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协同治理型群众组织与“乡政村治”体制转轨
The Collaborative Governance Mass Organization and the Transformation of “Township Government and Rural Autonomy”
 [PDF]

徐晓全
- , 2015,
Abstract: 我国乡村治理中近年来出现的一种由政府积极培育和扶持广泛参与乡村治理事务并且具有深厚群众基础的新型社会组织,对乡村治理体制产生了显著影响。本文以山东新泰平安协会和广东云浮自然村乡贤理事会为案例,分析这种新型社会组织对乡村治理体制的影响。通过对两个案例的归纳发现,二者具有职能上的治理性、组织上的群众性和运作上的协同性三个显著特征,并由此决定了它们既不同于准政府组织,也不同于非政府组织。本文用“协同治理型群众组织”来概括这种社会组织,并且分析认为协同治理型群众组织嵌入到当前乡村治理体制中,搭建了政府与社会良性互动的平台,实现了自治与行政的合理分工与有效衔接,从而推动了“乡政村治”的体制性转轨。
In recent years, A new type of social organization of rural governance by the government to actively foster and support the broad participation of rural governance matters and has a solid mass foundation for rural governance system had a significant impact. This article takes Xintai ping-an associations in Shandong province and Yunfu Xiang-xian associations in Guangdong province as examples, to analyze the impact of this new social organization. By generalizing the two cases, we found that there are three significant features as the functions of governance, organizational mass and collaborative work thus their decision is different from the quasi-governmental organizations, but also from NGO. In this article, we use "collaborative governance mass organization " to sum up the new type social organization, and analyze that collaborative governance mass organization embedded in the current system of rural governance, build a platform for positive interaction between the Government and society,achieve a reasonable division of labor and administrative autonomy and effective interface, thereby promoting the transition of " township government and rural autonomy " system.
中国农村社会治理40年:从“乡政村治”到“村社协同”——湖北的表述
Social Governance in Rural China (1978-2018)——Hubei’s Story
 [PDF]

吴理财
- , 2018,
Abstract: 摘要 改革开放40年来,我国农村先后进行了农村土地经营和农村税费体制两大改革。与之相伴随的是,农村社会治理大致经过了两波重大变迁。如果说前一波变迁主要发生在“国家”与乡村社会之间,其主要成果是“政社分开”,形成“乡政村治”的农村治理体制;那么后一波变迁主要发生在乡村社会之内,触及乡村社会自身结构及其“灵魂”,其主要表征是“空心化”“个体化”。当前的因应之策便是在村民自治的基础上引入德治和法治,企望通过自治、德治、法治相结合,构建党委领导、政府负责、社会协同、公众参与、法治保障的现代农村社会治理体制。
Abstract:In the past 40 years since the reform and opening up, China’s rural areas have carried out two major reforms in rural land management and rural tax and fee system, along with two major changes in rural social governance. If the first wave of change mainly occurs between the “country” and the rural society, the main result of which is “the separation of politics and society” and the formation of the rural governance system of “township government and village self-governance”; then the latter change mainly occurs within the rural society and touches the structure of the rural society itself and its “soul”, which is mainly characterized by “hollowing-out” and “individualization”. The current policy is to introduce the rule of virtue and the rule of law on the basis of villagers’ autonomy, and hopes to build a modern rural social governance system with the leadership of the Party committee, the responsibility of the government, the social coordination, the public participation and the guarantee of the rule of law, through the combination of autonomy,the rule of virtue and the rule of law.
试论农地流转背景下乡村治理的优化
On Optimization of Rural Governance Under Background of Rural Land Transfer
 [PDF]

吴光毅,胡尊让
- , 2016,
Abstract: 改革开放以来,农村家庭联产承包责任制的确立促成了农村“乡政村治”的治理格局。然而近年来,随着农地流转在广大农村地区兴起并产生新的利益主体,“乡政村治”治理格局呈现出参与主体扩大化和利益诉求多元化的趋势。新兴利益主体与原有“乡政村治”治理格局下的参与者既存在利益关联,又有利益冲突,原有的“乡政村治”治理格局需要与时俱进进行调整。分析农地流转背景下相关利益主体各自的角色期望和行为方式,基于农地流转的利益关系,将各利益主体置于共同参与的乡村治理框架下,并探索治理的优化,是今后广大农村地区深化改革发展的重要议题。
Since the reform and opening up, the rural household contract responsibility system has led to the establishment of rural “township politics and village autonomy” governance pattern. However in recent years, with the circulation of farmland in rural area and the rise of new subjects of interests, the “township politics and village governance” governance pattern is facing a trend of participants expansion and interests diversification. Emerging stakeholders and the participants of the original “township politics and village governance”governance pattern are associated with the interests, and also have a conflict of interests, and the original “township politics and village governance” governance structure needs to keep pace with the times to adjust. Upon analyzing the respective role expectation and motivation of relevant stakeholders under the background of rural land circulation, it is found an important issue to explore management optimization in the vast rural areas to deepen the reform development with the participation of various stakeholders in agricultural land transfer and rural governance framework.
农民合作社功能“嵌入”与村治模式改良
Economic Development, Rural Cooperative and Improvement of Village Governance Mode: A Comparative Study Based on Multi-cases
 [PDF]

张益丰,陈莹钰,潘晓飞
- , 2016,
Abstract: 村治模式改良既关系到乡村综合治理的顺利开展,也为农业生产的可持续提供制度保障。通过多案例比较分析,研究证实乡村善治的基础是对社区经济资源的有效掌控;利用经济资源为农业社区提供优质的农村社会化服务将成为农业社区治理优化的保证;短期内实现合作社与村两委领导者职能重叠,达到经济发展与社会服务供给同步,可以降低农村社区综合治理成本,提高乡村治理成效;中长期内赋予农民合作社更多综合性服务功能,使其在发展农村合作经济的同时为农业社区提供社会化服务,形成乡村治理良性运作。
The improvement of village governance mode could not only influence the efficiency of rural governance, but also support the institutional guarantee of agricultural sustainable development. In this paper, by using three cases, the study confirmed that the foundation of good rural governance is the effective control of the economic resources of the community. To provide quality of rural social services, utilizing economic resources for agricultural community will become the guarantee of the optimization of agricultural community governance. In the short period, overlapping the governance functions of rural special cooperative leaders and village committee leaders can achieve the synchronous development of economy and the supply of social services. Meanwhile, it also can reduce the costs of rural community comprehensive management and improve the efficiency of the rural governance. In the medium and long term, giving more comprehensive service functions to rural special cooperative can provide more effective social services for the agricultural community, and will form a virtuous operation of rural governance.
农地制度改革中的村治结构变迁
The Change of Village Governance Structure in China’s Farmland System Reform
 [PDF]

王敬尧,王承禹
- , 2018,
Abstract: 建国以来,我国农村土地经历了运动式的规模经营、家户制的个体经营和市场化的规模经营三次大的农业经营制度变迁,村庄治理结构也相应地发生了三次嬗变。农地规模经营背景下,内生型工商资本对村庄治理的影响具有多样性,而外来资本对村庄治理结构的冲击,使得村庄经历了治理主体的非对等性进出、治理资源的非均衡性流动和治理方式的非规范性建构。研究发现,村组织、地方政府和国家政策是影响现阶段村庄治理结构的重要变量。因此,本文拟从坚持村社自主性、健全利益协调机制、发展基层治理体制、优化惠农政策的实施细节、培育内生型新型经营主体和追踪总结试点经验几个方面提出改进建议,以回应村庄治理结构的变迁。
Since the founding of the PRC, China has experienced three major changes of the farmland management system:the People"s Commune stage, the household responsibility system stage and the farmland scale management stage, the village governance structure also has occurred three changes along with the process. In the context of the farmland scale management, the native agricultural enterprises have a complicated impact on the village governance structure, and the external capital have a great impact on the village governance structure, leading to pluralism of governance subject, unbalanced flow of governance resource and nonstandard establishment of governance style. The study found that village organizations, local governments and national policies are important variables that affect the village governance structure at this stage. Therefore, this paper puts forward some suggestions to improve the village governance structure from the aspects of adherence to the "village autonomy", the improvement of the interest coordination mechanisms, the development of the grassroots governance system, the optimization of the implementation details of the benefiting-agriculture policies, the cultivation of the native new agriculture management subjects and the follow-up of the pilot experience.
村级治理的“寡头定律”及其解释
The Oligarchy of Village Governance and Its Explanation
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印子
- , 2018,
Abstract: 村级治理定位为供给公共品、培育现代公民和促进国家政权建设。国家治理转型和乡土社会变迁催生出的“富人治村”是乡村治理嬗变的表象。村级治理在权威结构、资源配置和利益攫取等方面呈现出寡头特征,灰色利益生产、精英结盟和政治庇护促成寡头治理再生产。外生性利益输入和乡土弱社会成为寡头治村的形塑要件。村级治理的“寡头定律”界定出资源下乡时代乡村政治实践的本质特征,寡头治村的相对固化消解掉村级治理的基本目标。面对普遍存在的村庄寡头政治,乡村振兴战略提出后基层治理能力的现代化,超越基层民主建设命题,对以县为主的地方治理提出深刻而直接的挑战。
The purpose of village governance is to provide public goods,cultivate modern citizens and promote the construction of state power. The phenomenon of villages governed by the rich originated from the transformation of the state and the change of the local society,which illustrates the evolution of rural governance. Village-level governance presents oligarchic features in the aspects of authoritative structure,resource allocation and profit taking. Gray interest production,elite alliance and political asylum structure contribute to reproduction of the oligarchy of village governance. Benefit from external input and the rural weak community are fundamental for the shaping of oligarchic village. The “oligarchy” of village governance defines the essential characteristics of rural political practice in the era of source distribution to rural areas. The relative solidification of oligarchic village breaks down the basic goal of village governance. Confronted by the prevalence of oligarchy in village governance,the rural revitalization strategy proposes to advocate the modernization of ability and democracy construction in village governance,which presents a profound and direct challenge to county-based local governance.
基层规范型治理的基础与运行机制――基于南京市W村的经验分析  [PDF]
冷波
南京农业大学学报(社会科学版) , 2018,
Abstract: 在国家治理现代化的要求下,规范型治理成为基层治理的方向。规范型治理需要一定的社会基础和制度基础,否则优化治理体系并不必然提升治理能力。南京市W村的治理实践表明:在城市化的背景下,W村乡村社会程式化以及公共行政规范化的程度比较高,通过优化治理体系,塑造了规范型治理模式。村级组织在实际运行过程中,通过构建规则本位的治理机制、责权明晰的分工机制和办事留痕的免责机制,实现了村级治理规范、有效和村治格局稳定。治理现代化与城市化有着密切的关系,只有适应城市的治理方式,规范型治理模式才能有效运转,治理现代化才能真正实现。
Under the requirement of national governance modernization, normative governance represents the direction of grassroots governance. Normative governance involves a certain amount of foundation, otherwise, the mere optimization of the governance system cannot guarantee the improvement of governance. The governance practice of the W Village in Nanjing shows that under the background of urbanization, the degree of stylization of rural society and the standardization of public administration in the W Village are relatively high, and through the optimization of governance system, a normative governance model is shaped. In the process of actual operation, the village nominative governance and effective village governance and stable governance pattern have been realized through the establishment of the rule-based governance mechanism, the clear division of responsibilities and rights mechanism, and the disclaimer traces of the work mechanism. There is a close relationship between governance modernization and urbanization. Only by adapting to the urban governance mode, can the normative governance model be effectively operated and the governance modernization truly realized
借助社区发展基金促进社区善治—基于XJ县MN村社区发展基金项目的案例分析
To Promote Good Community Governance with the Community Development Fund—Case Study on MN Village, XJ County Community Development Fund Project
 [PDF]

高名姿, 韩伟, 陈东平
Advances in Social Sciences (ASS) , 2016, DOI: 10.12677/ASS.2016.51001
Abstract:
中国农村社区破碎化引起广泛关注,这极大影响了社区善治的实现。如何解决这个问题?本文提出了借助社区发展基金,重构村民互动网络和社区规范,实现社区善治的构思。本文用XJ县MN村的社区发展基金实践对此框架做了实证分析,结果显示,社区发展基金可以成为重构社区社会资本,实现社区善治的有效工具。
Chinese rural community fragmentation, which greatly affects the community to achieve good go-vernance, has caused widespread concern. How to solve this problem? In this paper, the idea of good community governance is achieved by using the community development fund to reconstruct villagers’ interactive network and community norms. In this paper, an empirical analysis on MN Village, XJ County community development fund project is proposed. It showed that the Community Development Fund could be an effective tool for the reconstruction of community social capital, and good governance of community.
分利型村治中的贿选与村级权力正当性――基于L村选举史的讨论  [PDF]
仝志辉
南京农业大学学报(社会科学版) , 2016,
Abstract: 文章通过一个村庄的选举史叙述,解析了竞争性选举和土地派系、分利型村治形成的复杂关系,并在村庄治理背景下展现了贿选的成因和多重治理功能,从而形成对竞争性选举制度与村庄权力正当性的多维度理解。研究表明:土地派系存在和形成于村级治理过程之中,构成村庄分利秩序的基础性结构;分利型村治在竞争性选举中强化并逐步和选举互相依赖,但选举本身并未能提高村级权力的正当性;贿选强化分利型村治,增强了其公平性,一定程度上提高了村级权力正当性;竞争性选举与村级权力正当性之间的关系复杂。文章意在挑战民主选举提升村庄权力正当性的既有理解,并借以重新开启村级权力产生途径的探讨。
Based on the history of village election, the present paper analyzed the complicated relationship involving competitive election and farm-land factions and interest-share-type village governance, and elaborated on the causes of bribery election and multi-administration function in the background of village governance, so that the multi-dimensional understanding of competitive election and village power legitimacy is formed. The study showed that the rise of farm-land factions and their existence in the process of village governance gave rise to the basic structure of village-interest-share order. Interest-share-type village governance was enhanced and gradually formed a mutual inter-dependent relationship with elections in the competitive election, but the election itself never upgraded the legitimacy of village powers. Bribery-election strengthened the interest-share-type village governance, promoted its fairness and raised the village power legitimacy to a higher level to some extent. Hence, the relationship between competitive election and village power legitimacy is complicated. The present paper aimed at challenging the existing conception on democratic election’s promotion of village power legitimacy, and thereby resurrecting the discussion on village power generation paths
清代徽州家政与乡族社会的善治  [PDF]
胡中生
安徽大学学报(哲学社会科学版) , 2013,
Abstract: 清代,徽州家族形成了一整套教化体系,家政是其中的重要一环,强调理财、周恤和家族事务性管理,从中可以看到徽州人的“收族”理念。家政的制度化及其实施,是徽州家族组织化的进一步体现,也是儒家伦理纲常世俗化的体现,从而使徽州乡族社会达到一种善治。
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