by esterification of the FFAs with alcohol, catalyzed by niobic acid in pellets or without a catalyst. The best result for the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis was obtained under reaction conditions of 50% (v/v) soybean oil and 2.3% (v/v) lipase (25 U/mL of reaction medium) in distilled water and at 60°C; an 89% conversion rate to FFAs was obtained after 48 hours of reaction. For the esterification reaction, the best result was with an FFA/methanol molar ratio of 1:3, niobic acid catalyst at a concentration of 20% (w/w FFA), and 200°C, which yielded 92% conversion of FFAs to soy methyl esters after 1 hour of reaction. This study is exceptional because both the hydrolysis and the esterification use a simple reaction medium with high substrate concentrations.
Dietary Soybean Oil, but Not Krabok Oil, Diminishes Abdominal Fat Deposition in Broiler Chickens  [PDF]
Sasiphan Wongsuthavas,Chalermpon Yuangklang,Suntorn Wittayakun,Kraisit Vasupen
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2007,
Abstract: In broiler chickens we tested the hypothesis that dietary fats rich in medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCT) would diminish abdominal fat deposition as do fats rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Broiler chickens were fed on diets containing either tallow, which is rich in Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA), soybean oil, which is rich in PUFA, or krabok oil, which is rich in MCT. Krabok oil was isolated from the seeds of a tree (Irvingia malayana) grown widely in tropical and subtropical areas. Growth performance was not significantly affected by the type of dietary fat. Possibly, the production of krabok oil for use in broiler rations may become economically relevant. The diets containing either soybean oil or krabok oil showed a significantly higher apparent fat digestibility than did the diet containing tallow. In keeping with earlier investigations, dietary soybean oil versus tallow significantly lowered abdominal fat deposition, the lowering being 21%. The feeding of krabok oil instead of tallow did not affect the weight of abdominal fat, which would lead to rejection of our hypothesis.
An alternative process for hydrogenation of sunflower oil  [cached]
Rosana de Cassia de Souza Schneider,Luciano Roni Silva Lara,Marcia Martinelli
Orbital : the Electronic Journal of Chemistry , 2010,
Abstract: Classic methodologies for hydrogenation of vegetable oils have traditionally been carried out by nickel catalysts under high pressure of H2 and high temperature. An alternative method for hydrogenation of sunflower oil using limonene and palladium-on-carbon was investigated in this study. The use of limonene as a hydrogen donor solvent was proposed in order to avoid high temperature and high-pressure conditions. The catalytic transfer of hydrogenation was studied by using 0.5 to 2% of Pd as a catalyst, a limonene:oil ratio of 3:1, and reaction times from 0.5 to 2 hours. Under these conditions, high selectivities for oleic acid and low concentrations of stearic acid were obtained.
Modification of Beef Tallow Fractions by Chemical and Enzymatic Interesterification with Sunflower Oil
Malgorzata Kowalska,Witold Bekas,Eliza Gruczynska,Boleslaw Kowalski
Journal of Food Technology , 2013,
Abstract: Mixtures of beef tallow stearin and beef tallow olein were interesterified with sunflower oil using sodium methoxide or immobilized lipases from Rhisomucor miehei (Lipozyme IM) and Candida antarctica (Novozym 435). The starting fats and the interesterified products were separated into the triacylglycerol and non-triacylglycerol fractions, which contained free fatty acids and mono- and diacylglycerols. After interesterification, the contents of free fatty acids and of mono- and diacyloglycerols increased. The slip melting point and solid fat content of the triacylglycerol fractions of the interesterified samples containing stearin and sunflower oil were lower compared with the nonesterified blends. For the interesterified mixtures containing olein and sunflower oil, the opposite dependencies for slip melting point and solid fat content were observed. The total fatty acid composition of fats before and after interesterifications remained unchanged but their distributions between sn-1, 3 and sn-2 positions were modified depending on the catalysts used. These distributions were random after chemical interesterification and close to random when Novozym 435 was used. When Lipozyme IM was used the fatty acid composition at sn-2 position remained practically unchanged compared with the starting blend.
Effect of vegetable oil oxidation on the hydrogenation reaction process
Kalantari, Faranak,Bahmaei, Manochehr,Ameri, Majid,Shoaei, Ehsan
Grasas y Aceites , 2010, DOI: 10.3989/gya.123209
Abstract: Hydrogenation has been carried out in a batch reactor with three different oxidized bleached oils in order to discover the effect of oxidation on the hydrogenation reaction process. Specifications of hydrogenated oils such as melting point, Iodine value, solid fat content and fatty acid composition of the oxidized oils were compared with their un-oxidized reference oils. Oxidized bleached sunflower oil was hydrogenated to target melting points (34, 39 and 42°C) at higher iodine values vs. its reference oil with the same reaction time. Oxidized bleached soybean and canola oils were hydrogenated to target melting points (34, 39 and 42°C) at higher iodine values as well, but reaction times were longer than their reference oils. The resulting solid fat content and total trans fatty acids of all hydrogenated oils were less than their references. A peroxide value above 0.5meq O2/kg for non auto-oxidized oils and above 5meq O2/kg for auto-oxidized oils will significantly change the hydrogenation process. La hidrogenación fue llevada cabo en un reactor discontinuo con tres aceites decoloradas y oxidadas con objeto de estudiar el efecto de la oxidación en el proceso de hidrogenación. Las especificaciones de los aceites hidrogenados tales como el punto de fusión, índice de yodo, contenido de grasa sólida y composición de ácidos grasos de los aceites oxidados fueron comparados con sus correspondientes aceites de referencia sin oxidar. El aceite de girasol decolorado y oxidado fue hidrogenado hasta alcanzar un punto de fusión (34, 39 and 42°C) con altos índices de yodo versus su aceite de referencia con el mismo tiempo de reacción. Aceites decolorado y oxidado de soja y de canola fueron hidrogenados hasta alcanzar puntos de fusión (34,39 y 42°C) con altos valores de yodo, pero los tiempo de reacción fueron más largos que en sus aceites de referencia. Los resultados del contenido de grasa sólida y ácidos grasos trans de todos los aceites hidrogenados fueron menores que sus correspondientes referencias. Un valor de peróxidos sobre 0.5 meq O2/kg para aceites no autooxidados y sobre 5 meq O2/ kg cambiara significativamente el proceso de hidrogenación.
Preparation of Semi-Solid Fats by Chemical Interesterification
Shahla Sanaz,Hamidi Ali Asghar
Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Preparation of semi-solid fats by chemical interesterification of blends with different weight percents from beef tallow, sunflower oil and soybean oil has been investigated. Blends of 25-70% beef tallow with sunflower and soybean oils have been chemically interesterified under these conditions: (temperature: 100-110°C, time: 60 min under 150 mmHg vacuum and adding 0.5 wt% of sodium methoxide as catalyst). Interesterified products were analyzed for melting point by wiley and capillary methods, iodine value by Hanus method, and SFC in 10, 20, 30 and 40°C by NMR method. Interesterified blends of 25% tallow and 75% sunflower oil got melting point and iodine value confirmed with national standard no. 143 of Iran for margarine, in addition to low SFC in 40°C. Interesterified blends of 30-70 wt% tallow with sunflower and soybean oils got melting point and iodine value confirmed with national standard no. 156 of Iran for confectionary fats. Interesterified products contained at most 2.1% trans-fatty acids that derived from the tallow fraction which originally contained 3.4% trans-fatty acids resulted from microbial hydrogenation in rumen.
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