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De Novo Assembly of Auricularia polytricha Transcriptome Using Illumina Sequencing for Gene Discovery and SSR Marker Identification  [PDF]
Yan Zhou, Lianfu Chen, Xiuzhi Fan, Yinbing Bian
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091740
Abstract: Auricularia polytricha (Mont.) Sacc., a type of edible black-brown mushroom with a gelatinous and modality-specific fruiting body, is in high demand in Asia due to its nutritional and medicinal properties. Illumina Solexa sequenceing technology was used to generate very large transcript sequences from the mycelium and the mature fruiting body of A. polytricha for gene discovery and molecular marker development. De novo assembly generated 36,483 ESTs with an N50 length of 636 bp. A total of 28,108 ESTs demonstrated significant hits with known proteins in the nr database, and 94.03% of the annotated ESTs showed the greatest similarity to A. delicata, a related species of A. polytricha. Functional categorization of the Gene Ontology (GO), Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) metabolic pathways revealed the conservation of genes involved in various biological processes in A. polytricha. Gene expression profile analysis indicated that a total of 2,057 ESTs were differentially expressed, including 1,020 ESTs that were up-regulated in the mycelium and 1,037 up-regulated in the fruiting body. Functional enrichment showed that the ESTs associated with biosynthesis, metabolism and assembly of proteins were more active in fruiting body development. The expression patterns of homologous transcription factors indicated that the molecular mechanisms of fruiting body formation and development were not exactly the same as for other agarics. Interestingly, an EST encoding tyrosinase was significantly up-regulated in the fruiting body, indicating that melanins accumulated during the processes of the formation of the black-brown color of the fruiting body in A. polytricha development. In addition, a total of 1,715 potential SSRs were detected in this transcriptome. The transcriptome analysis of A. polytricha provides valuable sequence resources and numerous molecular markers to facilitate further functional genomics studies and genetic researches on this fungus.
Removal of Emulsified Oil from Water by Fruiting Bodies of Macro-Fungus (Auricularia polytricha)  [PDF]
Xunan Yang, Mengting Guo, Yinghai Wu, Qunhe Wu, Renduo Zhang
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095162
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of utilizing the fruiting bodies of a jelly macro-fungus Auricularia polytricha as adsorbents to remove emulsified oil from water. The effects of several factors, including temperature, initial pH, agitation speed, and adsorbent dosage, were taken into account. Results showed that the optimized conditions for adsorption of A. polytricha were a temperature of 35°C, pH of 7.5, and agitation speed of 100 rpm. The adsorption kinetics were characterized by the pseudo-first order model, which showed the adsorption to be a fast physical process. The Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm described the adsorption very well and predicted the maximum adsorption capacity of 398 mg g?1, under optimized conditions. As illustrated by scanning electron micrographs, the oil particles were adsorbed onto the hairs covering the bottom surface and could be desorbed by normal temperature volatilization. The material could be used as an emulsified oil adsorbent at least three times, retaining more than 95% of the maximum adsorption capacity. The results demonstrated that the fruiting bodies of A. polytricha can be a useful adsorbent to remove emulsified oil from water.

ZHAO DA-ZHEN,WANG CHAO-JIANGAgrophysics,Plant Physiology,Biochemistry Institute,Hebei Academy of Agricultural,Forestry Sciences,Shijiazhuang,

菌物学报 , 1991,
Abstract: A new variety of the species Auricularia polytricha,i.e.Auricula- ria polyptricha var.argentea D.Z.Zhao et C.J.Wang from Hebei in China was described in this paper.The sporophore is pure white on dead wood of Ulmus. Through five years and three generations domesticating cultivation,it was proved that all the desirable charaters of this new variety were stable,namely,its beautiful appearance with the pure white color,big and thick fruit bodies,tolerance to high temperatures,resistance to high trichoderma contaminations,high biological effici- ency,nutritious,and good taste.
Cultivation of the edible mushroom Auricularia polytricha using sawdustbased substrate made of three Indonesian commercial plantation species, Falcataria moluccana, Shorea sp., and Tectona grandis  [cached]
D. Irawati,C. Hayashi,Y. Takashima,S. Wedatama
Micología Aplicada Internacional , 2012,
Abstract: Auricularia polytricha is an edible mushroom, also known as black jelly. In Indonesia, although A. polytricha has been extensively cultured on the wood meal substrates, information is very limited on effects of wood meal from various tree species used for cultivation substrates on A. polytricha cultivation characteristic. An investigation, therefore, is needed to find suitable tree species for the substrate of A. polytricha cultivation. In this study, wood meals of 3 tropical hardwood species (Falcataria moluccana, Shorea sp., and Tectona grandis) from Indonesia were used as basal cultivation substrates. The fastest mycelia growth was found in the substrate made of Shorea sp., and the highest glucosamine content was found in the substrates made of Shorea sp. and F. moluccana. No significant difference in the period of time to the first harvest was found between F. moluccana (23 days) and Shorea sp. (25 days), whereas a significant difference was found in the interval between the following harvesting periods (7 and 10 days for substrates made of F. moluccana and Shorea sp., respectively). Over the entire cultivation period, the substrates made of F. moluccana produced the highest fruiting body yield, greatest biological conversion, and greatest weight loss from the substrate. These results indicate that F. moluccana wood meal is the appropriate basal substrate for A. polytricha cultivation.
Effect of oil palm kernel meal on yield of Hed Hu Hnu (Auricularia polytricha (Mont.) Sacc.) and Hed Khon Khao (Lentinus squarrosulus Mont.)
Petcharat, V.,Tongwised, A.
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2003,
Abstract: Hed Hu Hnu (Auricularia polytricha) and Hed Khon Khao (Lentinus squarrosulus) were cultivated on pararubber sawdust supplemented with oil palm kernel meal at different concentrations. Number of days for full colonization of the mycelia, number of days from expossure to 1st cropping time, and yield on oil palm kernel meal were compared to those supplemented with 5% rice bran. Depending on the results it was suggested that 5% and 15% of oil palm kernel meal was suitable for Hed Hu Hnu and Hed Khon Khao, respectively. Yield of A. polytricha on 950 g of sawdust + 5% oil palm kernel meal + 1% Ca(OH)2 was 380.58 g/bag (B.E. = 114.5%), during 90 days of harvesting time. L. squarrosulus needs more than 5% of oil palm kernel meal to support the higher yield. Cultivation of L. squarrosulus on 950 g of sawdust + 15% oil palm kernel meal + 1% Ca(OH)2 yielded 123.72 g/bag of basidiocarps (B.E = 37.2%), during 60 days of harvesting time.
Effects of Auricularia polytricha polysaccharide on mouse macrophage cytokine and iNOS gene expression
毛木耳Auricularia polytricha多糖APPIIA对巨噬细胞细胞因子和iNOS基因表达的影响

LUO Xia,YU Meng-Yao,JIANG Nan,XU Xiao-Yan,ZENG Jin,ZHENG Lin-Yong,

菌物学报 , 2009,
Abstract: 从毛木耳Auricularia polytricha子实体中分离得到了具有抗肿瘤作用的单一多糖组分APPIIA,采用SYBR Green Ⅰ指示的Real-time RT-PCR技术研究了它对小鼠巨噬细胞RAW 264.7中IL-1β,IL-6,TNF-α和一氧化氮(NO)合成关键酶iNOS基因在mRNA转录水平上的作用.采用Western-Blot技术,研究了APPIIA对RAW 264.7细胞生成iNOS蛋白的能力.研究发现,APPIIA能增强IL-1β,IL-6,TNF-α和NO合成关键酶iNOS基因的转录水平,并能增加iNOS蛋白的生成.推测APPIIA可能通过上调相关基因的表达,增加IL-1β,IL-6,TNF-α分泌和NO生成,从而实现其抗肿瘤的重要作用.
Pertumbuhan, Kandungan Protein, dan Sianida Jamur Kuping (Auricularia polytricha) pada Medium Tumbuh Serbuk Gergaji dan Ampas Tapioka dengan Penambahan Pupuk Urea  [PDF]
Bioteknologi , 2008,
Abstract: The aim of this research were to study growth and protein also cyanidemushroom Auricularia polytricha in medium sawdust and tapioca solid waste with urea fertilizer added. The research had done using the completely randomized design (RAL) with 2 variables. The first variable was various urea fertilizers with 4 rates of concentration (0 g; 2 g; 4 g; 8 g and 10 g). The second variable was various mixed sawdust and tapioca solid waste with 3 rates concentration i.e. medium without tapioca solid waste, mixed sawdust and tapioca solid waste 3.5: 1.5, mixed sawdust and tapioca solid waste 3.0: 1.0. Basidiocarp on mushroom wet weight, dry weight, percentage of water, protein and cyanide was measured and then data collected were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and followed by Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) with 5% of confidence level. The use of mixed medium of sawdust and tapioca solid waste of 3: 1 with increasing urea concentration have no effect increasing growth of basidiocarp wet weight, dry weight, percentage of water and protein content of basidiocarp. On the other hand, the mixed consisting of sawdust and tapioca solid waste of 3: 1 with concentrations of 4 g and 8 g of urea have resulted in the content of cyanide.
Kinetics and equilibrium of biosorption of Cd2+,Cu2+,Pb2+,Zn2+ by macrofungus(Auricularia polytricha) biomass

JIANG Xinyu,HUANG Haiwei,CAO Lixiang,ZHANG Renduo,

环境科学学报 , 2010,
Abstract: Using Auricularia polytricha as a biosorbent, we studied the effects of different factors, including contact time, pH, and heavy metal concentrations, on adsorption of Cd2+, Cu2+, Pb2+, Zn2+ by the biosorbent. Results showed that pH was the most influent factor for the biosorption. The optimum initial pH value was 5 for the maximum adsorption. With metal concentrations of 10 mg L-1, the maximum removals of Cd2+, Cu2+, Pb2+, Zn2+ by A. polytricha were 94.12%, 96.22%, 99.94%, and 99.19%, respectively. The pseudo-second-order kinetics model was better to characterize the biosorption processes of the metals than the pseudo-first-order kinetics model. Langmuir isotherm model was used to fit the equilibrium data successfully. The maximum biosorption capacities of A. polytricha were 10.09, 8.36, 23.57, and 3.64 mg g-1, respectively, for Cd2+, Cu2+, Pb2+, Zn2+. Ion exchange may be the main mechanism for the biosorption of Cd2+, Cu2+, Zn2+ by the biosorbent.
Caldasia , 2011,
Abstract: the phylogenetic relationship of the species of the genus auricularia and its allied taxa were investigated using the internal transcribed spacer (its) sequences of nuclear dna. a molecular phylogenetic tree constructed using a total of 17 samples representing five species and two outgroups indicate that the species of auricularia form a monophyletic group. within the genus auricularia, a. mesenterica is basal and the remaining auricularia species form three clades; first clade consisted of a. auricula-judae; the second clade of a. fuscosuccinea, and the third clade of a. polytricha.


菌物学报 , 2002,
Abstract: Molecular taxonomic relationships of the genus Auricularia, together with outgroup of Tremella, were studied using random amplified polymorphic DNA. Eight species of Auricularia and two species of Tremella were examined. The dendrogram derived from RAPD data by UPGMA suggested that the genera Auricularia and Tremella would be monophyletic. For Auricularia, three distinct genetic groups were recognized: the first included A. peltata and A. cornea; the second included all strains of A.auricula; the third included five morphological species of A. delicata, A. fuscosuccinea, A. polytricha, A. maxima and A. reticulata. This molecular taxonomy suggests that A.cornea and A. polytricha would be two different species and not synonymous, and the presence or absence of a medulla in cross-section of the basidiocarps would not indicate whether or not taxa are closely related.
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