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Law and Language in a Multilingual Society
Judge Louis Harms
Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad , 2012,
Abstract: Terence McKenna, in Wild Ducks Flying Backwards, said that he did not believe thatthe world is made of quarks or electro-magnetic waves, or stars, or planets, or of anysuch things. ’I believe’ he said, ‘the world is made of language.’ It would have beenmore correct to have said that the world is made of languages, many of them.The subject, Law and Language in a Multilingual Society, raises critical issues notonly for us in this country but also for others because language is part – the greaterpart – of one's culture. A people without a culture is said to be like a zebra withoutstripes. Culture, and not race, nationality, religion or border (natural or political),determines one's identity. As one of the founding fathers of the Afrikaans language,Rev SJ du Toit, wrote in 1891: language is a portrait of the soul and life of a nation;and it mirrors the character and intellectual development of a people (my translation).Unfortunately language tends to divide, more particularly, a multilingual society. Lawis supposed to close the divide but more often than not widens it and is used todeepen divisions. This is because the ruler determines the law and, consequently,the language of the law, in the belief that the use of language can be enforced fromabove. Law and language, like oil and water, do not mix although the former isdependent on the latter.
Marketing Process and the Road to Rule of Law of Chinese Society  [cached]
Wei-sen LI
Cross-Cultural Communication , 2005, DOI: 10.3968/1705
Abstract: With the development of Chinese marketing reform, the lack of honesty, social corruption, and whether the trend of increasing economy can continue have currently become the three biggest realist problems disturbing the Chinese government and people of all circles. The author argues that something must be done to construct the national law system, otherwise the problems in the marketing honest system and prevalence of corruption will eventually hold back the high increasing of the Chinese economy. Beginning from the differentiation of the two concepts of “to rule according to law” and “the rule of law”, the author then suggests that law should be returned to its objective reality as the justice incarnation on the basis of jurisprudence, and the utilitarian view of pragmatic jurisprudence in Chinese traditional culture should be discarded, otherwise it’s impossible to develop the sacredness and authority of the law, then it will take an unconscionable time to practice the rule of law in China, and there will be no way to cure the institutionalized corruption problem once and for all. Key words: further the market reform, legal system,rule of law, justice,law, utilitarianism, tension of system change Résumé: Avec le développement de la réforme du marché chinois d’aujourd’hui , le manque de confiance , la corruption sociale et la croissance rapide font l’objet des problémes réels qui obsèdent le gouvernement chinois et les hommes clairvoyants de tous les milieus . On constate , dans ce texte que , la croissance rapide de l’économie Chinoise stagnera t t ou tard à cause des problèmes de l’édification du système de honnêté et confiance pour le bon fonctionnement du marché , et ceux de la généralisation de corruption , si on ne fait pas de progrès réels sur l’édification constitutionnelle et politique . Ayant pour point de départ la distinction entre les deux concepts “Gouverner selon les lois ”et “Gouverner avec les lois ” , ce texte affirme encore que la divinité et l’autorité des lois ne sauront être respectés , si on ne reconna t pas la vérité que la loi est l’incarnation de la justice à la base des principe du droit , si on ne rejète pas le concept utilitaire du droit qui a un lien très étroit avec l’esprit philosophique de l’utilitarisme imprégné dans la culture traditionnelle chinoise . Par conséquent , on est toujours trop loin de suivre la voie de construire une société chinoise de droit , et les problèmes de corruption du système ne sauront jamais réglés de fa on radicale . Mots-clés: l’approfondissement du marché, système du droit, justice , utilita
Wealth distribution and Pareto's law in the Hungarian medieval society  [PDF]
G. Hegyi,Z. Neda,M. A. Santos
Physics , 2005,
Abstract: The distribution of wealth in the Hungarian medieval aristocratic society is reported and studied. The number of serf families belonging to a noble is taken as a measure of the corresponding wealth. Our results reveal the power-law nature of this distribution function, confirming the validity of the Pareto law for such a society. The obtained Pareto index $\alpha=0.92$ is however smaller than the values currently reported in the literature. We argue that the value close to 1, of the Pareto index is a consequence of the absence of a relevant economic life in the targeted society, in agreement with the prediction of existing wealth distribution models for the idealized case of independently acting agents. Models developed to explain city populations may also be adapted to justify our results.
Law 4/2007 on Universities and the Integration of Students with Disabilities into the Knowledge Society  [PDF]
José ángel Martínez Usero
Revista de Universidad y Sociedad del Conocimiento , 2008,
Abstract: The article analyses the main contributions of the 2007 Law on Universities that concern access to higher education, university entrance and continuation of studies and the exercise of academic rights of the students with disabilities. It begins with the definition and characterization of people with disabilities in Spain. The use of ICT and the Internet in university training promotes the development of information management skills among the students and their integration into the knowledge society. Education organizations must ensure that web sites and electronic educative content are accessible to all members of the university community. The Law on Universities anticipates a series of innovative measures related to modern education adjusted to the principles of the knowledge society, guaranteeing equal opportunities for students with disabilities, establishing: special payment terms, such as reductions or waiving of university fees; measures to ensure that universities offer means, aid and resources that guarantee full integration of these students; programs to ensure accessibility of the information in presential and virtual contexts; and curricula developed according to principles of universal accessibility and respect for all. Finally, universities must elaborate action plans oriented to cover the needs of people with disabilities.
Deaths in Police Custody: The ‘acceptable’ consequences of a ‘law and order’ society?  [cached]
Simon Pemberton
Outlines : Critical Practice Studies , 2005,
Abstract: This article seeks to explain the acceptance of the rising numbers of police custody deaths in England and Wales over the last 20 years. It argues that these deaths are a consequence of the transformation in the U.K., from a social democratic to an increasingly neo-liberal mode of social organisation. The article links the characteristics of the authoritarian state, which emerged at this point in time, to the current profile of police custody deaths. Then, by using interview material with those who have investigated these cases, the article seeks to understand the narratives which are mobilised to legitimate these deaths as the ‘acceptable’ consequences of a ‘law and order’ society.
Power-Law Properties of Human View and Reply Behavior in Online Society
Ye Wu,Qihui Ye,Lixiang Li,Jinghua Xiao
Mathematical Problems in Engineering , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/969087
Abstract: Statistical properties of the human comment behavior are studied using data from “Tianya” and “Tieba” which are very popular online social systems (or forums) in China. We find that both the reply number R and the view number V of a thread in a subforum obey the power-law distributions ()= and ()∝, respectively, which indicates that there exists a kind of highly popular topics. These topics should be specially paid much attention, because they play an important role in the public opinion formation and the public opinion control. In addition, the relationship between R and V also obeys the power-law function ∝. Based on the human comment habit, a model is introduced to explain the human view and reply behaviors in the forum. Numerical simulations of the model fit well with the empirical results. Our findings are helpful for discovering collective patterns of human behaviors and the evolution of public opinions on the virtual society as well as the real one.
A natural-law approach to human rights in a plural society  [cached]
Parisoli, Luca
Arbor : Ciencia, Pensamiento y Cultura , 2010, DOI: 10.3989/arbor.2010.745n1234
Abstract: I propose a medieval voluntaristic version of natural-law theory, as a plausible strategy to implement fundamental rights in a culturally non-homogeneous society; it is, in particular, the version proposed by the Franciscan school, which proposes a substantial cut between pre-lapsarian and post-lapsarian natural law (the former corresponding to the sphere of fundamental rights of persons while the lattrer marks the sphere of institutional rights of individuals in a given society, with a plurality of the common good). With necessary semantical precisions, this strategy safeguards the political value of tolerance and the real plurality of sundry cultural models withan one society, although such as belong to a certain culture are convinced it is superior to others. This strategy is opposed to ethical legalism, widespread in modern political debate, which I blame for its tendency to homogeneity and its reduction of plurality to non-culturality. Propongo una versión voluntarista medieval del jusnaturalismo como estrategia plausible para implementar los derechos fundamentales en una sociedad culturalmente no-homogénea; trátase, en particular, de la versión de la escuela franciscana, que propone una discontinuidad sustancial entre el derecho natural que precede a la Caída (esfera de los derechos fundamentales de la persona) y el derecho natural que sigue a la Caída (esfera de los derechos institucionales de los individuos de una sociedad dada, con una pluralidad del bien común). Tras las necesarias precisiones semánticas, esa estrategia conserva el valor político de la tolerancia y la pluralidad efectiva de los modelos culturales en una misma sociedad, aunque quienes pertenecen a una cultura determinada estén persuadidos de la superioridad de su propia cultura sobre las demás. Opónese esa estrategia al legalismo ético, difundido en el debate político contemporáneo, al cual critico por su tendencia homogeneizante y su reducción de la pluralidad a la no-culturalidad. [it] Si tenta di proporre una versione volontarista medievale del giusnaturalismo come strategia plausibile per gestire i diritti fondamentali in una società non-omogenea culturalmente: si tratta in particolare della versione proposta dalla scuola francescana che propone una non-continuità sostanziale tra il diritto naturale che precede la Caduta (sfera dei diritti universali della persona) e il diritto naturale che segue la Caduta (sfera dei diritti istituzionali degli individui di una data società e pluralità del bene comune). Dopo le necessarie precisazioni semantiche, questa strategia conserva i
THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE ACCOUNTING LAW WITH THE MODERN SOCIETY AND THE PRESENT-DAY KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY
IACOB BACIU
Challenges of the Knowledge Society , 2011,
Abstract: The relevance of the accounting information in the knowledge of the company’s patrimonial situation is not only a problem of economic theory, but also of accounting law. Beyond the norms regarding the meaning threshold and the axioms of the economic sciences there appear aspects of contractual nature. The most accurate, systematized and representative data can be obtained only from accounting. The managers and members of the Board will want to obtain by this means as much information as possible, sometimes exceeding the natural capacity of the bookkeeping. For such situations, the accounting law as border discipline will have a word to say.
论法治社会的道德规范建构
On the Construction of Moral Norms in Our Society Ruled by Law
 [PDF]

龙静云 吴 涛
- , 2018,
Abstract: 摘要 道德是法治社会的价值支撑与精神依托。道德对法治社会的价值和作用主要体现在:道德主体为“法治客体”弥补内在缺陷;道德自我强化公民的责任担当;道德法则为人们的各种活动提供约束机制和精神指引;道德共同体及其精神信仰为法治社会提供凝聚力。法治社会中的道德规范建构具有三个向度:市场经济和市场经济秩序建设的向度;国家和社会民主法治化的向度;人的自身需要的向度。市场经济层面的基本道德规范包括:平等互利、自由竞争、诚实守信、全球责任;国家和社会层面的基本道德规范主要有:以人为本、民主法治、公平正义、和谐共享;个体维度的基本道德规范是:团结友善、自尊自律、知行合一、见义智为。
Abstract:Morality is the value's and spiritual support of a society ruled by law. The values and roles of morality in the society ruled by law are mainly reflected on: the moral subject compensating for the internal defects of the object of governance by law; moral ego intensifying citizens to undertake responsibility; moral rules provide restraint mechanisms and spiritual guidance for the activities of people in the society ruled by law; and ethical community and its spiritual beliefs provide the cohesion for the society ruled by law. The construction of moral norms in the society ruled by law has three dimensions: the dimension of market economy and market economy order's build; the dimension of the democratization and law's development of state and social democracy; the dimension of man's own needs. At market economy level, the basic moral norms include: equality and mutual benefit, free competition, honesty, global responsibility; at the state and social level, the basic moral norms mainly include: people oriented, democracy and governance by law, fair and just, harmony and share; and at individual level, the basic ethics mainly include: solidarity and friendship, self-respect and self-discipline, knowledge and practice uniting as one, do judiciously something when others need help.
Acumula o primitiva: um processo atuante na sociedade contemporanea Accumulation Primitive: un processus actif dans la societé contemporaine Primitive accumulation: a process active in contemporary society  [cached]
Sandra Lencioni
Confins , 2012, DOI: 10.4000/confins.7424
Abstract: Com a hegemonia da reprodu o social capitalista, a acumula o primitiva é interpretada ora como sendo um fato do passado, ora como um processo que perdura até hoje. Nosso ponto de vista é de que a acumula o primitiva historicamente n o desapareceu, sendo, inclusive, um importante componente da sociedade contemporanea. Nela, os processos capitalistas de acumula o primitiva e de reprodu o do capital coexistem e se complementam de forma contraditória e dialética. O primeiro, o processo de acumula o primitiva está relacionado à espolia o e à produ o de um capital novo, enquanto que o segundo, o de reprodu o do capital está relacionado à explora o e tem como ponto de partida um capital já constituído. A diferen a entre os termos espolia o e explora o é apresentada, bem como a posi o de Harvey sob essa polêmica, se constituindo nas discuss es que constituindo a primeira parte do texto. Na segunda parte se discute que a acumula o primitiva dos dias atuais repete a fraude, o roubo e a violência que estiveram presentes no momento da gênese do capitalismo. Embora o mundo pare a ter mudado, com tanto avan o técnico e tantas leis acerca dos direitos humanos, n o mudou muito, pois persistem práticas de fraude, roubo e violência como expedientes de produ o de capital. Vários exemplos de rapinagem dos recursos naturais s o dados, incluindo-se aí a biopirataria. Também é destacada a escravid o por dívida, como uma forma violenta de espolia o, uma forma de acumula o primitiva de capital em que o trabalhador livre, pelos mecanismos de sujei o ao qual está submetido, perde sua liberdade. O roubo de terras se constitui num outro exemplo de acumula o primitiva dessa sociedade contemporanea. Afirma-se que todas as formas de espolia o s o produtoras de dinheiro e produtoras de capital em potencial e que o capital financeiro é que constrói, em especial, o elo entre acumula o primitiva e reprodu o do capital na sociedade contemporanea. Dans le contexte d'hégémonie de la reproduction sociale capitaliste, l'accumulation primitive est interprétée soit comme un processus du passé, soit comme un processus qui se fait présent jusqu’aujourd’hui. Notre point de vue est que l'accumulacion primitive historique n'a pas disparu. Au contraire, elle est encore une importante composante de la société contemporaine. En ce cas, les deux processus capitalistes, d'accumulation primitive et de reproduction du capital, coexistent et s’accomplissent de fa on contradictoire et dialectique. Le premier processus est attaché à la spoliation et à la production d'un capital nouveau,
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