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协同治理型群众组织与“乡政村治”体制转轨
The Collaborative Governance Mass Organization and the Transformation of “Township Government and Rural Autonomy”
 [PDF]

徐晓全
- , 2015,
Abstract: 我国乡村治理中近年来出现的一种由政府积极培育和扶持广泛参与乡村治理事务并且具有深厚群众基础的新型社会组织,对乡村治理体制产生了显著影响。本文以山东新泰平安协会和广东云浮自然村乡贤理事会为案例,分析这种新型社会组织对乡村治理体制的影响。通过对两个案例的归纳发现,二者具有职能上的治理性、组织上的群众性和运作上的协同性三个显著特征,并由此决定了它们既不同于准政府组织,也不同于非政府组织。本文用“协同治理型群众组织”来概括这种社会组织,并且分析认为协同治理型群众组织嵌入到当前乡村治理体制中,搭建了政府与社会良性互动的平台,实现了自治与行政的合理分工与有效衔接,从而推动了“乡政村治”的体制性转轨。
In recent years, A new type of social organization of rural governance by the government to actively foster and support the broad participation of rural governance matters and has a solid mass foundation for rural governance system had a significant impact. This article takes Xintai ping-an associations in Shandong province and Yunfu Xiang-xian associations in Guangdong province as examples, to analyze the impact of this new social organization. By generalizing the two cases, we found that there are three significant features as the functions of governance, organizational mass and collaborative work thus their decision is different from the quasi-governmental organizations, but also from NGO. In this article, we use "collaborative governance mass organization " to sum up the new type social organization, and analyze that collaborative governance mass organization embedded in the current system of rural governance, build a platform for positive interaction between the Government and society,achieve a reasonable division of labor and administrative autonomy and effective interface, thereby promoting the transition of " township government and rural autonomy " system.
网络公共领域发展与新型政社关系建构  [PDF]
吴青熹
- , 2017,
Abstract: 现代思想家在关于国家和社会关系的问题上形成了社会本体论与国家本体论两种不同立场,但实际上,无论是强调市民社会,还是强调作为最高公共机构的国家,其背后所关注的问题都指向“公共领域”。公共领域是指公共讨论涉及国家活动并能形成公共意见的领域,其核心是通过媒介形成的、能够主导社会舆论的意见场域。互联网的兴起引发传统政社关系的巨大变迁,最显著的表现就是由于社会化媒体的发展所产生的新型网络公共领域。要建构适应互联网时代需要的新型政社关系,需要对网络政治公共领域进行治理,其中最重要的是,政府要找到不同网络社群对话的“合意空间”,并成为网络舆论规则的制定者、公共议题的设置者和公共规则的维护者,从而形成具有正能量的网络舆情,以此来掌握“文化领导权”
Modern thinkers have formed two different standpoints( i.e. social ontology and national ontology)about the relationship between state and society. But in fact, concerning the relationship between the stateas the supreme public institution and the civil society,the issue of which goes first is closely related to theconception of public sphere. The notion of public sphere refers to the field where the citizens’ discussions onnational activities can form public opinions. The core of public sphere is the opinion field formed by the ideasthat can lead the social mentality through the mediation by the mass media. The rise of the Internet has causedgreat changes in traditional social relations. The most notable is due to the development of social media inthe new networked public sphere. The construction of a new type of relationship between state and society inline with the era of the Internet requires the effective governance of the networked political public sphere. Themost important is that the government should explore the consensus space where different social groups onthe Internet can have a dialogue and play a decisive role in making the rules governing the production of thenetwork public opinions,setting the public agenda and safeguarding the public rules. All this can help form thepositive network public opinions,which can be employed to take the cultural leadership
乡村振兴战略背景下的村社集体:现状与未来  [PDF]
作  者:陈柏峰
- , 2018,
Abstract: 在乡村振兴战略背景下,如何定位村社集体制度,这是一个基础性问题,需要经由现状思考未来。当代中国村社集体经历了长期的历史发展过程,它是人民公社体制瓦解后实行家庭联产承包责任制的产物。村社集体的有效运转有其深厚的制度基础,包括正式的土地集体所有和家庭承包制度,也包括非正式的土地调整制度和村社集体建设诸制度。总体而言,村社集体至今在农民生产方面和生活方面仍然承担着不可或缺的重要功能。未来村社集体需要维系其基本格局,但也会伴随城市化进程和农业经济的发展而变化,城市近郊村庄集体可能虚化甚至消失, 农业生产的村社集体还需进一步强化,强大的村社集体是乡村振兴战略在这类农村有效实施的基础条件
“村改社”过程中的社区文化建设:困境与出路  [PDF]
吴记峰,吴晓燕?
天府新论 , 2010,
Abstract: "村庄改建成社区(简称‘村改社’)"是近几年一些地方探索出的一条建设社会主义新农村的新路径,新社区的形成需要社区文化来粘接和整合,而新社区的文化建设面临着传统价值观的沦丧以及社区居民公民意识淡薄等诸多问题。因此,必须从政治、经济、文化等方面着手,探寻原因,找寻出路,促进整个"村改社"工程的以及社会主义新农村建设的顺利推进。
村社消解背景下失地农民的日常抗争――以征地型社区为例  [PDF]
朱静辉,马洪君
南京农业大学学报(社会科学版) , 2014,
Abstract: 以土地被征收型农村社区的失地农民行为作为研究对象,对失地农民与村社集体的关系互动作一长时段的梳理。征地型社区的国家强势介入导致村民无力与国家对抗,但在与集体互动中,村民却不断产生日常抗争来追求集体收益的再分配。失地农民的日常抗争是特定背景下的自我利益争取,是在社区解构中追求确定性的风险防范逻辑。抗争的前提是村社无法保护村民,只能通过自身利益的套现获得安全感。国家的行政吸纳、乡村利益共同体生成以及村庄结构分化等多种力量的交融中,村落共同体瓦解,村社集体作为村社村民的保障和公共服务职能流失,村社归属感消逝,失地型农民的合作性资源动员能力也被消解。作为失去土地的单个个体被甩入市场,农民产生了个人主义的行动导向,正是这一个体主义取向坚定和明确了失地农民坚持村社集体资产的均分原则,坚持个体自我利益索取的导向。
“科教兴村”计划与贫困地区教育治贫  [PDF]
冯庆,马骏,向安强,陈菁,阮灶新
科技进步与对策 , 2003,
Abstract: 分析了“科教兴村”计划的实施原则和重点,讨论了教育优先在贫困地区的实施,指出了我国贫困地区教育存在的问题,提出了我国贫困地区教育治贫的对策。科教兴村贫困地区教育优先教育治贫
政社合作困境及其症结探讨——社区共融项目“内卷化”现象分析
Crux of the dilemma of government and social cooperation: Behind of a “Community Inclusion” project
 [PDF]

范雅娜
- , 2016, DOI: 10.11835/j.issn.1008-5831.2016.01.027
Abstract: S市P区"社区共融"项目的产生是建立在需求契合基础上的政社互动合作的结果。项目前期所取得的显著成效证实了统战领域"政社合作"的初步成功。然而,随着项目的逐步推进,该项目的运作困境逐渐显现,出现"内卷化"现象:购买形式不统一;项目目标大而化之;权责关系不明确;统战社工定位模糊;项目开展专业空间不足;统战社工人才流失率较高,难以保持稳定的专业团队。进一步分析,发现政社合作困境源于三个不足,即基层政府部门的认识不足、社会组织的公信力不足、社工人才队伍及专业空间不足。构筑政府与社会组织健康、良性的合作互动关系,需要双方共同努力。
The "Community Inclusion" project in S City P District is the result of government and social cooperation which built on the basis of demand fit. Remarkable results achieved in pre-project confirmed the initial success of "government and social cooperation" in the United Front field. However, with the gradual progress of the project, the project gradually appeared operation dilemma, a phenomenon called "involution": purchasing form is not uniform; project objectives bold aesthetic; accountability relationship is not clear; social workers in the United Front field are left in an ambiguous position; the project is undertaken by the lack of professional space; the wastage rate of social workers in the United Front field is higher and a stable professional team is difficult to maintain. Through further analysis, we find that the dilemma of government and social cooperation stems from the "three deficiencies": lack of knowledge of grassroots government departments; lack of credibility of social organization; lack of social work personnel and professional space. Government and community organizations need to make joint efforts in order to build a healthy, positive cooperative interaction.
村寨里的纸文明——中国少数民族村社剪纸传统研究  [PDF]
乔晓光
重庆大学学报 , 2014,
Abstract: 文化的定义是多元的,不同民族社群、地区、国家对文化的界定也随着其价值观念和社会生活等因素而不同,其中无论是有形还是无形的表现形式都是文化活态具体的一面。文章针对联合国教科文组织非物质文化遗产概念和内涵,提出并分析了“活态文化”的概念,同时,介绍了村寨及城市对活态文化传统延续的意义。以剪纸为例,通过对中国30多个民族的剪纸相关习俗的研究调查,证明了多民族剪纸研究的重要意义,阐述了以剪纸为载体的文化现象对世界文化的影响。文中简单归纳了中国各民族村社剪纸的现状及问题,呼吁对中国民间传统非物质文化的保护和传承。
失地农民问题探析――以重庆市渝北区统景镇原同心村五社为例  [PDF]
刘民培,翁玲,颜洪平
热带农业科学 , 2011,
Abstract: 基于对重庆市渝北区统景镇原同心村五社进行的实地调查,首先对失地农民的问题,如大量征地征而未开发导致失地农民与政府矛盾加剧,政策不断变化失地农民损失惨重,征地补偿费过低侵害失地农民权益,失地农民的社会保障未得到落实,就业无路和安置无果等进行了分析,然后提出了通过土地换保障和创新失地农民社会保障基金的管理等相应的解决失地农民问题的方法。
分利型村治中的贿选与村级权力正当性――基于L村选举史的讨论  [PDF]
仝志辉
南京农业大学学报(社会科学版) , 2016,
Abstract: 文章通过一个村庄的选举史叙述,解析了竞争性选举和土地派系、分利型村治形成的复杂关系,并在村庄治理背景下展现了贿选的成因和多重治理功能,从而形成对竞争性选举制度与村庄权力正当性的多维度理解。研究表明:土地派系存在和形成于村级治理过程之中,构成村庄分利秩序的基础性结构;分利型村治在竞争性选举中强化并逐步和选举互相依赖,但选举本身并未能提高村级权力的正当性;贿选强化分利型村治,增强了其公平性,一定程度上提高了村级权力正当性;竞争性选举与村级权力正当性之间的关系复杂。文章意在挑战民主选举提升村庄权力正当性的既有理解,并借以重新开启村级权力产生途径的探讨。
Based on the history of village election, the present paper analyzed the complicated relationship involving competitive election and farm-land factions and interest-share-type village governance, and elaborated on the causes of bribery election and multi-administration function in the background of village governance, so that the multi-dimensional understanding of competitive election and village power legitimacy is formed. The study showed that the rise of farm-land factions and their existence in the process of village governance gave rise to the basic structure of village-interest-share order. Interest-share-type village governance was enhanced and gradually formed a mutual inter-dependent relationship with elections in the competitive election, but the election itself never upgraded the legitimacy of village powers. Bribery-election strengthened the interest-share-type village governance, promoted its fairness and raised the village power legitimacy to a higher level to some extent. Hence, the relationship between competitive election and village power legitimacy is complicated. The present paper aimed at challenging the existing conception on democratic election’s promotion of village power legitimacy, and thereby resurrecting the discussion on village power generation paths
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